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Syllabus of Effective Business Communication
Module 1
Business Communication : meaning – need – process – methods –
written, verbal, non verbal, visual, telecommunications; internal and
External ; Upward and Downward and lateral ; Barriers of
Communication – physical, psychological, linguistic, mechanical
Module 2
Communication through letters: Business Letters; Layout of Letters;
Kinds of Business Letters; Characteristics of a good letter; Application
for Appointment; Resume, References, Appointment Orders, Business
Enquiries; Offers & Quotations; Orders- Execution of Orders;
Cancellation of Orders; Letters of Complaint; Letters of Agency; Status
Enquiries; Circulars and Circular letter; Notices, Reports by Individuals;
Reports by Committees; Annual Report; Writing of reports; Non Verbal
Communications; Body language; Kinesics; Proxemics; Para Language;
Effective Listening; Principles of Effective Listening; Factors affecting
listening; Interview skills; Appearing in interviews; Conducting
Module 3 ( For General & IF )
Group Communication; Meetings; Need, Importance and Planning of
Meetings; Meeting Notice, Agenda, Minutes, Press Release, Press
conference, Meeting presentation, Elements of Presentations,
Designing Presentations, Visual Support, Corporate Communication,
Scope and Importance – Components, Role of Social media in
communication, Annual reports
Effective Business Communication
Communication skills are vital to a healthy, efficient workplace. Often categorized
as a “soft skill” or interpersonal skill, communication is the act of sharing
information from one person to another person or group of people. There are
many different ways to communicate, each of which plays an important role in
sharing information.
Definition, Meaning and need of Business Communication
“Communication can be defined as the “exchange of information, ideas, and
knowledge between sender and receiver through accepted code of symbols”
“ Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or
more persons “
“ Communication can broadly defined as the process of meaningful interaction
amoung human beings. More specifically it is the process by which meanings are
perceived and understanding is reached among human beings “
Communication is effective when the receiver understands in the same sense and
spirit that the communicator intends to convey. It should bring people together
by establishing commonness among people. The purpose of it is to inform,
persuade or motivate towards the desired action
Effective or Ineffective, the communication flows always in an organization. The
need of effective business communication is relevant in the present days due to
the factors like 1) Complexities of business Organizations 2) Information
technology revolution 3) Growing Specializations 4) Global village concept 5)
Growing competition 6) Involvement of Trade unions 7) Role of communication
Business Communication is the sharing of ideas, concepts, action plans, programs,
procedures etc for the commercial benefit of the organization
Process of Communication
It is a two way process concerned with sharing and understanding of information.
It is an exchange and Progression of ideas in a mutually accepted direction or
In real sense, Business Communication is a Two Way Process where the sender
sends the message to the receiver and after receiving the message, the receiver
sends feedback to the sender.
The basic elements
1) Sender : Encoder / Speaker: Communication process starts with the
sender who wants to transmit the message to another person ; words, symbols
etc are used to convey the meaning to others.
Encoding is putting the meaning of the message into appropriate words, symbols,
gestures or other forms of expressions for the purpose of sending an indented
2) Receiver : Decoder/ Listener :The person who perceives the message
attaching meaning to it is the receiver. By definition, if there is no meaningful
receiver, there is no communication at all.
Decoding means attaching meaning to the message received . it is possible that
the receiver does not understand the message in the same sense and spirit
indented by the sender. Only when these two are synchronized, the effective
communication happens.
3) Message : It is the physical form of the idea or information conveyed which
are to be understood by the sensory receptors. Meaning lies in the receiver’s
mind and not in the message.
4) Medium : Medium or Channel is the method or vehicle used to transmit the
message like letters, telephones, memos, email etc..
5) Feedback : It is the reversal of the communication process where the
listener becomes the message sender based on the interpretations who wants to
ask explanations or clarifications or even to offer comment
A simple model of Communication shall be as below
The process flow of Communication diagrammatically can be as below
Features of Communication
Communication is a process involving the selection, production and transmission
of ideas/intentions/signs in such a way as to help a receiver perceive a meaning
similar to that in the mind of the communicator. The features are :
Two way
The role of perception
Social Process
(Note: The above are only points which are to be explained at least in one
sentence each if the question is of more than one credit)
Turn Taking System
A turn is the time when a speaker is talking and turn-taking is the skill of knowing
when to start and finish a turn in a conversation. Speakers signal a finished turn is
to drop the pitch or volume of their voice at the end of an utterance.
Taking turns is an important part of communication development for young
children. When children learn to take turns, they learn the basic rhythm of
communication, that back-and-forth exchange between people. They also learn
about taking turns and communication through serve and return interactions.
It is all about enabling and control communication. The first speaker selects the
next one by asking questions etc. Effective practice of this can change the subject
altogether to keep it in the right direction with cues and signals to change into the
desired direction. It is the speaker or sender who is primarily responsible for the
effectiveness of communication
Models of Communication:
1. One way model : There is no feedback here; so, the sender is not sure of its
2. Two way model : There is an active feedback ; this is the perfect
communication model
Noise in the Communication: Noise is any unpleasant sound or undesirable
distraction that prevents easy and effective transmission of communication. It
may be Physical or Psychological.
It is mostly due to Prejudices, Hostility and Egotism.
Communication GAP : Communication Gap is when the meaning intended by
the speaker or sender is not what is understood by the recipient. Effectiveness
communication is attained when the transfer of message as well as transmission
of understanding is well sent and received. When there is a gap between the
content of the delivered message and the emotional impact of the message in the
receiver, this has to be effectively bridged. If this is not successfully done, there
arises a Communication Gap.
Is Communication an Art or Science?
