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Major Terrestrial Biomes Section 34.3 Assignment • Turn over the cards at your table to find out which Biomes have been assigned to your group. Divide the work between group members. • Look at the unfinished statements on the note cards for the Biomes you have been assigned and use the textbook to find the completed statements. • Write out the completed statements on your white board, fill in the statements on your note taker, and be ready to share with the class. Objectives • Define what a Biome is. • Identify and describe the factors that are responsible for the existence of a given biome. • List and describe the eight major terrestrial biomes. • Identify and describe the unique biomes of the state of Nevada. Major Biomes of the World Tropical Forest • Tropical forests occur near the equator where temperatures are warm year-round. The tropical rain forest, can receive as much as 350 centimeters of rainfall yearly. • Of all biomes, tropical rain forests have the greatest diversity of life, with an estimated 50 percent of all known species on Earth. Tropical Forest • Although light is plentiful at the canopy level, little light reaches the forest floor. The short plants that live there are adapted to the shaded, moist conditions. • Many rainforest animals are tree-dwellers as well, including monkeys, birds, snakes, and bats. Savanna • Found in tropical regions of Africa, Australia, and South America, savannas are grasslands with scattered trees. • Savannas typically have a warm climate with alternating wet and dry seasons. The dry seasons may include long periods of drought, when no rain falls. Savanna • Savanna grasses provide food for many grazing animals, such as zebras, wildebeest, antelope, and, in Australia, kangaroos, as well as numerous insects. • Meat eaters on the African savanna include lions, cheetahs, and hyenas. Desert • Land areas receiving less than 30 centimeters of rain per year are typically classified as deserts. • Some deserts have surface soil temperatures above 60 C during the day and then cool off at night. Other deserts, such as those in central Asia, are relatively cold, especially during winter nights. Desert • A remarkable array of ways to conserve water have evolved in desert organisms. – Saguaro cacti have "pleats" that enable the plants to expand and to store water during wet periods. – Many desert animals, such as the kangaroo rat, are small burrowers that are active in the cool evenings. Chaparral • The chaparral is a temperate coastal biome dominated by dense evergreen shrubs. • The climate consists of mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers. Chaparral • The chaparral's dry, woody shrubs are frequently ignited by lightning and are adapted to survive periodic brushfires. • Animals of the chaparral include deer, birds, and rodents that feed on the shrubs and their seeds, as well as lizards and snakes. Temperate Grassland • The temperate grassland biome is characterized by deep, nutrient-rich soil that supports a variety of grass species and other plants. • The winters are colder than in the tropical savannas. • Seasonal drought, occasional fires, and grazing by large mammals all prevent the growth of woody shrubs and trees. Temperate Grassland • North American grasslands (also known as prairies) include grazing mammals such as bison and pronghorns, as well as coyotes, snakes, lizards, and insects. Temperate Deciduous Forest • Dense stands of deciduous trees—trees that drop their leaves each year— characterize temperate deciduous forests. • Common deciduous trees such as maples, oaks, beeches, and hickory shed their leaves in autumn, which helps reduce evaporation during the winter when water is not easily replaced from frozen soil. Temperate Deciduous Forest • Mammals found in the temperate deciduous forests of eastern North America include deer, squirrels, chipmunks, foxes, and bears. Coniferous Forest • Towering cone-bearing evergreen trees such as pine, spruce, fir, and hemlock characterize the coniferous forest. • The northern regions of the biome, also called the taiga, have long, cold winters with heavy snowfall. Coniferous Forest • The conical shape of the trees prevents too much snow from collecting and breaking branches. • The needle-like leaf is low in surface area, which limits water loss from evaporation during dry periods. • Typical taiga animals include hares, moose, elk, wolves, and bears. Tundra • Tundra communities are found within the Arctic Circle and on high mountaintops at all latitudes due to the similar conditions there. • Mosses, lichens, and grasses thrive, but large plants are rare since their roots cannot penetrate the permafrost or absorb water and nutrients from it.