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Day 1
Sunday, 1 November 2020
9:46 AM
Assignment 1 notes
- Using anatomical ranges and proper physiological terms
- Encouraged and advised to use photos
- Don't just put admin as suitable duties, make sure you report 3 suitable duties.
- Can choose case study with the most research behind it, so you can make realistic RTW timeframes with the
most up to date research. Has to be evidence or justification supported
- Need appropriate referencing and research to justify the selection of what we use. All case studies come with
a yellow flag/psychological barrier in there - address and factor this into RTW plan. See if that may impact in
RTW timeframes - see if literature reflects that. Discussion part is generally done quite poorly. How to
overcome this? Get GP to refer to psychologist (and justify, if literature suggests this).
- APA referencing
- Use the template, keep things necessary but brief.
Assessment 3 notes: workstation assessment
- Choose a workstation that actually may need some work
- Ensure notes and comments throughout the checklist
- Take a few photos, with worker in and out of the work station. Photos should reflect what we are
discussing in that point.
- Workstation dimensions - keep it brief and put it in a table. Assessed dimensions (table height,
depth, width, monitor height and angle etc). Is access to standards document SAI global. Then put
in relevant recommendations/current standards.
- Can potentially do a home office environment.
- Recommendations and estimations of costs normally done poorly - must justify all
Notes also done in the word docs in the file
Activity 11, OSHA
Notes on posture- arms are too close when typing, cramped up
- Modified work station to avoid glare, but causes her to twist
Notes on seating- no arm rests used,
On the spot fixes,
- Move computer straight towards her to stop twisting - apparently she was facing straight
- See if there is lumbar support
- Use a document holder
- Education on using the back rest to get lumbar support
Questions we can ask Trinity- Frequency of using documents
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- Frequency of using documents
- Dual monitor for data entry?
Can use this for assignment task 3 (checklist)
Activity 11, HSE VDU checklist
- May have had pre-existing injuries and had previous modifications already
- Using a vertical mouse
- Had to pivot to answer phone calls- how often does she use the phone? Can she have headset on
all the time or have the telephone moved?
Activity 11, differences between OSHA and HSE
HSE VDU has pictures , OSHA does not
OSHA looks at more postural and environmental
OSHA more comprehensive, and I'd probably use it more
Activity 13
6 weeks post operation,
FCE assessments we would choose (10) specific to Mick, ACL tear, MCL avulsion
1) 6mwt or step test
2) Maximal lift 5rep f2w
3) Postural tolerance test - looking at walking/standing/sitting/crawling/crouching
4) Job stimulated tasks, Shovelling wheel burrowing, transferring loads on and off
5) Unilateral Max carry
6) Unilateral Endurance lift
7) Step test
8) Job simulated line marking
Activity 14
Modify an exercise program given and 10 FCE activities
As RC, we still can ask what is happening with exercises, so you can relay it back to Dr etc.
Case: 43 year old worker at novatel with RC injury.
Bench press 3x5 - don't agree
Decline DB chest press 3x10 - don't agree
Back squat 3x10 - not necessary
Bicep curl 3x12 - Could be beneficial
Crunches 3x20 - not necessary
Upright row 3x12 - could do more damage because of how restricted it is
Side laying db external rotation 3x12 - already had comprehensive physio treatment, may not need to
do this again (unless it's a warm up)
Calf raises 3x10 - not necessary
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Seated chest press machine - 3x10
Seated row - 3x10
Bicep curls dumbbell - 3x10 (looking at hand position, hammer underhand overhand)
Farmers carry laps (or even in front)
Face pulls to increase strength
Grip strength
Carry (unilateral)
Job simulation task
Postural tolerance test - Standing, overhead (wiping or reaching).
Waist to shoulder
For desk, want ALL the dimensions even for seats.
Can find relevant recommendations through research as well.
