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THE LIST OF PRACTICAL SKILLS BY THE DISCIPLINE “MEDICAL BIOLOGY”. SPECIALITY: 222 “MEDICINE” (MASTERS) 1. Analyze the value of light and electron microscopy for the biological objects investigations. 2. Characterize the principles of work with light microscope. 3. Characterize the principles of making of temporary specimen and their investigation with the light microscope. 4. Analyze the base statements of the modern cell theory, reveal their meaning. 5. Give the comparative characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 6. Recognize a plant cell and an animal cell by microscopic examination data. 7. Differentiate the main structural components of the cell on the data obtained by the methods of light and electron microscopy. 8. Differentiate the chromosomes by the size and placement of centromeres. 9. Explain the role of nucleic acids, proteins, and other chemical cell components in the biological processes. 10. Analyze the mechanisms of DNA replication and reparation. 11. Analyze the mechanisms of protein biosynthesis sequential steps. 12. Figure out the sequence of amino acids coded in DNA and RNA nucleotides sequences. 13. Figure out the tRNA anticodon depending on mRNA nucleotides’ composition and coding strand of DNA. 14. Use the genetic code table for the polypeptide chains making. 15. Define the mechanisms of operon’s activity regulation in inducible and repressible systems of gene regulation. 16. Differentiate the cells that are in interphase and mitosis on the microscopic examination data. 17. Detect the mitosis phases in dividing cells. 18. Compare the mitosis in plant cells and animal cells. 19. On the microscopic investigation data, differentiate the male and female gametes and compare them. 20. Compare the cells that are at the different stages of spermatogenesis. 21. Give the comparative characteristics of mitosis and meiosis. 22. Compare oogenesis and spermatogenesis. 23. Differentiate the embryos of different classes of Chordata representatives during cleavage and at the blastula stage. 24. Characterize the various types of cleavage. 25. Explain the mechanisms of blastomers’ genetic identity and phenotypic variety. 26. Analyze the mechanisms of embryonal period of individual development of an organism. 27. Define the relative location and movement of organ anlages in the period of gastrulation, histogenesis, and organogenesis. 28. Define the gastrulation types in chordates. 29. Characterize the early stages of organogenesis. 30. Analyze the causes, which can lead to the disturbances of organism development and influence processes of growth and differentiation in the postembryonic period. 31. Analyze the peculiarities of the human mendelian traits inheritance. 32. Define the progeny genotypes and phenotypes according to the genotypes of parents, and parents’ genotypes according to the genotypes of progeny. 33. Predict the degree of human genetic disorders risk manifestation. 34. Analyze the forms of genes interaction. 35. Use the knowledge of genes interaction to the prediction of genotypes and phenotypes in the following generations. 36. Use the information on crossing-over frequency with prognostic aim. 37. Determine the probability of characters’ manifestation in the following generations at complete and incomplete genes linkage. 38. Determine the probability of characters’ manifestation in the following generations at sex linkage inheritance. 39. Distinguish phenotypic and genetic variability. 40. Define the kind of mutation and its occurrence mechanisms. 41. Differentiate the phenocopy from the signs of inherited disorders. Explain the mechanisms of phenocopy occurrence. 42. Define the types of human genetic disorders. 43. Investigate of the fingerprint: а) define the types of fingerprint patterns; b) write down the formula of fingerprint patterns; c) calculate the deltoid index; d) count the number of crests on each finger and calculate their total average value for 10 fingers. 44. Examine the print of the palm relief: а) find the triradii, main palmar lines, fissures; b) measure the value of the palmar atd angle. 45. Determine the heredity coefficient by the K. Holtzinger’s formula. 46. Make a pedigree and analyze it. 47. Define the type of character inheritance and predict its presence in the following generations. 48. Define the quantity of chromosomes in human karyotype. 49. Identify human chromosomes in the groups A, B, C, D, Е, F, G. 50. Define the chromosomal sex of an individual with the karyotype investigation. 51. Define the presence or absence of quantitative changes of chromosomes in human karyotype. 52. Characterize the X-chromatin in the human buccal mucosa epithelium cells and in human neutrophilic leukocytes. 53. Define the most efficient methods of different hereditary disorders diagnostics. 54. Analyze the structure of a certain human population; define the ecological and genetics characteristics. 55. Determine of genes concentration in the gene pool of population as well as homozygotes and heterozygotes frequency in the population with the Hardy– Weinberg principle. 56. Analyze the genetic structure of the real and ideal populations. 57. Make the ecologic pyramids of number, biomass and energy. 58. Determine the relationships between organisms in ecosystems. 59. Determine the adaptive possibilities of the organisms. 60. Substantiate the biological aspects of adaptation of the population to living conditions. 61. To identify the representatives of sarcodina and ciliates by systematic characteristics, which have medical significance. 62. To substantiate the methods of laboratory diagnostics and main procedures of individual and public prophylaxis of diseases caused by sarcodines and ciliates. 63. Identify by systematic signs the representatives of flagellates and sporozoans with medical importance. 64. Substantiate laboratory diagnostics methods and the main procedures of individual and public prevention of the diseases caused by flagellates and sporozoans. 65. Identify the representatives of sexually mature trematodes by systematic characteristics. 66. Characterize the larval stages of trematodes – the human parasites. 67. Substantiate the methods of laboratory diagnostics and main procedures of individual and public prevention of diseases caused by trematodes. 68. Identify sexually mature cestodes by systematic characteristics. 69. Distinguish of the mature proglottids and scoleces of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata (Taeniarhynchus saginatus). 70. Characterize the phynn of cestodes. 71. Substantiate the main procedures of individual and public prevention of diseases caused by cestodes. 72. Identify the sexually mature nematodes by the systematic characteristics. 73. Differ the males of parasitic nematodes from the females. 74. Substantiate the main procedures of individual and public prevention of of diseases caused by nematodes. 75. Identify the eggs of helminths – the human parasites. 76. Substantiate the methods of the laboratory diagnostics of trematodiases, cestodiases, and nematodiases. 77. Distinguish crustaceans from the arachnids. 78. Identify the imago of the tick by systematic characteristics. 79. Differentiate the larva, nymph, and imago of representatives of hard ticks based on the data of microscopic investigations of the microslides of these objects. 80. Substantiate the measures of individual and public prevention of the diseases, agents of which are transmitted by ticks. 81. Identify insects amongst arthropods. 82. Identify the imago of dipterans by the systematic characteristics. 83. Differentiate the egg, larva, pupa, and imago of dipterans’ representatives based on the data of microscopic investigations of the microslides of these objects. 84. Substantiate the measures of personal and public prevention of the diseases, agents of which are transmitted by dipterans’ representatives. 85. Identify by systematic characteristics the imago of cockroaches, lice, fleas, and bugs. 86. Discuss the methods of personal and public prevention of the diseases, agents of which are transmitted by cockroaches, lice, fleas, and bugs. 87. Identify the dangerous to human health poisonous animals. 88. Describe the territorial and ecological conditions under which contact of poisonous animals with humans is possible. 89. Characterize the typical in Ukraine poisonous plants and mushrooms. Approved at the meeting of Department of Biology of the Bogomolets National Medical University (on-line mode) Protocol № 19 dated « 21» April 2022 year.