Download Today's Challenges in Lawful Interception

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Remote Desktop Services wikipedia, lookup

Net neutrality law wikipedia, lookup

Lag wikipedia, lookup

Wake-on-LAN wikipedia, lookup

Wireless security wikipedia, lookup

Peering wikipedia, lookup

Asynchronous Transfer Mode wikipedia, lookup

Computer network wikipedia, lookup

Deep packet inspection wikipedia, lookup

Distributed firewall wikipedia, lookup

Zero-configuration networking wikipedia, lookup

Net bias wikipedia, lookup

Airborne Networking wikipedia, lookup

Cracking of wireless networks wikipedia, lookup

Network tap wikipedia, lookup

Piggybacking (Internet access) wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Today’s challenges
in Lawful Interception
C. Rogialli, October 11°, 2005
RIPE MEETING 51 - Amsterdam
1
Lawful Interception – a Definition
™ Action (based on the law) performed by a network
operator / access provider / service provider
(NWO/AP/SvP),
of
making
available
certain
information and providing that information to a law
enforcement monitoring facility for investigation
purposes.
2
Lawful Interception concept (1)
NWO/AP/SvP
Interception
Provisioning
Warrant
PSTN
Internet
PLNM
LEMF
Assignment
3
Lawful Interception concept (2)
NWO/AP/SvP
Warrant
PSTN
PLNM
4
Internet
Entities involved in Lawful Intercetion
™ Government
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Operates in the interests of the nation;
Sets the regulatory framework in which Lawful
Interception is performed;
Defines economical parameters for Lawful Interception
activities.
™ Operators
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Lawfully operate for the sake of their business and profit,
almost totally driven by telecommunications;
Withstand rules set by the government in terms of lawful
interception as an unavoidable;
Install proper devices to fulfil the relevant obligations;
™ Law Enforcement Agencies
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
5
Operate in the name of crime fighting and nation security;
Request lawful interception and define the real targets;
Receive the communication data extracted by the
operators;
Need proper devices to playback and decode the
intercepted traffic.
A triviality…
TELecom Companies and Government agencies
are NOT created equal !
™ They have:
ƒ Different Purposes
ƒ Different Structure
ƒ Different Knowledge
ƒ Different Liabilities
ƒ Different Activities
ƒ Different Constraints
™ So they need:
ƒ Different Systems
ƒ Different Approaches
6
…but LI requires cooperation !
Different Key Values
™ For the government Agencies
ƒ Overall solution effectiveness
ƒ Return on investment (in investigative terms !)
ƒ Adherence to existing operating procedures
ƒ Low level of the technicalities to be handled
ƒ “Surgical precision”
™ For the Telecom operators
ƒ Reliability
ƒ Reduced maintenance and management hassles
ƒ Low installation and running expenses
ƒ Integration with the existing network
ƒ Use of proven COTS hardware
ƒ Possibility to document the obligation fulfilment
7
Lawful Interception Application fields
User
t
n
e
s
m
e
n
i
r c
e
n
ov g e
G A
co
l
Te
“Voice”
Recorders,
Decoders,
Storage,
Doc.
production
“Data”
Recorders,
Decoders,
Storage,
Doc.
production
“Voice”
Mediation
Devices,
SS7
probes
“Voice”
Mediation
Devices,
IP probes
d
d
ch e
che
t
t
i
i
Sw
t Sw
t
i
e
u
k
Pac
Circ
Technology
8
LI in Circuit Switched and
Packet Switched Networks
(that is, why do we face different issues in the two worlds)
9
Once upon a time …
ƒ
… the mass telecommunications were only bound to the fixed
PSTN network;
ƒ
no additional functionalities were provided by the handsets;
ƒ
the transport Network was unique in type and technology, it was
based upon Circuit Switching, and the only type of payload
transported was VOICE.
™ In this “fairy tales” world, the interception:
ƒ
operated over a single network, with good-to-excellent results;
ƒ
had to deal with a single type of payload (typically ISDN voice
over 64 kbps;
ƒ
due to the circuit switching technology, may e operated in any
point of the network between the end points.
PSTN/ISDN
Network
10
…then it was the turn of fax, modems and mobiles
™ Fax and Modems still use analog modulation over the CS
