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EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILIZATION AND AMINO ACIDS
ON THE YIELD AND FIBER PROPERTIES OF COTTON IN
THE NEW RECLAIMED LANDS
Beheary, M.G.I.*; F. I. Radwan* Magda Abo El-Magd*, M.I. El-Bagory** and W.M.A. Abd El-Aal**
*
Faculty of Agriculture (Saba Basha), Alexandria University,
Organization (CATGO), Egypt.
**
Cotton Arbitration and Testing General
ABSTRACT
The present investigation was carried out on a highly calcareous soil, in the new
reclaimed land, at south east of Alhamam city, Matrouh Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the
effect of the foliar amino acids and organic fertilization on yield and fiber properties of three
Egyptian cotton cultivars i.e. Giza 86, Giza 88 and Giza 92 (Gossypium barbadense ,L.) during
2010 and 2011 growing seasons.
The attained results reveal that the main effect of three studied factors (organic
fertilization, cotton variety and amino acids) was highly significant for the yield components i.e.
number of open bolls/plant, boll weight, seed cotton yield/plant, seed cotton yield/feddan, lint
(%) and seed index in both seasons. The treble foliar amino acids with 2Ton organic
fertilizer/feddan for Giza 86 as well as 4 Ton/feddan for Giza 92 gave the highest number of
open bolls/plant and boll weight in the second season, respectively. The highest seed cotton
yield/plant was recorded using 4 Tons organic fertilizer/feddan and treble foliar amino acids
with Giza 88 in the second season. The highest seed cotton yield/feddan and seed index were
obtained using 4 Ton organic fertilizer with treble foliar amino acids over all studied varieties.
The highest lint (%) was reached by the control (o Ton organic fertilizer) and treble foliar amino
acids. Giza 92 cotton variety possessed the highest seed cotton yield/feddan, lint (%) and seed
index using 4 Tons organic fertilizer/feddan in both seasons.
The treble foliar amino acids gave the highest mean values of all studied fiber traits in
both seasons. Giza 86 with treble foliar amino acids gave the highest Micronaire value and
maturity ratio, meanwhile, the highest reflectance degree (Rd %) and trash code were reached
using twice and (control) no foliar amino acids for Giza 92in the first season.
INTRODUCTION
Cotton is the most important fiber crop in Egypt as well as in the world, and
it is one of the bases of the economy of Egypt. Egyptian cotton (Gossypium
barbdense, L.) was yearly cultivated in about 500,000 feddans. Recently, there is a
trend to increase cotton acreage in the newly reclaimed calcareous soils in
Alexandria and Matrouh regions. According to Malr (2011), the cotton area
increased from 2615 feddans (2000) to 17,875 feddans in 2011 in (west Nubaria
9,100 and Alexandria 8,775 feddans) The new reclaimed lands are usually poor in
organic substances and suffering water deficit. To overcome these inconvenient
circumstances and attain better yield and fiber quality of the cotton crop, special
soil management techniques such as incorporating Humic acid or organic
fertilization as well as spraying with foliar amino acids should be take place in
these regions. Organic fertilization, also, increases availability of nitrogen (N),
phosphorous (P), potassium (K) and micronutrients, reduces environmental
pollution and cost of production (Awad, 2000 and Abou-Zaid et al., 2009 a,b).
Information available on organic matter (OM) requirements of cotton plant
showed better response to moderate level of OM application i.e.,10 – 20 m3
OM/feddan (El-Zaher and El-Kafoury, 1999, Badran, 2002 and Blaise et. al.,2004).
In cotton, drought induces a decrease in total chlorophylls, carotenoids,
proteins and starch contents and an increase in total free amino acid, proline, sugar
and polyphenol contents. The decrease in protein contents might be due to
increased proteolytic activity. Proteins are hyrolysed by proteases to release amino
acids for storage and/or transport and for osmotic adjustment during drought stress
in cotton. Osmotic adjustment, protection of cellular macromolecules, storage form
of nitrogen, maintaining cellular pH, detoxification of the cells, and scavenging of
free radicals are proposed functions of free amino acid accumulation. (Asish
Kumar Parida et. al. 2007).