Science is the body of organized knowledge of universally applicable principles
and theories evolved through systematic and controlled investigation. Art is the
application of knowledge in skillful and creative way to accomplish the tangible
results. Science involves systematic analysis whereas Art is creative synthesis;
creativity is the core of Art. Evidently, Communication is both a Science and an
Art. At the same time, it is more of an Art
Objectives of Effective Communication
 Connect: bring together or into contact so that a real or notional link is
 Inform : give facts or information
 Educate : give intellectual, moral and social instruction
 Elucidate: make something clear; explain
 Train: teach a particular skill or behavior through sustained practice and
 Motivate: provide with reason for doing something
 Relate: make or show connection between
 Promote: support and actively encourage a cause, venture etc
 Entertain: provide with amusement or enjoyment
Functions of Communication
A) General Functions : 1)Creating a conducive atmosphere 2) Propagate
technological progress 3)Attain economic advancement 4) Global village
effect breaking the geographical and political barriers
B) Individual Functions : 1) Expression of oneself 2) Satisfaction of human
needs 3) Building human relations 4) Career advancement (only one person
makes it to the top even when many are equally competent academically)
C) Business Function : 1)Efficient working of the Business 2) To avoid costly
communication failures 3) Basis of Managerial Functions: Anticipation/
proactive ; Innovations; Planning Process; Organizing ; Leading , directing &
Motivating; Controlling 4) Building Human Relations 5) TQM; Zero defect
marketing and Quality services ( money rich and time poor customer) 6) Job
Satisfaction and Enrichment 7) Maintaining relation with external
customers 8) Strategic management
Purpose of Effective Communication
Basic purpose is to be successful within time. The role of the manager will be
effective if the communication is effective. Before inducting, the candidates
communicative abilities are gauged: To bring about improvement is speaking
abilities, listening, interacting, writing, convincing, persuading etc. Information is
giving out; Communication is getting through.
Internal and External Organizational Communication
The main difference between internal communication and external
communication is that internal communication is when the members of an
organization, exchange ideas within the organization while external
communication occurs outside the organization with other people or business
Internal: Organization is a composite of individuals working together to achieve
the goals. Internal Communication is the Interaction among the members of same
organization; both formal and informal.
External : The image of the organization is mainly dependent on its relationship
with the people outside which is an ongoing process. External Communication can
be : Advertising ; Media interactions ; Public relations; Presentations;
Negotiations; Mails; Telegrams; Letters. Should take care for effectiveness and
correctness in external communication very specially since it is the interaction
with the external stake holders.
Direction of Communication
Downward Communication: Downward communication is the flow of
information and messages from a higher level inside an organization to a lower
one. It flows downwards. This is generally to give instructions, directions and
orders. This direction of communication strengthens the authoritarian structure
of the organization. This can be oral and written.
 Benefits: can explain organizational policies; convey the management goals
and ideas; control; motivate.
 Problems: Chances for delays due to may hierarchical levels; Possibility of
distortion ; changing the original intent when it travels from person to
person. ( example of the game“ Chinese whisper “)
Upward Communication: It is the process of information flowing from the
lower levels of a hierarchy to the upper levels. It flows from the lower levels to
the upper levels to send information, suggestions, complaints and grievances. It is
the flow of feedback and voluntary communications
 Methods: Meetings; Open door policy; Suggestion boxes; Interviews;
Informal gatherings
 Benefits: Insight to problems; Creates confidence & Trust; Enhances
learning and excellence; TQM
 Problems: Concealments; Delays & distortions; Bypassing; Poor listening
due to bias; Hesitation
 Prerequisites: Healthy atmosphere; Reward system; effective listening;
Formal suggestion system; Grievance procedure; Social gathering;
This type of communication is becoming more popular in organizations as
traditional forms of communication are becoming less popular.
Horizontal Communication:
Horizontal or Lateral communication is the exchange and sharing of information,
ideas or feelings among peer groups, departments or units of an organization
who are at or about the same hierarchical level ,for the purpose of coordinating
activities, efforts or fulfilling a common purpose or goal. The main use of this is to
maintain coordination and review activities assigned to various subordinates.
It is an Interaction with peers or colleagues of equal rank of different departments
leading to more meaningful results like Inter departmental adjustments which
otherwise may be messed up; also to avoid possible duplication of work .
 Benefits: Mutual trust; Cooperation & Coordination; Helpful in resolving
personal problems; Solves inter departmental problems
 Problems: Rivalry among peers ; Specialists may miscommunicate; Physical
barriers; Lack of motivation
 Prerequisites: Periodical meeting arrangements; Proper communication
Diagonal communication: Diagonal Communication is the communication
between different structures of an organization. It is the communication between
the higher and lower sectors of an organization. It is also known as crossfunctional communication. It is Informal and in any direction, upward, downward
or lateral. Effectiveness increases when Hierarchies are done away with and
Managers are trained to move among the employees
Mangers who want to control the flow of information may find it ineffective and
problematic since they will feel threatened. This fear is only temporary which will
be passed over through constant and mature interactions
Advantages: Promotes coordination; Boost morale; Expedites procedures; Build
trust and cooperation
Types of Communication
Mainly, this can be classified as Verbal and Non-Verbal
Verbal : This is the communication using the words either in the spoken or in the
written forms; hence both spoken and written communications are classified
under Verbal communication.
Non-Verbal : This is the communication largely with gestures, expressions etc
which is also known as body talk or body language etc.
There are several different ways we share information with one another. For
example, you might use verbal communication when sharing a presentation with
a group. You might use written communication when applying for a job or sending
an email.
There are four main categories or communication styles : Oral, Written, , Nonverbal, and Visual:
1. Oral Communication: Oral Communication is one form of Verbal
Communication (Verbal includes both Oral and Written). It is the
interchange of messages between sender and receiver by spoken words
complying with proper grammar rules and sequence. It includes sounds,
words, or speaking. The tone, volume, and pitch of one's voice can all
contribute to effective oral communication. Statistics show 70% of
executive time is used for communication out of which 45 % listening; 30 %
speaking; 16 % reading; 9% writing
Oral Communication skills can be helpful to solve problems , resolve conflicts ;
Influence to work together; Persuade; Assert without aggression; Listen;
Negotiate; Make proposals; How you say is more important
Oral communication takes place through any of the following medias:
Face to Face : It has control over listener’s attention; Effect of facial expression is
an advantage; It is suitable for discussions. The limitations are : Inattentive
listening; Unproductive in unhealthy relations; Difficult in arranging personal
Teleconferencing: It is the next best alternative after face to face
communication; It eliminates unnecessary travel and saves time especially in this
globalized scenario. It may be a bit costlier for smaller organization for the
infrastructure setting up of teleconferencing.
