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CHEM2004-CIVE2120-MECH2413 Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics Learning Materials-Topic1-Week 1 Dimension and Units Course Learning Outcomes Evaluate the basic fluid properties such as density, specific weight and viscosity and their dimensions and units Demonstrate the dimensional analysis for planning experiments and the techniques involved. Lecturer Name: Dr Mostafa Ghasemi Baboli Academic Year: 2022-2023 Course Coordinator Name: Dr Mostafa Ghasemi Baboli References: Felder, R.M. & Rousseau, R.W., Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, 3th edition, J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 2005. Himmelblau, D, M, and Riggs, J, B. Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering, 7th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2004. Definition of Fluid Fluids comprise the liquid and gas (or vapor) phase of the physical forms. A fluid is a substance that deforms continuously under the application of a shear stress no matter how small the shear stress may be. A shearing stress is created whenever a tangential force acts on a surface. Fluid and Solid When a constant shear force is applied: Solid deforms or bends Fluid continuously deforms. Fluid and Solid Vague idea: Fluid is soft and easily deformed. Solid is hard and not easily deformed. Molecular structure: Solid has densely spaced molecules with large intermolecular cohesive force allowed to maintain its shape. Fluid and Solid Liquid has further apart spaced molecules, the intermolecular forces are smaller than for solids, and the molecules have more freedom of movement. At normal temperature and pressure, the spacing is on the order of10-7mm. The number of molecules per cubic millimeter is on the order of 1021 . Gases have even greater molecular spacing and freedom of motion with negligible cohesive intermolecular forces and as a consequence are easily deformed. At normal temperature and pressure, the spacing is on the order of 10-6mm. The number of molecules per cubic millimeter is on the order of 1018 . Fluid? Solid ? Some materials, such as slurries, tar, putty, toothpaste, and so on, are not easily classified since they will behave as solid if the applied shearing stress is small, but if the stress exceeds some critical value, the substance will flow. The study of such materials is called rheology. Fluid Characteristic Description Qualitative aspect Identify the nature, or type, of the characteristics ( such as length, time, stress, and velocity) . Given in terms of certain primary quantities, such as Length, L, time, T, mass, M, and temperature, θ. The primary quantities are also referred to as basic dimensions. Given in terms of other secondary quantity, for example, area=L2,velocity =Lt-1 ,density =ML-3. Quantitative aspect Provide a numerical measure of the characteristics. Requires both a number and a standard. Such standards are called units. Primary and Secondary Quantities Primary quantities also referred as basic dimensions. Such as Length, L, time, T, mass, M, and temperature, θ. Used to provide a qualitative description of any other secondary quantity. Secondary quantities For example, area=L2, velocity =Lt-1 , density =ML-3. System of Dimensions Mass[M], Length[L], time[t], and Temperature[T] … MLt system Force[F], Length[L], time[t], and Temperature[T] … FLt system Force[F], Mass[M], Length[L], time[t], and Temperature[T] … FMLT system Property Definitions • Consider a small area A passing through a point in a fluid at rest. Fluid on one side of the area exerts a compressive force F normal to the area • The pressure, P, at a point is defined as F lim P A A A units: 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 1 standard atmosphere = 101,325 Pa 1 bar = 100,000 Pa = 100 kPa = 0.1 MPa Property Definitions • Absolute pressure , Pabs, measured relative to a perfect vacuum • Gauge pressure , Pg, measured relative to the local atmospheric pressure, Patm. Note: P*g = P*abs – Patm or P*abs = P*g + Patm Property Definitions • Temperature, T, in units of degrees celcius, oC, is a measure of “hotness” relative to the freezing and boiling point of water. • A thermometer is based on the thermal expansion of mercury Property Definitions • Microscopic point of view: Temperature is a measure of the internal molecular motion, e.g., average molecule kinetic energy • At a temperature of –273.15oC molecular motion ceases. Temperature in units of degrees kelvin, oK, is measured relative to this absolute zero temperature, so 0oK = -273oC In general, T in oK = T in oC + 273.13 Dimensions Associated with Common Physical Quantities Dimensions Associated with Common Physical Quantities Dimensionally Homogeneous All theoretically derived equations are dimensionally homogeneous– that is, the dimensions of the left side of the equation must be the same as those on the right side, and all additive separate terms have the same dimensions. General homogeneous equation: valid in any system of units. Restricted homogeneous equation : restricted to a particular system of units. gt d 2 2 Valid only for the system of units using feet and seconds → d 16.1t 2