network in order to transport images, data and internet
services.
™ The mass interception was therefore still possible with CS
methodologies, with the only complication of demodulation.
Internet
PSTN/ISDN
network
Internet
Service
Provider
PLMN
GSM cell
11
GSM cell
…and, suddenly, the security nightmare !!!
A lot of mass telecommunication traffic today doesn’t traverse
ANY part of the well-controlled Circuit Switched network !
9 IP multimedia traffic between GPRS/UMTS mobile phones;
9 the traffic to and from Internet exchanged on high bandwitdh
ISPs (ADSL, FTTH, cable…);
9 Telephone traffic between two REAL VoIP terminals, maybe
connected to different VoIP operators.
PSTN/ISDN
network
VoIP
operator
Internet
Service
Provider
GSM/UMTS
cell
12
Circuit S.
Network
2.5G / 3G
Mobile operator
IP Network
Internet
Lawful interception compulsory services
™ Depending on the local legislation, the Operator
be requested to provide:
may
ƒ Interception based upon target identity
‰ It is requested to replicate ALL the traffic generated by a single,
identifiable target among the multitude of users of the Operator
itself.
ƒ Investigative interception based upon parametric search
‰ It is requested massive filtering of the transported traffic in order to
spot UNKNOWN users showing suspect behaviours (in example,
exchanging mails containing specific keywords).
ƒ Interception over Telecom operator’s services
‰ It is requested to replicate IN CLEAR any transaction made by an
user towards a Service exercised by the telecom .
ƒ Free access to the network
13
‰ It is requested to guarantee proper network access to “black boxes”
owned by the law enforcement agencies themselves.
New issues connected with IP interception
™ User Identification
ƒ Whilst the correspondence between user credentials and
user identity is rarely questioned in the “Voice” world, this
is not necessarily true for the IP networks;
™ Traffic dispersion
ƒ The packet switching world poses new issues in terms of
tapping points and capture efficiency;
™ Mass cryptography
ƒ In the IP world, cryptography is extensively used and at
hand of everybody….
14
User Identification Issues
™ Availability
information
of
reliable
user
ƒ No more anonymous access to the network
will be provided by world’s telecom
operators;
™ Trusted identity systems
ƒ Any mean shall be used to guarantee the
correlation between user’s credentials and
the physical person accessing the network;
™ Availability of the user parameters at
the capture point
ƒ Any network feature hiding user’s identity
at the capture point (e.g. NAT) shall be
taken
into
account
and
suitable
workarounds for the authority shall be
provided.
15
Traffic dispersion issues
™ Arpanet was originally conceived
in order to deploy a military
network able to survive huge,
nation-level disasters…
™ As a result, IP routing follows BY
DESIGN several different routes
even towards the same target
address.
™ As a consequence, the tapping
point is not at all indifferent to the
Lawful Interception Activities!
16
Tappin’ around the net
17
E-mail Probing in the access network
Last
Mile
PSTN
PSTN users
TN
PS
ADSL users
Corporate Users
DSLAM
1 Gb overall Traffic;
2% is e-mail;
LE
ATM / IP
WAN
=
20 mb of packets to
be deeply inspected
PRA
RAS/NAS
ATM/IP
switch
il
Ma
18
er
rv
Se
POP
Aggregation
Router
IP
Backbone
E-mail Probing in the Central Office
Last
Mile
PSTN
PSTN users
TN
PS
ADSL users
Corporate Users
1 Gb overall Traffic;
DSLAM
98% is e-mail;
LE
=
ATM / IP
WAN
980 mb of packets to
be deeply inspected
(!!!)
PRA
RAS/NAS
ATM/IP
switch
il
Ma
19
er
rv
Se
POP
Aggregation
Router
IP
Backbone
Mass Cryptography issues
™ Over
the
PSTN
network,
communication encryption was at
disposal of few users; moreover,
the few devices available offered
backdoors for the agencies;
™ Over the internet, encryption is at
disposal of EVERYBODY. Not in any
case backdoors are available;
™ Whilst the operator may not be
held responsible for user-level
encryption, it may as well be
obliged
to
provide
in-clear
interception of the services offered
by itself.
20
The ISP in front of the authority.
Viable options for the IP LI.
21
In-Band and Out-Band interception
™ In-band interception implies the use of IIF
