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VOCABULARY LIST – 8th GRADE
INTERACTIONS OF HYDROSPHERE AND ATMOSPHERE
Atmosphere
Barometer
Climate
Condensation
Conduction
Convection
Convection current
Density
The layers of gases that surround Earth or another planet.
An instrument that measures air pressure.
The average temperature and rainfall for a particular place over
hundreds of years.
Process in which matter changes from a gaseous state to a liquid
state.
The transfer of heat energy through a substance or from one
substance to another by direct contact of atoms or molecules.
A method of transferring heat energy by the movement of the
heated substance itself.
A circular current in a fluid like air, water, or molten rock. The
process occurs when the fluid is unevenly heated so that part of
the fluid rises, cools, and then sinks producing the circular
movement.
The amount of material an object has in a specific amount of
space.
Front
A boundary between air masses that have different temperatures and humidity.
It is usually the site of unsettled weather conditions.
Gravity
The force of gravitational attraction on or near the surface of a
celestial body.
Water that is in the porous parts of Earth's crust.
Groundwater
Heat Energy
Hurricane
Hydrosphere
Moon
Ocean current
The energy of a material due to the random motion of its particles. Also called
thermal energy. The word "heat" is used when energy is transferred from one
substance to another.
A large, powerful cyclonic storm that forms over a tropical ocean
Any part of the Earth or its atmosphere in which water or water
vapor is found.
A natural satellite revolving around a planet.
A tidal or non-tidal continuous movement of ocean water in a
certain direction.
Orbit
Phases (lunar)
A path of one body in its revolution about another body.
Precipitation
Process by which water falls to Earth from the atmosphere in the form of rain,
snow, sleet, or hail.
Psychrometer
Radiation
An instrument used to measure relative humidity.
Energy traveling through empty space or through a transparent
material without heating the empty space or transparent material.
The movement of a celestial body in an orbit around another
celestial body.
Revolution
Rotation
Seasons
The regularly occurring cycle of changes in the appearance of the
moon.
The spinning motion of a planet or other object on its axis.
Changes in temperature and the length of day and night over the
course of a year.
Thunderstorm
Tide
Tornado
Water cycle
Weather
A storm with heavy rainfall, lightning, and thunder produced by
cumulonimbus clouds formed when a cold front collides with a
warm front.
The alternate rising and falling of the surface of the ocean and of
water bodies connected with the ocean. It occurs twice a day and
is caused by the gravitational attraction of the moon and the sun
occurring unequally on different parts of the Earth.
A destructive, whirling, funnel-shaped cloud that has extremely
low air pressure.
The process, involving evaporation and condensation, by which
the Earth's water circulates through the environment.
The short-term conditions of the atmosphere determined by
variables such as temperature, wind, moisture, and pressure.
*NOTE: The vocabulary pages are intended to inform teachers of the vocabulary related to the study of
these indicators. This page should NOT be reprinted and distributed to students.
APPLIED CHEMISTRY VOCABULARY
WORD
Acid
Atom
DEFINITION
A substance that donates hydrogen ions. Any compound that produces hydrogen ions
(H+) in water thereby reducing the pH of water to a value below 7.
The smallest part of a substance which can exist and still retain the properties of that
substance.
Number of protons in the nucleus of one atom of an element.
Atomic Number
Base
Boiling Point
Celsius
Chemical change
A substance that accepts hydrogen ions. Any compound that produces hydroxide ions
(OH-) in water thereby raising the pH of water to a value above 7.
The temperature at which a substance in its liquid state changes into a gas
state.
A temperature scale in which the freezing point of water is 0° and the boiling point of
water is 100°.
A change that results in the formation of a new substance, such as the
burning of wood.
Energy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules.
Chemical energy
Chemical properties
Chemical reaction
Chromatography
Properties which cause specific behavior of substances during chemical
reactions, such as reacts with oxygen, reacts with acids, reacts with bases.
Change that takes place when two or more substances (reactants) interact
to form new substances (products).
Process of separating small amounts of substances from mixtures by the
rates at which they move through or along a medium.
The chemical make up of a given substance.
Composition
Compound
A substance in which the atoms of different elements are bonded to one
another. It can be broken down into simpler parts only by a chemical
change.
Process in which matter changes from a gaseous state to a liquid state.
Condensation
A solid with a definite shape, formed from a repeating pattern of atoms.
Crystal
The negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus of an atom.
Electron
Element
Evaporation
Expand
Filtration
A substance that consists of only one kind of atom and cannot be broken
down into simpler parts during a chemical reaction.
