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Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Feb. 2, 1848 Approved by the United States Senate on July 4, 1848 Article 5 Established a new boundary line between the U.S and Mexico. Also defines the territorial acquisition by the U.S. Established the following natural boundaries: Rio Grande, So. New Mexico, Gila River, Colorado River, to Pacific Coast. Includes the following future U.S. States: Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, California. Article 8--Citizenship, Residence Mexicans in territories previously belonging to Mexico shall have the option to: Return to Mexico or continue their residence. Approximately 5,000 return to Mexico to create the “buffer zone” – The creation of 8 military colonies along the new border in order to create a defensive barrier against new American invasions. Article 8 Remove or retain properties. Adopt United States or Mexican citizenship: but must decide in one year. The vast majority of Mexicans decided to stay and became United States citizens in 1849—thus entitling them to rights guaranteed under Article 9 Article 9--All the rights of citizenship Mexicans who accept American citizenship shall be incorporated at the proper time And entitled to all the rights of citizens of the United States according to the principles of the Constitution In the meantime, protected in free enjoyment of their liberty, property and religion without restriction. Article 10--Land Grants Land grants given by the Mexican government in the newly acquired territories to be considered valid. Article 10 omitted by the U.S. Senate Protocol of Queretaro Omission of article 10 does not invalidate land titles. Land grants retain the legal value which they may possess. Land grantees may cause their legitimate titles to be acknowledged before the American tribunals. Court of Private Land Claims—New Mexico. California Land Act of 1851-California Land Commission.