Telephone and Audio conferencing: This is most frequently used medium for oral
communication; Both merits and demerits are there for this medium.
Voice mail: This is more prevalent in these days. This saves time and money
especially when all are busy otherwise.
Features of Oral Communication ( IMPRESS as a acronym )
Idea : Select the best suited idea
Message : Encode to be comprehensible
Pause/Paragraphs: Careful not to be boring
Receiver : Create extra plus to keep interest
Empathy : Ability to understand and share the feelings of another.
Different from Sympathy: Logic bubble/Overlapping Circles/Common Pool
 Sender : Primary Responsibility; meticulous
 Security Check: Never be in a rush
Advantages of Oral Communication: Immediate clarification; Speedy; Suitable for
emergency; Less formal; Group communication; Personal Quality
Disadvantages of Oral Communication: No record; Lengthy message; Distortions;
Speakers ineffectiveness; Limitations of human memory
Oral Communication demands attentive Listening
Written Communication
It is the communication which involves the use of words in writing, ideally by
arranging according to the proper grammar rules and in proper sequence. It is the
most formal form of Communication. Hence, special care has to be taken while
communicating in written form. Organizations will have unique styles and ways
for written communication. Written communications are also used for permanent
documentations; hence to be very well prepared
Forms/Types of Written Communication
 Letter: Most commonly used, mostly for external correspondence,
personal or official: fixed and formal lay out, used for different purposes
like seeking or passing on information, business enquiries etc.
 Memo or Memoranda: Used within the same organization. Used to convey
information, instructions, reprimand or calling for explanation etc. Contain
brief messages. Addressed to specific groups or individuals
 Notice : To convey the same information to many people within the
organization or to public at large. Eg. Health department notice to public on
water born diseases.
 Circular : Giving instruction or order or information on specific matters to a
group of people within an organization. Government, local body business
offices also bring out circulars.
 Report : A written document which gives in detail certain findings after
deliberations or discussion or research containing facts and figures. Reports
are generally prepared and submitted by Commission/committee to
authorities. Not for circulation
Merits of Written Communication: Well planned and structured; Easier to
understand; Creates a permanent Record; Documented which can be referred to
easily and repeatedly; This can be erased or corrected before dispatch.
Composing & Drafting in advance; Accuracy; Wider access
Demerits of Written Communication: Less interactive; Takes time to reach the
target; Feedback may not be immediate ; Depends on drafting skills of the writer;
Constraints of handwriting, language, mode of transmission, tools etc.
Different stages of Written Communication
1. Pre drafting : Plan carefully and gather information
2. Drafting : write down in form and style ; take time and review the draft
3. Rewriting : Incorporate changes and rewrite the final one
To make effective Written Communication
 Strive for simplicity. Written communications should be as simple and clear
as possible. KISS principle to be followed; Do not overload with
information; Avoid ambiguity.
 Do not rely on the tone very much: Unlike in the Oral and Nonverbal
communications, tone may convey wrongly in written communication like:
attempting to communicate a joke may be mistaken as sarcasm .
 Take time to review your written communications: Setting time aside to
re-read your emails, letters or memos can help you identify mistakes or
opportunities to say something differently. For important communications
or those that will be sent to a large number of people, it might be helpful to
have a trusted colleague review it as well.
 Keep a file of writing you find effective or enjoyable: If you receive a
certain pamphlet, email or memo that you find particularly helpful or
interesting, save it for reference when writing your own communications.
Incorporating methods or styles you like can help you to improve over time.
Written communication- demands Careful reading
Non-verbal Communication
Nonverbal communication means transmission of meaning through body
movements, gestures, facial expressions, timing, touch, eye contacts, clothing,
silence, gaze and anything else other than speaking and writing.
Studies reveal that more than 65 % of human communication is through
nonverbal cues.
Nonverbal Communication Types
Facial expressions; Gestures; Postures; Vocal characteristics- (Oh,ah,um etc. )
Personal appearance – Well dressed ; Dress of bride groom ; Dress catching
attraction, Attire of priests; Time and space- On time; Come late to make people
wait; Occupy center of the room, Keep near to the important person, Keep away
from the boss etc.; Touch- pat, hug, hand shake; Silence.
Note: Every of above nonverbal communication does convey specific meanings
depending upon the situation and people involved.
Nonverbal communication requires Keen observation
A few Examples
 The senior looks at his watch while you are talking : The meaning of
this is roughly : “ your time is over, go away
 A person winks after saying something :This means : “ do not believe
what I just said :”
 An executive is always late for meetings : This communicates : “ I am
always very busy; I do not bother about your time “
 A speaker prefers to speak from the floor rather than from the dais :
This communicates : “ I want to show my sense of equality with the
Proxemics is the branch of knowledge that deals with the study of human use of
space and the effects on behavior, communication, and social interaction. It is the
study of how people use and perceive the physical space around them. The space
between the sender and the receiver of a message influences the way the
message is interpreted. It also has to be noted that the perception and use of
space varies significantly across cultures and different settings within cultures.
The distance surrounding a person forms a space. There are four types of
distances people keep: Intimate space (0 to 18 inches), Personal space (18 inches
to 4 feet), Social space (4 to 10 feet), and Public space (over 10 feet). Proxemics
tries to understand the relationship between two people through their
observance and respect of each other’s zone or territory: the intimate, personal,
social and public zones. An accidental entry to a wrong/ unintended zone will be
reacted by a nonverbal communication meaning stay away.
Proxemics remains a hidden component of interpersonal communication that is
uncovered through observation and strongly influenced by culture.
For extra reading
Proxemics is one among several subcategories in the study of nonverbal
communication, including Haptics (touch related), Kinesics (body movement
related), Vocalics (Paralanguage), and Chronemics (structuring of time).