Water deficit stress resulted in heightened free proline levels (49.9-fold, P <
0.0001) which were correlated with diffusive resistance of leaf stomates. Five other
FAAs increased with water deficit stress, and the amounts of total free essential
(for insect growth and development) amino acids and total FAAs also increased (P
less than or equal to 0.05). Cotton grown in 50% shade accumulated significantly
more free arginine than control plants (Showler, Allan, 2001).
One of the most common induced responses in all the organisms undergoing
water deficit is the production and/or accumulation of so-called compatible
osmolytes. These are osmotically active, neutral organic compounds such as sugars
(polyols), certain amino acids, and quaternary ammonium compounds. By
lowering water potentials, the accumulation of compatible osmolytes allows
additional water to be taken up from the environment, thus buffering the immediate
effect of water shortages within the organism. Compatible osmolytes continue to
accumulate during prolonged water deficit and it has been proposed that they may
help to stabilize protein tertiary structure as cells dehydrate (Kavi Kishor et al.
2005).
The amino acid proline is perhaps the most widely distributed compatible
osmolytes. In organisms from bacteria to maize, there is a strong correlation
between the increased cellular proline levels and the capacity to survive both water
deficit and the effects of high environmental salinity. In plants, the role of proline
may not be restricted to that of a compatible osmolyte, it also acts as a protective
agent for cytoplasmic enzymes (Paleg et al. 1984).
The requirement of amino acids in essential quantities is well known as a
means to increase yield and overall quality of crops. The application of amino
acids for foliar use based on its requirement by plants in general and at critical
stages of growth in particular. Plants absorb Amino Acids through stomas and is
proportionate to environment temperature.
Foliar Nutrition in the form of Protein Hydrolysate (Known as Amno Acids
Liquid) and foliar spry provide readymade building blocks for protein synthesis.
Cotton requires from 3 to 5 kg K ha-1 day-1 during boll fill, and an average
mature cotton crop is estimated to require a total of 110 to 250 kg K ha-1
(Halevy, 1976). Generally, K deficiency problems occur during boll fill when the
developing boll load becomes the dominant sink for available K and there is a
concomitant decrease in the rate of root growth (Oosterhuis, 1995).
Thus, the objectives of this study were (1) to determine the effect of
spraying foliar amino acids, (2) the effect of organic fertilization, (3) to evaluate
the interactive effect between organic fertilization level, amino acids dose and
cotton variety on yield components and fiber properties in the new reclaimed
lands.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Two field experiments were conducted during two successive seasons 2010
and 2011 at the Experimental Farm of south east of Alhamam city, Matrouh
Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the effect of the foliar amino acids “Amino More”
and organic fertilization on yield and fiber properties of three Egyptian cotton
cultivars i.e. Giza 86, Giza 88 and Giza 92 (Gossypium barbadense ,L.). A split
split plot design with three replicates was used, where main plots were arranged for
three levels of the organic fertilization (field crop wastes Patmos) i.e. 0, 2 and 4
tons/feddan. Whereas, the three Egyptian cotton cultivars (Giza 86, Giza 88 and
Giza 92) were allocated randomly in the sub plots. While, the four foliar amino
acids treatments (no spray (control), once, twice and treble) which were
randomized for each sub-sub plot. The trade name of the product used is (Amino
more).
The mechanical and chemical soil properties were determined according to
the method described by Bage et al. (1982) and presented in Table (1).
Table ( 1 ): Some physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of the
experimental soils (average of the two studied seasons).
Mechanical
Sand
Silt % Clay
%
%
pH
(1:1)
85.0
11.25
3.75 7.36
Soluble cations (meq/L)
++
Mg ++ Na +
K+
Ca
6.39
2.66
3.24
0.65
Soil texture
E.C.