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Day 2
Monday, 2 November 2020
2:11 PM
Assignment 2 breakdown (50% of the total mark)
- Make sure you select a task that is actually risky enough
- Apply the tools correctly
- Use the rubric headings as the headings in the report (except references/legislative/industry, this is an
application mark)
- Project scope and plan: Brief 1-2 sentence on what the task is and the workplace that it occurs in (i.e.
warehouse for x industry). Plan are steps you've taken to do assignment (find hazardous task, contact site for
onsite assessment, checklist etc etc)
- Executive summary: Is NOT an introduction, it should be like an abstract in a study (half a page maximum)
- Intro + lit review: why you've chosen the task, give a little bit of info about the workplace (reader needs to
understand how big the workplace is to understand if the recommended strategies are realistic). Lit review:
Industry related stats from the ABS, peer reviewed literature. Can access ACU library or scihub. Keep them
within 5-10 years old. Anything directly related to industry, similar to industry (i.e. broaden it to warehouse).
Find links from similar papers
- Workplace obs, inspection + data collection +task analysis and discussion: Insight into the worksite
(environmental factors for eg), all the information to apply the tools (a lot of students oversee this) - don't
make task more risky than it is. If a task comes up as moderate risk vs high risk, be genuine in application of
tools so that you'll get a better mark. If you use the postural tools, make sure you note which photo you're
applying that tool to. Typically, students provide 3 photos. i.e. start of the lift, middle of the lift, end of the
lift. How often the task is performed (one off or continuous, rest time, how long does each repetition take?).
Once tools are applied, need a bit of a discussion. Acknowledge you choose an average height rather than all
possible variants and talk about the limitation (under rate and overrate some risks).
- Corrective action plan: will need to apply risk matrix before this. Can be sourced online (probability vs impact
rating). Take into account, the history of the task (i.e. a task may be performed for years without a reported
injury, so you cannot say an injury is more likely. Context for injury history will help with risk matrix scoring).
Corrective action plan: Hierarchy of control - understand each of the different aspects of HoC. Students
generally put all of the section and give strats for each section, but if you apply an engineering control then
some admin controls might not be necessary. Make sure there are at least two options, i.e. option 1 will be
the most expensive, then option 2 will be less effective but more cost efficient one. Need to also suggest
monitoring and evaluation strategies: analysis of injury records, organising quarterly review with employees
to get task feedback, look at productivity measures. Re-apply the tools to see if there has been a substantial
change in the level of risk. May not be picked up from the tool, and if so don't include that as a strategy
- Conclusion and summary: brief summary of ergo tools you're going to use, and give a nice and concise
recommendation with costing.
NIOSH tool
- It is a lifting equation. Need to assess it at origin of the lift, and destination. Will give you safest
amount for both points. Also gives a lifting index: how risky the actual lift is, based off of what the
person is actually lifting vs what they should be lifting at that level. Some mistakes students make
is they only give one value (i.e. only at beginning or end).
- Designed to be the maximum amount a 40 year old woman could lift safely. Generally a little bit
lower than the SNOOK tables. The maximum amount that should be lifted if everything is perfect,
according to the NIOSH, is 23kg (the load constant).
- Can only be applied where there are no extremes of temperature (i.e. not in a fridge or cool
section, or hot rooms/outside). SNOOK does not have anything specified about temp limitations
- NIOSH is for a two handed lift only.
- Has to be an element of control with the lift - i.e. throwing a garbage bag into compactor negates
the use of NIOSH
- Load has to be stable - (could argue containers with fluids could not be stable). Generally little
cans don't count, but larger objects will.
From video:
Horizontal distance origin (Ho), from middle of feet to where hand is
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Horizontal distance origin (Ho), from middle of feet to where hand is
Vo is distance from bottom of object to where hand is
Ao is angle of asymmetry, his feet are facing one direction and trunk in another. Look at angle between
Frequency (F) is a value assuming that once this task is done, another starts. If he was only doing this
task, you see how many lifts done over 15 minutes, then average them out (NIOSH assumes continuous
lifting for at least 15 min).