Evidently, Non- verbal communication can be defined as the nonlinguistic
messages that are consciously or unconsciously encoded and decoded through
such means as facial expressions, body gestures (Kinesics), space usage
(Proxemics), body touch (Haptics), eye con- tact (Oculesics), time structuring
(Chronemics), tone management (Paralinguistics) and so on.
Personal space is the region surrounding a person which they regard as
psychologically theirs. Most people value their personal space and feel discomfort,
anger, or anxiety when their personal space is encroached. Permitting a person to
enter personal space and entering somebody else's personal space are indicators
of perception of those people's relationship. An intimate zone is reserved for close
friends, lovers, children and close family members. Another zone is used for
conversations with friends, to chat with associates, and in group discussions. A
further zone is reserved for strangers, newly formed groups, and new
acquaintances. A fourth zone is used for speeches, lectures, and theater;
essentially, public distance is that range reserved for larger audiences.
Kinesics Communication ( Body talk ) :Kinesics is the message conveyed through
nonverbal acts in the form of body movements of gestures, winking, smiling,
posture, style or dressing and grooming which send out a message supporting or
contradicting the verbal message. It is the study of the way in which certain body
movements and gestures serve as a form of non-verbal communication.
Kinesics is the non-verbal behavior related to movement, either of any part of the
body, or the body as a whole. In short all communicative body movements are
generally classified as kinesics. There are basically five different types of kinesics;
emblems, regulators, illustrators, affective display and adaptors
For extra reading
Emblems: Emblems are non-verbal cues that have a verbal counterpart. For
example, the British sign for Victory (forefinger and middle finger erect)
symbolizes the letter V, a sign for victory often seen painted onto house walls
during WWII. However, the same movement may symbolize the number two in the
US and may be seen as insulting in Australia. Another example is the “ok” sign
made by forming a circle with your thumb and forefinger and stretching out the
rest of the three fingers. This may be seen as an indication for zero or the number
three in some countries. It is considered obscene in Australia though. Emblems as
such are a bewildering array of different meanings. The list of possible
interpretations and different meanings is endless. In short, emblems are signs
used to refer to certain words. Its interpretation may vary across different cultures
and groups of people.
Regulators: Regulators are non-verbal signs that regulate, modulate and
maintain the flow of speech during a conversation. These can be both kinesics,
such as the nodding of a head, as well as non-kinesics, such as eye movements.
They are often used as feedback to find out if one is clear of the instructions given
or if the audience is interested in the speech. Different cultures use different forms
of regulators to show confusion or understanding of certain information. For
example, the white American students may use sounds such as “uh-huh” followed
by nodding of the head to indicate understanding. However, the black American
students use silence to show understanding. Therefore, it may lead to confusion
for the white Americans as to whether the black students understand what is
being said. Regulators may also modulate the flow of speech when someone who
wishes to interrupt with a point, he/she raises up his/her hand to indicate that
he/she has something to say. This action is a form of regulator as it controls the
flow of speech by an interruption and changes it flow towards a new speaker.
Illustrators: Illustrators are used more consistently to illustrate what is being said.
For example, pointing to something that you are discussing about, It reinforces
what you are saying. Again, the usage and the amount of illustrators used are
different from culture to culture. For example Latin cultures in general make more
use of illustrators than Anglo-Saxon cultures. And again, Anglo-Saxon cultures
make more use of illustrators than many Asian cultures. In Asian culture, the uses
of illustrators show lack of intelligence while the absence of illustrators, indicate
lack of interest in the Latin culture.
Affective Display: Affective Displays are body movements and facial movements
that display a certain affective state, i.e. emotions. A lack of such affective
displays may be understood as a lack of emotion by some which may not be
correct with some others. Different cultures may practice the displaying of
emotions differently. Although two people may be feeling just as angry, their
display of anger may be totally different. One may blow up in the face while the
other may use silence to show displeasure. Therefore the lack of display may not
indicate the lack of emotions.
Adaptors: Adaptors include postural changes and other movements. A slumped
posture indicates that you have low spirits, fatigued or that you feel inferior
whereas an erect posture shows high spirits and confidence. If you lean forward it
implies that you are open and interested. Leaning away shows disinterest and
defensiveness. Maintaining a rigid posture may mean that you are defensive,
while a relaxed posture may translate to openness. Crossed legs and arms show
unwillingness to listen while uncrossed arms and leg indicate that you are
Note: The extra reading items will surely give you an additional mileage if mention
in the answer sheets according to the questions asked
Formal Communication
Formal communication is interchange of information officially through the formal
channels of organizational structure along the lines of authority established by
the management. The flow of communication is controlled and is a deliberate
effort. By this, the information reaches the desired place without any hindrance
at a minimum cost and in a proper way. This is also known as ‘Through Proper
Channel Communication “
Formal communication is generally in writing and may take any of the forms :
Policy; manuals: Procedures and Rule books; Memoranda; Official meetings;
Reports, etc.
Characteristics of Formal Communication
1 Oral and Written: Can be both written and oral. Daily works are handled
through oral communication, while the policy matters require written
2. Formal Relations: Among those employees where formal relations have
been established by the organization. The sender and the receiver have
some sort of organizational relations.
3. Prescribed Path: The communication has to pass through a definite channel
while moving from one person to another. For example, to convey the
feelings of a worker to the manager, the foreman’s help has to be sought.
4. Organizational Message: This channel is concerned with the authorized
organizational messages only and the personal messages are out of its
5. Deliberate Effort: This channel of communication is preplanned keeping in
view the objectives of the organization.
Advantages : 1) Maintenance of Authority of the Officers: 2). Clear and Effective
Communication: 3).Orderly Flow of Information: 4). Easy Knowledge of Source of
Limitations: 1). Overload of Work: 2).Distortion of Information: 3).Indifferent
Informal Communication
The Informal Communication is the casual and unofficial form of communication
where the information is exchanged spontaneously between two or more persons
without conforming to the prescribed official rules, processes, system, formalities
and chain of command. Informal Communication is outside the formal channels. It
does not follow lines of authority as is the case of formal communication; Usually
oral and even by simple glance, gesture or smile or silence. Eg. Talking with
friends. Informal communication refers to the form of communication which
flows in every direction; it moves freely in the organization.