Organic
(1:1)
Matter
(ds/m)
(%)
0.65
2.09
Calcium
Carbonate
%
21.22
Nutritional
Available Available Available
N (mg/kg P (mg/kg K (mg/kg
soil)
soil)
soil)
55.0
34.91
390
Soluble anions (meq/L)
HCO3ClSo4 6.96
3.91
2.29
Cotton seeds were planted in 13 and 14 April after Egyptian clover
(Trifolium alexanderinum, L.) in 2010 and 2011 seasons, respectively. Each sub
sub plot consisted of five rows, 5 meters long with 0.65 meters apart, 16.25 square
meters area (about 1/259 feddan) and the distance between hills 20 cm, in the two
seasons. Cotton was irrigated during the growing season eight times, in addition to
planting irrigation. Hand hoeing was carried out three times during the growing
seasons before the first (Mohayat), second and third irrigation, respectively. Before
second irrigation, the plants were thinned to two plants/hill. Organic and
phosphorus (p) fertilizers were added once before planting. Phosphorous was in the
form of calcium super phosphate (15.5 % P2O5). While, nitrogen (N) and
potassium (K) fertilizers were added as ammonium sulphate (20.5 % N) and
potassium sulphate (48 % K2O), respectively.
Yield component data were recorded for the three middle ridges; the two
external ridges were used as border for each sub sub plot. The seed cotton
yield/feddan was calculated from the seed cotton yield/plot in the two studied
seasons.
Studied characters:
Yield components:
Seed cotton harvested in the first and second pick from the ten plants
selected from the middle three rows as well as from all plants of each sub-sub plot
was weighted. These data were used to determine the following traits: number of
number of open bolls/plant, boll weight (gm), seed cotton yield/plant, seed cotton
yield per feddan (kantar/Fed.). lint (%) and seed index.
Fiber properties:
The flowing fiber traits were measured by the high volume instrument
(H.V.I) spectrum 1 according to the U.S.D.A. mode at the Cotton Arbitration and
Testing General Organization, (CATGO), Alexandria, Egypt.
The trash code and instrumental grade (I.G.) were calculated using the
following equations suggested by Hossam El-Din et al.(2002):
Trash code = 0.1 x Trash count x Trash area
Instrumental Grade (I.G.) = Rd% / Trash code = 10 x Rd%/ Trash count x Trash
area
The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis as a split split plot
experiment according to the procedure outlined by Steel and Torrie (1982).
RESULTS AND DICUSION
The attained results will be presented and discussed herein two main
categories:
I- Yield components:
The mean values of studied yield components i.e., number of open
bolls/plant, boll weight, seed cotton yield/plant, seed cotton yield/feddan, lint
index and seed index as affected by the studied factors, i.e., organic fertilization,
cotton variety and foliar amino acids in 2010 and 2011 seasons are presented in
shown in Tables (2 and 7).
Effect of organic fertilization:
All studied yield traits were significantly affected by the organic
fertilization. It is obvious that the mean values of yield components proportionally
increased by increasing organic fertilization. The high level of organic fertilization
(4 Tons/feddan) possessed the highest mean values of studied yield components in
the two seasons. These results could be explained on the bases that the new
reclaimed land is poor in in organic matter as indicated in Table (1).
Effect of cotton variety:
All studied yield traits were significantly affected by the cotton variety in the
two seasons, except, number of open bolls/plant and seed cotton yield/plant in the
second season. The highest mean values of the boll weight, seed cotton
yield/feddan and lint (%) were recorded by Giza 86 cotton variety, while, Giza 88
gave the highest seed cotton yield/plant in both seasons.
Effect of amino acids:
The foliar amino acids had a highly significant effect on all studied yield
component in the two seasons. The mean values of yield components
proportionally increased by increasing number of foliar amino acids over all
studied cotton varieties and organic fertilization levels. Treble foliar amino acids
gave the highest mean values of all studied yield traits in both seasons.