Duration would just be short (up to an hour) medium is 1-2 hours, long is >2 hours. Time task is
Coupling (C) how hard the item is to hold - there is a decision making tree you can use. '
Horizontal Destination (Hd) is from hands to middle of body
Vertical height at destination (Vd) is distance from ground to item
Distance (D): |Vd-Vi|
Asymmetry angle at destination (Ad)
Load = 25kg
Ho = 50cm
Vo = 40cm
D = 60cm
Ao = 70deg
F= 6/min
C= good
Duration = short
Hd = 30cm
Vd = 100cm
RWL is risk with lifting (origin o, and destination d)
When doing multipliers, overestimate risk if there isn't an exact match i.e always round up
RWLo= 23x(horizontal multiplier) x (vertical multiplier) x (distance multiplier) x (asymmetry multiplier) x
(coupling multiplier) x (frequency multiplier).
In this task, the riskiest component was the horizontal multiplier. The variables we cannot change is the
total space available, table height, can't easily change load characteristics (unless they order in smaller
sizes). Weigh up whether increase in frequency is better than decrease in weight.
5.19kg is the maximum someone should lift at the origin in the lift in the video and example.
RWLd = 11.72 kg at destination
Intervention perspective, you will get better outcomes by addressing the changes at the origin (or
whatever point is worse).
I = index
Io = 25/5.19 = 4.82
Id = 25/11.72 = 2.1331
Between 1-3 is considered risky, but other factors will determine if changes needed (ease of change, if
there were previous injuries etc).
Risk index over 3 (for assignment) is good, as it will mean you have to redesign the task.
How to reduce risk here, Origin (could use mechanical aid, like a pallet jack). Would there be enough
space there? Would the frequency of use of the pallet jack justify its cost? Could also have empty pallets
underneath to elevate and prop it up. Could also do manual handling technique training to reduce
horizontal reach. Encourage this alongside another strategy.
Had to acknowledge here that pallets had 3 different heights and you took average, which would
overestimate the risk at the highest level, and underestimate it at the lowest level.
Snook table
- Most people can safely lower than they can safely lift
- Can also assess pushes and pull and carries
- Can also analyse multiple components of the task
- For pushing and pulling, you use pushing/pulling force. Takes surface friction into account. To
include this with assignment, you either need a force gauge or do mathematical equations to find
pushing/pulling force.
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pushing/pulling force.
- Snook tables broken up into gender norms, so you get different values.
- Measurement in Snook goes floor to knuckle height, so also takes into account for different user
- Width value is the same as the H value for NIOSH
- Will have to acknowledge the table does not match measured values, so you had to overestimate.
- Want lift to be suitable for 75% of population measured
- Here, it will be 12kg at origin.
- Here, the load that is lifted is above the load that is recommended for 10% of the population to
safely lift.
- In some situations, you look at 90% of pop measured, especially in combined tasks. I.e. lift and
carry. Can go to carry section and see, so for carry the load should be 13kg. For lifting at 90% of
pop, should be 8kg. Use the lower of the two task values as maximum acceptable weight for entire
REBA tool
- Rapid entire body analysis
- You pick a posture that is risky, and use the tool to analyse that specific posture. Not looking at
entire task, just a snapshot of it. You should choose a posture that is the highest risk posture for
that task. Assess the posture that person is doing more frequently too.
- Can use apps on phone to look at angles at certain positions. i.e. HUDL
- Video, he picks up object, ducks under a pipe, and squats to drop it off
- Step 1: neck +2 +1 for side bend, +3.
- Step 2: trunk: +3 +1 for side bend +1 for twist so +5
- Step 3: legs +2 for walking
- Step 4: posture score A: 8
- Step 5: Force score/load score lifting 25kg so +2 for load
- Step 6: Score A: 10 (step 4+5)
- Step 7: upper arm position = 3 because +2 plus abducted
- Step 8 :lower arm position = +2, lower range,. Use objective tools IRL
- Step 9: wrist position Some flexion so +2
- Step 10: Posture score B= 5
- Step 11: Coupling score fair +1
- Step 12 (10+11) = 6
- Step 13: 11, no additions
- SO final REBA score is 11. 11+ is a very high risk, implement change.