inplemented in the network devices; it can be
succesfully used with any kind of interception
based upon user identity:
ƒ Circuit based traffic;
ƒ Packet traffic over mobile networks (es. GPRS);
ƒ Packet traffic over carrier-grade modern switches in ISPs.
™ Out-band interception imples the use of network
probes; it is the only key when:
ƒ Parametric (keyword) interception is requested;
ƒ The authority doesn’t trust the operator itself or the
operator’s personnel in investigative matters.
22
Typical Out-band Interception
10/100
Ethernet
Delivery
Router
IPP
IP-V
Delivery NW
(1)
PMS
MD
(2)
Email
Server
IPP
PoP
Web
Server
FTP
Server
(3)
10/100
Ethernet
RP
IPP
(2)
RADIUS
Server
Server Farm
Core Network
Interception of
assigned
IP Address
PoP
Warrant
POI
Access NW
killer
‰LIID
‰Protocol No.
‰Reference LEA
‰Interception Duration
‰Interception Criteria
(username killer)
23
Transit
peer
Typical Out-band Interception
10/100
Ethernet
Delivery
Router
IPP
PMS
Delivery NW
IP-V
MD
IPP
PoP
Email
Server
Web
Server
FTP
Server
10/100
Ethernet
RP
IPP
IPP
RADIUS
Server
Server Farm
Core Network
PoP
Warrant
POI
Access NW
killer
‰LIID
‰Protocol No.
‰Reference LEA
‰Interception Duration
‰Interception Criteria
(username = killer)
24
Transit
peer
Parametric Out-band Interception
(2)
10/100
Ethernet
Delivery
Router
IPP
IP-V
Delivery NW
(1)
PMS
MD
(2)
(2)
IPP
PoP
Email
Server
Web
Server
FTP
Server
(2)
10/100
Ethernet
RP
IPP
RADIUS
Server
Server Farm
Core Network
PoP
Warrant
Access NW
‰LIID
‰Protocol No.
‰Reference LEA
‰Interception Duration
‰Interception Criteria
(keyword = bomb)
25
Transit
peer
Parametric Interception (Interception)
10/100
Ethernet
Delivery
Router
IPP
PMS
ISDN/VPN
IP: 212.127.0.5
write bomb
MD
IPP
PoP
VIP
Email
Server
Web
Server
FTP
Server
RP
IPP
IPP
10/100
Ethernet
RADIUS
Server
Server Farm
Core Network
PoP
Warrant
POI
PSTN / ISDN
..I will place a bomb …
26
Username: tom
IP: 212.127.0.5
‰LIID
‰Protocol No.
‰Reference LEA
‰Interception Duration
‰Interception Criteria
(keyword = bomb)
Transit
peer
Tactical probing vs. strategic interception (1)
™ Tactical probes – a definition:
ƒ devices
that
are
installed
at
operator’s premises on a “per need”
basis.
™ Some “common sense” assertions
about Tactical probing devices:
ƒ small
ƒ stealthy
ƒ easily movable
ƒ typically operated by agencies
personnel
ƒ dedicated to a few specific
interception tasks at a time
ƒ totally extraneous respect to the
hosting network by definition
27
Tactical probing vs. strategic interception (2)
™ Strategic Interception – a definition:
ƒ An interception network permanently
deployed at operator’s premises to serve
any present or future interception request.
™ Some “common sense” assertions
about Strategic probing devices:
ƒ solid
ƒ integrated
ƒ permanently connected to the network
ƒ typically maintained by telco personnel
ƒ dedicated to a huge spread of
interception tasks at a time
ƒ may be integrated with the hosting
network
28
A duofold option for the ISP
1. Open the door to Agencies for Tactical Activities
9 as a pro, some responsibilities and costs are charged over
the Agency rather than over the operator;
9 as a drawback, the operator will need to support
(eventually upon network reconfiguration) the agency’s
activities, on a per need basis !
2. Make Room for Strategic interception systems
9 The operator will face some not recurring costs, only
eventually covered by the governement;
9 However, the impact over the network will be minimized.
29
An only thing is important…
…JUST PUT THE
RIGHT PROBE IN
THE RIGHT
ENVIRONMENT !
30
A Mixed Approach to LI
31
Classic approach – general principles
ADSL users
Corporate users
PS
TN
Last
Mile
PSTN
PSTN users
DSLAM
SGU
IP over
xxx
ATM / IP
WAN
C.O. boundary
PRA
POP boundary
Radius
POP boundary
Radius Pb
(1x)
IP
Backbone
IP Probe
POP Aggregation Router
32
Mediation
Device
(32x)
Classic Approach
PROs
™ Extensive capture allows many forms of
parametric interception (e.g. Keyword search
or e-mail addresses);
™ The solution is totally unobtrusive and is
completely
impactless
on
the
network
architecture;
™ The solution functionalities may be extended to
effective network traffic monitoring as an
added value.
33
Classic Approach
CONs
™ many probes to be placed;
