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Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Feb. 2, 1848
Approved by the United States Senate
on July 4, 1848
Article 5
Established a new boundary line between the U.S
and Mexico.
Also defines the territorial acquisition by the U.S.
Established the following natural boundaries: Rio
Grande, So. New Mexico, Gila River,
Colorado River, to Pacific Coast.
Includes the following future U.S. States: Texas,
New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Nevada,
Arizona, California.
Article 8--Citizenship, Residence
Mexicans in territories previously belonging
to Mexico shall have the option to:
 Return to Mexico or continue their
Approximately 5,000 return to Mexico
to create the “buffer zone”
– The creation of 8 military colonies along the
new border in order to create a defensive
barrier against new American invasions.
Article 8
Remove or retain properties.
 Adopt United States or Mexican
citizenship: but must decide in one year.
 The vast majority of Mexicans decided to
stay and became United States citizens
in 1849—thus entitling them to rights
guaranteed under Article 9
Article 9--All the rights of
Mexicans who accept American citizenship
shall be incorporated at the proper time
 And entitled to all the rights of citizens of
the United States according to the
principles of the Constitution
 In the meantime, protected in free
enjoyment of their liberty, property and
religion without restriction.
Article 10--Land Grants
Land grants given by the Mexican
government in the newly acquired
territories to be considered valid.
 Article 10 omitted by the U.S. Senate
Protocol of Queretaro
Omission of article 10 does not invalidate land
Land grants retain the legal value which they may
Land grantees may cause their legitimate titles to
be acknowledged before the American
Court of Private Land Claims—New Mexico.
California Land Act of 1851-California Land