Distinguishing features between Formal and Informal Communication
Official Channel
Unofficial Channel
Planned & Systematic
Cuts across formal relationships
Goal and task oriented
Individual Goal and need
Personal & Social
Stable and rigid
Flexible and instable
Slow & Structured
Fast & unstructured
Authentic – little chance of distortion
of distortion
Non- Authentic - bigger chance
The grapevine is a word for gossip. Anything heard on the grapevine was learned
by word of mouth. During the times of Civil wars, a grapevine telegraph was a
gadget used for communicating. Then, people started talking about "the
grapevine" as a source of information, especially gossip.
Grapevine is an Informal type of communication. It stretches throughout the
organization in all directions irrespective of the authority levels. It exists more at
lower levels of organization. Grapevine spreads like fire and it is not easy to trace
the cause or origin of such communication at times. Efficient managements use
this as a tool and source of information about the general feeling about the
organization among the employees of the organization
Interpersonal Communication: Interpersonal communication is the
process of exchange of information, ideas, feelings and meaning between two or
more people through verbal and/or non-verbal methods. It includes face-to-face
exchange of messages, which may take form of a certain tone of voice, facial
expressions, body language and gestures.
Intrapersonal Communication: Intrapersonal communication is
communication with ourselves that takes place in our heads. Intrapersonal is the
communication which takes place within one’s own self. This implies individual
reflection, contemplation and meditation Intrapersonal communication serves
several social functions. Internal vocalization, or talking to ourselves, can help us
achieve or maintain social adjustment.
Organizational Communication : A process by which activities of an
Organization are collected and coordinated to reach the goals of both individuals
and the Organization as a collective group for effective management in a
workplace environment.
Group Communication: A mode of communication in large organizations
between employers and employees, and employees in teams/groups. It is in a
way an extension of Interpersonal Communication. On a marketing perspective, it
is communicating to a group of target customers
Public Communication: Generally a speech by one person to a large group
at a time. Eg: Political Leaders, religious preachers, Trade Union Leaders
Mass Communication: An extension of Public Communication; It is a
means of conveying messages to large segments of the population at the same
time. This is generally identified with tools of modern mass media, which include
books, the press, cinema, television, radio, internet etc. to boost image of the
Organizations; this involves heavy investments
Tips for Effective Communication – 7 Cs & 4 Ss
Credibility : Long drawn process building trust
Courtesy : Diplomacy & appreciation are woven to improve relationships
Clarity : Simple and easy sentences to make comprehension easier
Correctness : Matter of fact helping to build confidence
Consistency : Any shift to be gradual to induce stability
Concreteness : Specific and not abstract to reinforce confidence
Conciseness : Brief and just enough to save time
1. Shortness : Brief without verbosity and devoid of high sounding jargons
which economizes
2. Simplicity : Both words and ideas which will impress the receiver
3. Strength : Emanates from credibility which will be convincing
4. Sincerity : No room for deceit which will be appealing for the receiver
Listening and reading are the receptive skills because learners do not need to
produce language, they receive and understand it. These skills are sometimes
known as passive skills. The productive skills are speaking and writing because
learners are applying these skills in a need to produce language.
The Four Essential Skills for effective verbal communication–
( Listening, Speaking, Reading & Writing )
To become a well-rounded communicator one needs to be proficient in each of
the four language skills. These four skills give learners opportunities to create
contexts in which to use the language for exchange of real information, evidence
of their own ability (proof of learning) and, most important, confidence. Listening
and reading are the receptive skills because learners do not need to produce
language since the received or heard message needs to be understood only.
These skills are sometimes known as passive skills. The productive skills are
speaking and writing because learners are applying these skills to produce
language. They are also known as active skills.
Listening is a receptive language skill. Listening is the ability to accurately receive
and interpret messages in the communication process by paying meaningful
attention .Hearing involves ears whereas listening involves ears, eyes, heart and
mind. The listener has to get oriented to the listening portion and be all ears. The
listener is also required to be attentive. Thirdly one should be able to concentrate
on understanding the message thoroughly. Process of listening: Attention;
Hearing; Understanding; Interpreting; valuating; Empathizing & Conceptualizing
Factors adversely affecting Listening:
 Lack of concentration
 Hearing faster than speaking ( what one can speak is only 200 words per
minute whereas you can listen approximately 600 words per minute ; this
gap leads to distractions ).
 Undue attention to the speaker when the speech is half forgotton
 Halo effect; complexes; closed mind; poor retention; unequal statuses
 Premature evaluation and hurried conclusions
 Abstracting (evaluating thoughts in terms of relative ideas instead of
 Slant (biased presentation by speaker;)
 Cognitive dissonance ( gap between listeners existing assumptions and the
speakers point )
 Language barrier
For Effective listening:
 Speak less and listen more
 Do not be a sponge just absorbing everything, but meaningfully imbibe
what is needed
 Observe body language to understand better
 Listen to what is unsaid too since many matters are untold and left to your
 Avoid becoming emotional and just do not get carried away by the speaker
 Empathize meaning to try to understand and feel one with the speaker
 Do not jump into conclusions and try to understand the message as a whole
Speaking :
Speaking is an act of making vocal sounds. Speaking means to converse or
expressing one's thoughts and feelings in spoken language conveying information.
It is considered to be the most effective form of Communication in spreading
one’s ideas ( Swami Vivekananda, Osho, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther king;
Winston Churchil are considered to be very effective speakers
Goals of Speaking; Persuade, Inform and Delight
Speaking Styles: Polite, Formal, Informal, Blunt, Strong, Tentative, Direct
 Polite: You surely have a point; but, I am afraid this time we will go ahead
as discussed otherwise
 Formal : I would be delighted if you could make it to the party
 Informal: Hi, you are coming to the party tonight, aren’t you; I just wont
take a no for an answer
 Blunt: I know you are lying; you can’t fool me
 Strong: This is impossible; how could you promise without consulting me
 Tentative: I am not sure if I could agree with you
 Direct: No; you are mistaken the statistics just cannot be this high
For effective Speaking
 The opening should be attractive with a grabber/hook for the attention of
the listener
 What is in it for them ( WIIFT ) is the point and the listener should feel there
is something in it for them.