™ large investment needed;
™ a lot of space (with access control requirements) to be reserved in the
POP;
™ tapping may be a NIGHTMARE, but the use of span ports may impact
network performance;
™ distributed and secure network connectivity between system elements to
be provided;
™ Some peering traffic is lost (i.e., the peering traffic closing on the same
BRAS).
34
Hijack approach – general principles
Last
mile
PSTN
PSTN users
TN
PS
ADSL users
Corporate
Users
DSLAM
IP over
xxx
C.O. boundary
ATM / IP
WAN
POP boundary
LI Config
LI POP
TT
Radius Pb
POP
Aggregation
Router
IP
Backbone
PPP tunnel
L2TP tunnel
35
(1x)
ATM/IP
switch
Radius
RAS/NAS
Mediation
Device
IP Probe
Hijack Approach
PROs
™ few probes to be placed;
™ low investment needed;
™ Few space with access control requirements
may be reserved anywhere in the network;
™ tapping is quite simple;
™ Reduced need of secure network connectivity
between system elements;
™ No peering traffic is lost.
36
Hijack Approach
CONs
™The
possibility
of
interception are limited;
parametric
™The solution needs a slight network redesign;
™Not suitable
monitoring.
37
for
extensive
traffic
A Service Approach to LI
38
Service interception approach
™ Any time the telco operator offers some services
on its own, it may be obliged to intercept them.
Examples are:
ƒ VoIP services;
ƒ FTP/mail/webmail services;
ƒ Videocall over PSTN line;
ƒ …
™ In ALL those cases, the operator will be asked to
get rid of any interception aspect, including traffic
encription !
™ So the solution may lay in Service interception
rather than transport interception.
39
Service interception – an example
Access
Network
RAS
40
Internet
Service Network
Firewall
E-mail
FTP
MMS
Autentication
LI – A flexible approach
41
A flexible LI architecture is the key
™ The answer to operators interception needs
cannot be a “spot” solution for a specific
interception issue or a specific service…
™ … but rather an extensive approach covering – at
least in perspective - all interception needs at a
time.
42
IP Network Probing
• Different probing devices are at
disposal of the Network Engineer,
granting overall coverage of any
IP LI needs:
• General-purpose IP Probes:
• IP probes performing parametric interception may be
placed in front of a network server (e.g. e-mail);
• The interception is triggered basing upon service
access, regardless the location of the network site
accessing the “batch” service.
• IP probes performing typical interception may be
used to capture generic IP transactions basing upon
IP address, CLI, or keyword;
• A specific access probe may be needed to trigger the
interception;
• Access (RADIUS) Probes:
• access probes are able to detect a “known” user
accessing the network;
• they provide trigger to IP probes as well as access
logging capabilities.
43
Mediation Device
™ It is the central server performing LI information
handover from the provider’s domain to the LEA’s
domain.
™ It allows for a simpler and centralised LI network
management, whilst optimising network resources
usage.
™ It grants a superior level of control in IP LI
activities.
™ It may be extended to support further capture
methodologies, both out-band and in-band.
44
45
Ingress
Interface
Ix
VoIP
IIFs
Ingress
Interface
Iy
GPRS/IP
Switching
IIFs
Ingress
Interface
Iz
IP
Probes
Ingress
Interface
In
Switching
Telephony
Probes
Ingress
Interface
Ik
IRI
(HI2)
MEDIATION
FUNCTION
Ingress Adaptation Layer
GSM
PSTN
Voice IIFs
LIID / LEMF
and
Config.
Database
CC
(HI3)
MEDIATION
Egress Normalization and Synchrinization Layer
Mediation Device flexible architecture
Egress
Interface
Ex
Long
Term
Storage
Egress
Interface
Ey
BroadBand
IP
LEMF
Egress
Interface
Ez
IP over
ISDN/PSTN
LEMF
Egress
Interface
En
Leased
ISDN
LEMF
Egress
Interface
Ek
Leased
PSTN
LEMF
Provisioning and Maintenance System
™ It is the central configuration device for the entire
LI network.
™ It allows the operation of the LI system using
minimum personnel.
™ By supporting different privilege levels, it is the
“natural” Man-Machine Interface for:
46
ƒ
Maintenance Operators (alarms and devices mgmt);
ƒ
LEA Operators (Warrants mgmt);
ƒ
Billing Opertors (where applicable).
THANK YOU
For any further info:
Carlo Rogialli
[email protected]
47