Interactions:
The interaction between organic fertilization and cotton variety (O x V) was
insignificant for the number of open bolls/plant, meanwhile, it was significant for
boll weight and seed cotton yield/plant during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons.
The highest mean values of boll weight and seed cotton yield/plant, seed cotton
yield/feddan, lint (%) and seed index were attained using the high level of organic
fertilization (4 Ton/feddan) with Giza 92 cotton variety in both seasons (Tables 3
and8).
The interaction between organic fertilization and amino acids (O x A) was
significant for number of open bolls/plant in the first season as well as for boll
weight and seed cotton yield/plant during both growing seasons. The medium
level (2 Ton/feddan) organic fertilizer with treble foliar amino acids gave the
highest number of bolls/plant in the first season. Meanwhile, the highest mean
values of boll weight and seed cotton yield/plant were attained using o Ton and
4Ton/feddan organic fertilizer with treble foliar amino acids in the second season,
respectively. The highest mean values of boll weight and seed cotton yield/plant
were possessed by Giza 86 and Giza 88 sprayed twice by amino acids in the
second season, respectively. The highest mean value of seed cotton yield/feddan
was reached using 4 Ton/feddan organic fertilizer with treble foliar amino acids
in the two seasons. On the contrary, the control (0 Ton/feddan) organic fertilizer
with treble foliar amino acids possessed the highest lint (%) and seed index over
all studied cotton varieties in the two seasons (Tables 4 and 9).
Whereas, the interaction between cotton variety and amino acids (V x A)
was significant for number of open bolls/plant in the first season as well as for
boll weight and seed cotton yield/plant during both growing seasons. The highest
number of open bolls/plant was possessed by Giza 88 treble sprayed by amino
acids in the first seasons. The highest mean values of boll weight and seed cotton
yield/plant were possessed by Giza 86 and Giza 88 sprayed twice by amino acids
in the second season, respectively. Giza 88 with twice foliar amino acids gave the
highest seed index in both seasons (Tables 5 and 10).
As for the second order interaction (O x V x A), it was significant for the
number of open bolls/plant and boll weight in the first season as well as seed
cotton yield/plant in both seasons. The treble foliar amino acids with 2Ton
organic fertilizer/feddan for Giza 86 as well as 4 Ton/feddan for Giza 92 gave the
highest number of open bolls/plant and boll weight in the first season,
respectively. The highest seed cotton yield/plant was recorded using 4 Tons
organic fertilizer/feddan with treble foliar amino acids for Giza 88 in the second
season (Table 6).
The seed cotton yield/feddan, lint % and seed index significantly affected
by the three studied factors in the two seasons. Giza 92 cotton variety possessed
the highest seed cotton yield, lint (%) and seed index using 4 Tons organic
fertilizer/feddan in both seasons. The highest seed cotton yield/feddan and seed
index were obtained using 4 Ton organic fertilizer with treble foliar amino acids
over all studied varieties. The highest lint (%) was reached by the control (o Ton
organic fertilizer/feddan) and treble foliar amino acids.
II-
H.V.I. Fiber properties:
The main effect of the three studied factors, i.e., organic fertilization,
cotton variety and foliar amino acids on H.V.I. fiber properties, i.e. upper half
mean (UHM) length, length uniformity ratio, Micronaire value, maturity ratio,
strength, reflectance degree (Rd %), trash code and the instrumental grade in 2010
and 2011 seasons are presented in shown in Tables (11 and 14).
Effect of organic fertilization:
The fiber length (UHM), strength and reflectance degree (Rd %) in the first
season, as well as Micronaire value, maturity ratio, trash code and instrumental
grade in both seasons are insignificantly affected by organic fertilization levels.
Other studied fiber traits are significantly affected by this factor.
The fiber length (UHM), strength and reflectance degree (Rd %) in the first
season, as well as uniformity ratio in the second season are proportionally
increased by increasing the organic fertilization level.