 Preview of the main points ( Agenda/table of content/Outline
 Clearly demarcated main points; Limit the main points to 5 to seven; No
Strong transmission; Repetitive transmission; keep the listener interest high
Closing: Give summary; End with action step; Refer to opening;
Q & A : There should be time given for the listeners to ask questions
Humor to be used with caution
More tips for Speaking; ( just points only; expand the answer if needed )
Importance of Personality : Rest & food, Dress, hall arrangements, how to stand,
How to open talk to capture the audience : Introduction, no apologies, humorous
story, quotation
How to close a talk: no sudden ending, appeal for action, compliment the
How to make the meaning clear : simple language, illustrations, limited points,
To create interest in audience: convince yourselves, common ground,
restatements, general illustrations and concrete instances
To improve diction: company of great masters, dictionary, enjoy the romance of
the words, do not beat around the bush, use language boldly
Reading is the complex cognitive process of decoding symbols to derive meaning.
It is a form of language processing. Success in this process is measured as reading
comprehension. Reading is a means for language acquisition, communication, and
sharing information and ideas. Reading involves two activities: seeing the words
before your eyes and understanding their meaning. It is a receptive skill
Reading Styles
 Skimming - Reading rapidly for the main points.
 Scanning - Reading rapidly through a text to find specific information
 Extensive - Reading longer texts, often for pleasure and for an overall
 Intensive - Reading shorter texts for detailed information with emphasis on
precise understanding.
“ The art of reading is to skip judiciously “. “ Some books are to be tasted, others
to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and digested “ Francis Bacon
Writing :
Writing is a mode of communicating a message in written form using words for a
specific purpose. It reveals the ability to think clearly and to use the language
effectively. It is a productive skill. It Includes written words, graphs , charts ;
reports, diagrams, pictures etc. The different forms of written communication are
Letters, Memos, Circulars, Bulletins, Reports etc .
Writing is a joy if the basic purpose is clear;
Effective writing means getting things done
Purpose is twofold : To inform & To request and persuade for action
Clarity in writing is a must; Standard language avoiding complex sentences
hackneyed and outdated words and expressions to be used.
Accurate facts & figures only to be given
It should be grammatically correct with appropriate words used
It should be brief& crisp; Keep it short and simple ( KISS )
Tone of the language should be positive and polite
I attitude to be avoided and YOU attitude to be included
Gender bias/sexist language to be avoided
Effectiveness can be measured in terms of the speed with which the action
is initiated
Stages of written communication
1. Pre drafting: idea formulation and refinement
2. Drafting : scripting
3. Post drafting : Revising , writing , rewriting and making the final document
There shall be sufficiently long Intervals and short breaks in between each stage
to be more effective
In other words, the stages can be told as 1).Define the problem 2).Gather material
3).Organize material 4).Revise 5.) Complete the task
Advantages of written communication
Written communication serves as a Permanent Record; it is easier to understand;
It can be composed in advance; It demands accuracy; It has very wide access. Very
special care has to be taken while communicating in written form.
Some of the disadvantages of written communication are: It is time consuming. It
is not suitable for illiterate; It is very formal; Immediate feedback not possible
Conversation Skills
Conversation is a an informal talk in which people exchange views, feelings and
Some points to be noted are :
It is a social Conversation ; chit chat &togetherness
Dialogue; not a monologue; spontaneous
Controls needed; turn taking to direct; very much needed in business
Managing negative responses
Avoid parallel conversation: eg: export firm
Sequential; Reflection & Empathy; Sense of timing
Barriers to Communication
Communication is complete and perfect when the listener understands the
message in the same sense and spirit as the communicator indents. If something
hinders this is an obstacle which is the barrier to effective communication.
Any parameter that limits the purpose or channel of communication between the
transmitter and the receiver is a barrier to communication. A communication
barrier may limit or reduce the ease at which we communicate and hence the
name barrier. The barriers to effective communication may be different for
different situations
It can be categorized as :
Semantic Barriers/Linguistic Barriers
Physical Barriers
Organizational Barriers
Psychological Barrier
Semantic/ Linguistic Barriers
This is the problems and obstructions in the process of coding and decoding the
idea into words or other impressions. Here, language and linguistics act as a
 When there is no common language in large organizations and culturally
diversified multinational companies the semantic problem will arise in
greater levels since the translators also may fail at times.
 The words denote and connote different meanings in different contexts
and different cultures
 Poor vocabulary and command over language also contribute to semantic
Physical Barriers
Physical Barriers to Communication is the environmental and natural conditions
which act as obstacles in sending message from sender to receiver effectively.
 Physical barriers like doors, walls, distance, etc. may hinder the effective
 Organizational environment or interior workspace design problems,
technological problems and noise are the parts of physical barriers.
 Disturbance in hearing due to thunders, telephone call disconnection,
problems in television reception, message not being sent in chat, etc. are
some examples of physical barriers of communication.
Different types of Physical Barriers:
 Distortion: Distortion happens when the meaning of message gets lost
during the handling process in communication while encoding and
decoding. It is related to meaning of the message which is affected by
human perception.
 Noise: Noise is the disruption found in the environment of the
communication. It interrupts the communication process and acts as a
barrier as it makes the message less accurate, less productive and unclear.
It might even prevent the message from reaching the receiver.
 Distance: in many forms is a physical barrier.
 Improper time like the instruction given the last hour; Future action plan,
decided now.
 Inadequate or overloaded information.
 Physiological Barriers may result from the receiver’s physical state. For
example, a receiver with reduced hearing may not grasp the entirety of a
spoken conversation, especially if there is significant background noise.