Ideally for assignment, you'd want to be over 8.
Positive aspects of the REBA:
- no calculations to apply
- More visual, can make do without goniometer
- Without a tool, could be subjective.
- Bottoms out early from a force load perspective, although risk of 40kg is much higher than 20kg.
For assignment, you need 2 tools to analyse the task. i.e. REBA + NIOSH/SNOOK. Get two different types
of information.
Cheese turning example:
Reba would be most appropriate
Cannot use NIOSH because of temperature
Strategies to fix:
- Could potentially fix the storage, but may not be possible
- Having another staff do some of the task, reduce the load
- Have rest breaks
- Do a task at one level, then move to another level (to reduce static postural loading)
- Environment is a risk hazard, could have floor mats, but that's not necessarily the biggest
musculoskeletal risk. The static loading is worse.
- Could do an engineering control by adding in a machine.
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Mantra Tool
- Looking at entire task.
- Unlike the REBA, where you look at a specific posture, you apply this to the entire task.
- Compared to the other tools, this one takes into account vibration. For example, you could look at the
posture of someone drilling into concrete, but vibration will add to level of risk
- Also takes into account the speed of movement
- Disadvantages are: force, speed and awkwardness ratings are subjective
Application: watching guy put spools of wire onto rods
Total time: 2-4 hours so 2
Duration: up to 1 hour continuous, so 3
Cycle time: 10-30 seconds, so 4
These values might not be the same for each body, cycle time might be higher for arms vs legs as an example.
Repetition risk factor: 4 (from table)
Force: Rating of force is subjective, rated according to the individual. Subject rates the 20kg lift of 4/10. So
Force score is 2 for LL. For the back, 3. Neck and shoulder: 3. Arm/wrists/hand: 4.
Speed of movement: legs: 3, back: 2, neck/shoulder: 4, Arm: 5.
Awkwardness: legs: 2, back: 3, neck/shoulder: 3, arm: 3.
Exertion risk:
Ideally for Mantra, you want multiple aspects come up with a level of risk.
ART Tool
Assessment of Repetitive Tasks of the upper limbs (ART Tool)
Task description
• The worker curls croissants into a crescent and pinches the ends together;
• The worker curls about 50 – 60 croissants per minute;
• Croissants weigh 60g each. There is no indication of any particular force required;
• The shift pattern is 07:00 – 15:30 with one 50-minute break at 09:00 and one 30-minute
break at 13:30;
• Workers carry out this task daily. They rotate to other similar hand intensive tasks
throughout their shift. However, for the purposes of this assessment, assume that workers
perform this task for the whole shift;
• Pinching the work piece causes cramping in the right hand and fingers;
• This work is carried out in a cold environment.
Before you begin the assessment, watch the video for a few minutes to become familiar with the
task and view the task from different angles.
Possible solutions to consider?
ART Score:
12+0+7+6=25 for L
12+0+8+6=26 for R
Any score over 22, high risk and look to investigate.
Largest risks apply in the frequency repetition and awkward postures for arm wrist and hand.
Intervention could only really aim at frequency, but would be extremely difficult as you'd need a suitable
task to rotate into, which is probably not feasible.
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Final Scenario
Replacing a truck tyre
50kg tyre,
Multiple injuries with this specific task, a lot of disc injuries etc.
Greatest risk: Load, Posture, Jerky nature, Speed, having to use lever to generate large amounts of
torque and force.
- Can use REBA, with multiple posture measures. ART won't take into account the force and jerky
- MANTRA could work too as it takes into account the speed and jerky nature, would probably be
- Have two people working, one could help with leverage
- Could he potentially take the wheel off and then replace it
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