Effect of cotton variety:
All studied H.V.I. fiber properties are significantly affected by cotton variety
in both seasons, except, trash code and instrumental grade in the first season as
well as Micronaire value in the second season. The highest mean values of fiber
length and uniformity ratio were recorded by the Extra Long cotton variety Giza 88
in the two seasons. Giza 92 surpassed all studied varieties in strength, Rd (%) and
instrumental grade in both seasons.
Effect of amino acids:
The fiber length, uniformity ratio and strength in the first season, as well as
instrumental grade in the second season and Rd (%) and trash code in both seasons
are significantly affected by the foliar amino acids doses. Generally, the treble
foliar amino acids gave the highest mean values of all studied fiber traits in both
seasons.
Interactions:
The interaction between organic fertilization and cotton variety (O x V) was
significant for the maturity ratio in the second season as well as reflectance degree
(Rd %) in both seasons (Tables 12 and 15).
The interaction between organic fertilization and amino acids (O x A) was
significant for Rd (%) in the second season and trash code in the first season (Table
16).
Whereas, the interaction between cotton variety and amino acids (V x A)
was significant for Micronaire value and maturity ratio during the first season as
well as Rd (%) in the second season and trash code in both seasons (Tables 13 and
17). Giza 86 with treble foliar amino acids gave the highest Micronaire value and
maturity ratio in the first season. The highest reflectance degree (Rd %) and trash
code were reached using twice and no (control) foliar amino acids for Giza 92,
respectively in the first season. As for the second order interaction (O x V x A), it
was insignificant for all studied H.V.I. fiber characters in both seasons.
REFERENCES
Abou-Zid, M.K.M.; S.A.F. Hamoda and M.A.A. Emara (2009), A Future of Egyptian cotton
production in the newly reclaimed desert land in Egypt. A- Use of bio-fertilization
to decrease requirements of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer. J. Adv. Agric. Res.,
Fac. Of Agric. (Saba Basha), 14 (2): 333 -347.
Asish Kumar Parida; Vipin S. Dagaonkar; Manoj S. Phalak; G. V. Umalkar and Laxman
P. Aurangabadkar (2007), Alterations in photosynthetic pigments, protein and
osmotic components in cotton genotypes subjected to short-term drought stress
followed by recovery. Plant Biotechnology Rep. (2007) 1:37–48
Awad, Doaa, A.F. (2006), Response of Egyptian cotton to bio-fertilization. M. Sc. Thesis, Fac.
Of Agric. (Saba Basha), Alex. Univ., Egypt.
Badran, M.S.S. ( 2002), Organic vs. mineral fertilization on yield and components of some
barley varieties under sandy soil conditions. Proc. Minia for Agric. Environ. Sci.,
Minia, Egypt. March; 25-28, pp. 917-934.
Blaise, D.; J.V. Singh; A.N. Bande; K.U. Takate and C.D. Mayes (2004), Effects farmyard
manure and N- fertilizers on yield, fiber quality and nutrient balance of rained
cotton (G. hirsutum). Central Ins. For Cotton Res. P.O. Bag No. 2. India.
El-Zaher, H.; and A.A. El-Kafoury (1999), Combined effect of farmyard manure and Nfertilizer on water use efficiency and productivity of sunflower in calcareous soil.
Alex. Exch., 20 (2): 111 – 123.
Halevy, J. (1976), Growth rate and nutrient uptake of two cotton cultivars grown under
irrigation. Agron. J. 68:701‑ 705.
Hossam El-Din et al.(2002), Instrumental grading of the Egyptian cotton using the H.V.I. J. Adv. Agric.
Vol.7 (1): 87-102.
Kavi Kishor PB, Sangam S, Amrutha RN, Sri Laxmi P, Naidu KR, Rao KRSS, Rao S,
Reddy KJ, Theriappan P, Sreenivasulu N (2005) Regulation of proline
biosynthesis, degradation, uptake and transport in higher plants: its implications in
plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Current Sci 88:424–438.