Psychological Barriers
Psychological barriers arise from motives, emotions, social values and different
perceptions. The psychological state of the receiver will influence how the
message is received.
Examples and situations of Psychological barriers.
 If someone has personal worries and is stressed, they may be preoccupied
by personal concerns and cannot receive the real content of the message.
 Anger is another example of a psychological barrier to communication. An
angry person may speak anything irrationally which that person may have
to regret later on. This may lead to misinterpretation of the message
conveyed too.
 People with low self-esteem may be less assertive and therefore may not
feel comfortable communicating - they may feel shy about saying how they
really feel, or read negative sub-texts into messages they hear.
 Selective Perception is another barrier since there are many limitations for
our sensory receptors.
 Premature evaluation amounts to a hindrance to the wholeness of the
 Different Comprehension of Reality: Abstraction and Inference; ; It is not
the reality, but the interpretation which we call reality
 Attitude to superiors and subordinates: Complexes and fear factor
 Poor Listening: Listening is the ability to accurately receive and interpret
messages. When the receiver is prepared to listen only the desired and
neglect undesired parts, the intent of the message will not be fully
 Emotions: positive/ negative/ excited, perplexed, frightened
 Egotism, Hostility and Prejudices are three main psychological barriers to
effective communication
 Effective Communication requires a soothed heart and a silent mind
Organizational Barriers
The Organizational Barriers refers to the hindrances in the flow of information
between and among the management and employees that might result in a
commercial failure of an organization.
 Negative Organizational climate: Rigidity in the rules and regulations causes
hindrance and discouragement whereas flexibility encourages
 Absence of Communication policy: Lack of staff meetings will affect free
flow of information. Wrong choice of channels of communication also will
result to ineffective communication.
 Excessive authority layers: More hierarchical layers will result in gaps and
distortion of the message
 Filtering: Filtering happens when the sender manipulates the information
so as to wrongly influence the receiver. The major determinant of filtering
is the number of levels in an organization's structure.
Mechanical Barriers
Mechanical communication barriers are technical sources of interference in the
communication process like the noisy communication machines or instruments,
absence of means of communication instruments, transmission interruption and
power failure. This is not limited to media forms such as radio and television; it
also includes machines used by those with hearing or speech impairments.
 Noise : resulting from lack of overhauling and maintenance of mechanical
and electrical communication tools. Defects in the machinery may also
cause noise that creates a mechanical communication barrier.
 Transmission Interruption: Possible signal losses and interruption of
services in email, fax machines, cell phones etc..
 Absence of means : Lack of needed and effective storage and transmission
and receiving technical instruments
 Power Failure : Electricity interruption is a mechanical barrier
To overcome Barriers
 Requires good effort at various levels; should start from within in the case
of individual; from top in the case of Organizations
 Overcoming perceptional barriers
 Effective listening
 Create Synergic Environment
 Convey the emotional and intellectual content of the message
 Use appropriate language
 Use proper channel
 Encourage open communication
 Ensure two way communication
 Make best use of body language
Barriers can also be classified as
Sender oriented ( badly expressed message, loss in transmission, semantic
problems, over/under communication, “ I “ attitude, Prejudices etc
Receiver oriented( poor retention, Inattentive listening, early evaluation, Interest
& attitude, conflicting information, Resistance to change, Arguments,
Medium & channel oriented
Barriers to communication in nut shell
 Communication is complete when the message is conveyed in the same
sense and spirit that sender intends to convey.
 It does not happen because of some barriers which are classified as
Semantic, Physical, Organizational and Psychological and Mechanical
 Semantic barriers are concerned with problems and obstructions in the
process of coding and decoding the message including different language,
different context of different words and poor vocabulary.
 Physical barriers include Noise, improper timings, distance, and improper
load of information.
 The Organizational barriers include rigid organizational rules, wrong
choice of channel, too formal organizational relationship.
 Psychological barriers include selective perceptions. Premature
evaluation, wrong attitude of superiors and subordinates, egotism,
prejudices, hostilities, negative emotions etc.
 Mechanical barriers include the technical and electrical related issues
A note on Noise
Noise can be defined as a physical sound or a mental disturbance that disrupts
the flow of communication reducing the clarity and effectiveness of
communication. Noise can distract both the sender and receiver. It is any
distortion or hindrance that prevents the transmission of the message from the
mind of the sender to the mind of the receiver
Noise may be Physical, Psychological, Written and Visual.
 Physical Noise: Easier since it is physically traceable and controlled;
 Psychological Noise : Different forms; Mental turbulence, Preoccupation,
Ego hang ups, Tiredness, Pre conceived ideas and notions etc
 Written Noise : Language issues; Grammar errors; improper words; Printing
errors etc
 Visual Noise: When too much information is presented at once through
visual aids, such as graphs and flow charts. Unnecessary , out of place ,
obscene, irrelevant ambiguous , confusing visual symbols
Manifestations of noise: Many gestures can be spotted as noise like restless
tapping, changing positions, looking away etc..
To overcome the noise: Careful learning and sincere attention and observation
can make one learn to manage these over a period of time. Question answer;
jotting down the points etc may help to manage noise
Business Letters
Business letters, like personal letters, are a piece of conversation by post
The objective of a personal letter is to establish a personal contact or to keep
alive a personal relationship. The business letter is to achieve a definite
commercial purpose like selling product, seeking information, creating good will
etc. They are formal and to the point. They are useful in introducing trade
relations and promoting business transactions. They are convenient and
In personal letters, heart dominates whereas in business letters head dominates
Functions of Business Letters
Record and Reference: A pale ink is better than the sharpest memory
Evidence of Contracts : Fully recognized by courts of law
Public Relations : Salient ambassadors of organizations
Business in Remote : Distance does not matter
Parts of a Business Letter
Heading : Printed letter head; if not clearly written
Date : Two or three lines below the heading
Inside Address : Below the date line, the recipient’s name, address in full
Salutation : Below the inside address, the complimentary salutation
Reference & Subject: For inviting special attention to the subject matter
Body: The main part of the letter; should be clear and specific; paragraphs
Complimentary Close : After the body of the letter, complimentary close.