Change of matter from a liquid state to a gaseous state at a temperature
below its boiling point.
When most substances are heated their molecules move faster and further apart causing
them to increase.
Process of separating a liquid and a solid by pouring the mixture through a
fine mesh.
The state in which a substance has no definite shape or volume.
Gas
Indicator
A substance that changes color when it comes in contact with an acid or a
base.
Energy of motion.
Kinetic energy
Law of Conservation
of Mass
Liquid
Litmus paper
Mass can be neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction- only
changed from one form to another.
The state in which a substance flows and takes up the shape of its
container.
An indicator which shows whether a solution is acidic or basic (acids turn
blue litmus paper red; bases turn red litmus paper blue).
Ability of a substance to be molded into different shapes.
Malleability
A measure of the amount of matter in an object.
Mass
The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Mass number
Anything that has volume and mass.
Matter
Energy an object has because of its motion or position.
Mechanical energy
Metals
Mixture
Elements that usually have luster, conduct heat energy and electricity, and
usually bend without breaking.
A combination of two or more substances that have not combined
chemically and that can be separated by physical means.
Molecule
The smallest unit of a substance that has all of the physical and chemical
properties of the substance and that is composed of two or more atoms.
Neutral
A substance that does not have the properties of an acid or a base, but has
an equal number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions. It has a pH of 7.
Neutral atom
An atom with an equal number of protons and electrons is electrically
neutral.
Noble gases
Group of elements in the periodic table that generally do not react with
other elements, such as neon and krypton.
Nonmetals
Elements that in general do not conduct electricity, are poor conductors of
heat, and are brittle when solid.
Periodic table
pH scale
A chart where all elements are organized into periods and groups
according to their properties.
Scale ranging from 0-14, used to describe how acidic (0) or basic (14) a
substance is. The pH is the measure of the hydrogen ion concentration in a
solution.
Physical change
A change that occurs in the physical property/properties of a substance
without altering its composition.
The stored energy of a body because of its position.
Potential energy
Positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom.
Proton
Compound or element that changes during a chemical reaction.
Reactant
Ability of an element to gain or lose electrons which are used for bonding.
Reactivity
Solid
The state in which a substance has a definite volume and shape and resists
forces which try to change these.
Solubility
Ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance.
Solution
Mixture in which the molecules of one substance (solute) are dissolved in
another substance (solvent).
The forms matter can take, as in liquid, solid, or gas.
State of matter
Matter of a particular kind, or chemical makeup.
Substance
Temperature
Volume
The measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of a
substance.
Amount of space an object or substance takes up; measured in liters or
cubic centimeters.
Mechanics Vocabulary
WORD
Acceleration
Efficiency
Energy
Energy Transformation
Friction
Force
Gravity
Gravitational Force
Inertia
Kinetic Energy
Law of Conservation of
Energy
Mass
Matter
Motion
Potential Energy
Speed
Velocity
Weight
Work
DEFINITION
The change that occurs in an object's speed or direction in a certain period of time.
Formula: a = (speed2 – speed1)
time
This compares the output work of a machine with the input work.
Formula: Efficiency = Output Work x 100%
Input Work
The ability to cause matter to move or change.
When energy changes from one type to another.
The force that acts between materials that touch as they move past each other.
Friction is caused by irregularities in the surface of objects that are touching.
A push or a pull applied to an object.
Formula: F = ma, where m = mass and a = acceleration.
The force of gravitational attraction on or near the surface of a celestial body.
The mutual force of attraction between particles of matter. The magnitude depends
on the masses of the particle and the distance between them.
The reluctance of any object to change its state of motion. Mass is the measure of
inertia.
Energy of motion.
Energy cannot be created or destroyed - only changed from one form to another.
A measure of the amount of matter in an object.
Anything that has volume and mass.
Change in position of an object relative to a reference point.
The stored energy of a body because of its position,
A scalar quantity that describes the change in position in a certain period of time
(how fast something is moving). (Compare with velocity.)
The rate of motion, or speed, in a specified direction.
Formula: ∆d /∆t, where d = distance and t = time.
The measure of the gravitational force acting on an object.
Formula: W = mg, where m = mass and
g = force of gravity.
The product of the force on an object and the distance through which the object is
moved.
Formula: W = Fd, where F = force and d = the distance moved.
Biomass Energy
Brackish
Chesapeake Bay
Estuary
Fossil fuels
Geothermal Energy
Hydropower
Natural resources
Non-renewable
Organism
Renewable
Salinity
Solar Energy
Watershed
Wind Power