Malr (2011), Annual report of the Central Administration of Agriculture Economic. Ministry of
Agric. And Land Reclamation, Egypt.
Oosterhuis, D. (1995), Potassium nutrition of cotton in the USA, with particular reference to
foliar fertilization. p. 133-146. In G.A. Constable and N.W. Forrester (ed.) Proc.
1st World Cotton Res. Conf., Brisbane, Australia. 14-17 Feb. 1994. CSIRO Publ.,
Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
Page, A.L.; R.H. Miller and D.R.Keoney (1982), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part: Chemical and
Microbiological Properties. Amer. Soc. Agron. Mdison, Wisconsin.
Paleg LG, Stewart GR, Bredbeer JW (1984), Proline and glycine betaine influence protein
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Showler, T. Allan (2001) Effects of water deficit stress, shade, weed competition, and kaolin
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‫الملخص العربى‬
‫أجرى هذا البحث على تربة جيرية ‪ ،‬فى األراضى حدثة اإلستزراع ‪ ،‬بجنوب شرق مدينة الحمام ‪ ،‬محافظة مطروح‪،‬‬
‫مصر‪ ،‬لتقييم تأثير الرش باألحماض األمينية وكذا التسميد العضوى على محصول وخواص األلياف لثالثة أصناف من القطن‬
‫المصرى هى‪ :‬جيزة ‪ ،68‬جيزة ‪ 66‬وجيزة ‪ 29‬خالل الوسمين ‪ 9202‬و ‪.9200‬‬
‫أوضحت النتائج المتحصل عليها أن التأثير العام للعوامل الثالثة التى درست (التسميد العضوى‪ ،‬صنف القطن و‬
‫الرش باألحماض األمينية) كان عالى المعنوية على مكونات المحصول وهى‪ :‬عدد اللوزات المتفتحة ‪ /‬نبات‪ ،‬محصول القطن‬
‫الزهر‪/‬فدان‪ ،‬النسبةالمؤية للشعر ومعامل البذرة فى كال الموسمين‪.‬‬
‫أعطى الرش ثالث مرات باألحماض األمينية مع ‪ 9‬طن تسميد عضوى‪/‬فدان لصنف القطن جيزة ‪ 68‬وكذا التسميد‬
‫العضوى ‪ 4‬طن‪ /‬فدان لصنف ‪ 29‬أعلى القيم المتوسطة لعدد اللوزات المتفتحة‪/‬نبات ووزن اللوزة ‪ ،‬على التوالى‪ ،‬فى الموسم‬
‫الثانى‪.‬‬
‫سجل صنف القطن جيزة ‪ 66‬أعلى محصول قطن زهر‪ /‬نبات باستخدام التسميد العضوى بعدل ‪ 4‬طن‪/‬فدان والرش‬
‫ثالث مرات باألحماض األمينية فى الموسم الثانى‪.‬‬
‫أعلى محصول قطن زهر‪ /‬فدان تم الحصول عليه من التسميد العضوى بمعدل ‪ 4‬طن ‪/‬فدان والرش ثالث مرات‬
‫باألحماض األمينية لجميع األصناف التى درست‪ ،‬كماأعطى الرش باألحماض األمينية ثالث مرات أعلى القيم المتوسطة‬
‫لصفات األلياف فى كال الموسمين‪.‬‬
‫سجل صنف القطن جيزة ‪ 68‬أعلى قراءة ميكرونير ونسبة نضج عند الرش ثالث مرات باألحماض األمينية فى‬
‫الموسم األول‪ ،‬بينما أعطى جيزة ‪ 29‬أعلى نسبة إنعكاس (‪ ) Rd %‬وكود شوائب عند الرش مرتين أو بدون رش أحماض‬
‫أمينية (كنترول)‪ ،‬على التوالى‪ ،‬فى الموسم األول‪.‬‬