Signatures : Signature with name and designation of the signatory below
Reference Initials : Initials of Signatory, Writer and Typist
Enclosures : Where ever there are
CC & BCC : Carbon Copy & Blind Carbon Copy
PS : Post Script
Business Letter Formats/Styles
 Full Block: Everything starts on the LHS: No typing adjustments needed;
looks impressive and pleasant due to the informal look.
 Block : Date and Complimentary closure & signature on the Right and the
rest Left flushed: Balanced look
 Semi Block : Date, Complimentary closure & Signature right justified; inside
address and salutation left justified; paragraphing style
 Simplified Format: all left flushed like the full block without salutation and
complimentary closures ( western practice; avoids gender bias )
To make the Business Letters Attractive
Business letters are the salient ambassadors of organizations. Hence, it should be
clear and free from confusing, without complicating phrases and with accurate
facts. Attractive stationery to be used for business letters and those are to be to
be finely dispatched. A business letter reflects the personality of the Organization.
 Write naturally : from intellect and not from emotions; need to do a lot of
intrapersonal communication
 Take care of Language: Avoid wordy phrases, vague terms and outworn
expressions. KISS; active voice; retain readers’ attention
 Avoid the outdated words, ‘ herewith, aforesaid, under mentioned etc
 Clarity of the Message: Should be unambiguous and self-explanatory; no
abstract and vague word; could relate to their daily business experience
 Brevity : Do not overload; Try to condense; Use one word substitution;
make sure for the completeness leaving no chance for further letter
 Accuracy : Never bluff ; Make sure the facts are presented regarding dates,
places etc..
 Check the tone: Tone is the emotional content of the letter: Formal,
Informal, Persuasive, humorous, positive or negative
Characteristics of a good letter
An effective letter gives the positive impression and impels the receiver to do the
jobs in the writer wants.
1. Simplicity: A business letter should be simple and to be written in a lucid (easy)
language so that it is clear to the receiver. The language can be similar to that of
social letters as long as formality is maintained. The letter should make an instant
appeal to the reader.
2. Conversational style: Should have the feel of face to face communication.
Letters are the written media by which sender of the message speaks to the
3. Clarity of goal: The writer should be clear about what he wishes to convey. He
should keep all the facts and figures of the information handy. The letter should
be written in such a way that it reflects the goal clearly and easily. There must not
be any ambiguity.
4. Public relation: Business letters reflect the image of the organization enhancing
the organization’s goodwill and public relations.
5. The ‘You’ attitude: The business letters should be written keeping in mind the
reader’s point of view. For this the ‘You’ attitude should be adopted. The I’s and
‘We’s’ should be avoided and more of ‘You’s’ should be included. This will show
the sender’s interest in the reader.
6. Courteous: Courtesy implies that the letter seeks favour politely and expresses
gratitude profusely for the favours done. Thus the language of the letter should
be polite and appealing.
7. Persuading: The basic idea of a business correspondence is to persuade the
reader be it a sales letter, letter of enquiry or letter of complaint.
8. Sincere: This means that the readers should be able to believe what the letter
says. It should not hide reality. It should also be free from hypocrisy making tall
claims. The matter should be stated directly and genuinely.
9. Positive language: The words of the letter should be positive. The use of
negative words gives an impression of negative outlook and approach.
10. Due emphasis: Proper emphasis should be on the content. This requires
logical thinking on the part of the writer. The writer should be clear about what
he wants to convey.
11. Coherence: Unless arranged in a logical way the information will lose its
meaning and thus the objectivity of the correspondence will be lost.
12. Care for culture: No words should be used which offends the cultural
background of the reader. The best way is to avoid use of culturally derived
words, slangs, colloquialisms etc
13. Tactful approach: The writer should adopt a tactful approach while writing a
business letter. It can be a direct approach letter, an indirect approach letter or a
middle approach letter depending on the message to be conveyed. Generally
good news is conveyed directly where as a bad news or a complaint adopts
indirect or middle approach.
14. Ethical standard: Although business correspondence should be persuasive
and tactful, without ethics they will be fruitless. It may pay in short run but it will
not reap harvest in long run.
15. Brief but complete: Brevity is the soul of correspondence. But briefness does
not mean incomplete. Thus the quality of brevity and completeness should be
there in business letter.
Types of Business Letters
Direct Requests
Be persuasive
Link Ideas and Sentences
Be Clear and Brief
State the main idea first
Indicate the advantages to the reader
 Use pattern of listing for sub-points
 Specific request for action
 Be tactful and polite ( Instead of Thanking you in advance; Waiting
for a positive response.. I would be grateful if..I would appreciate if..)
Inquiry Letters
 Clarity in making the Inquiry
 Adhere to the principles of politeness
 Note: Do not intermingle issues while making an enquiry; Do not give room
to give monosyllable answers.
Letters of Reference Request
State the position you apply for
You orientation ( Your reference would certainly count..
Enclose Resume/CV wherever possible
Courteous and Polite Close
Legal Transactions letters
Very formal and in definite Format
Letter to be written in a passive Tone
Letters of Transmittal / Covering letters
Identify what is being sent
Specify any action to be taken
Identify the purpose for which the papers or cheque is being sent
Sale Letters
 It is a tough job to draft a good sale letter
 Streamline the objective and identify the target
 The purpose is : attracting new customers, retaining interest in old
customers, creating good impact, facilitating retention about the product
 Be innovative and Creative
AIDA Plan :
A : Capture Attention
I : Arouse Interest
D : Create Desire
A : Inspire the reader into Action
Good news Letters
Relatively easy to draft
State the main idea or the best news
Provide explanation & details
Close on a positive, friendly note
Maintain You attitude
Bad News / Refusal Letters
Do not begin with a negative note
The goal to be emphasized
Language to be positive
Do not use direct statement of ‘ no ‘
There should not be a hint of apology
Maintain good will
Indirect approach is good
Courteous and polite close
Letter of Acceptance/ Acknowledgement
Acknowledge all correspondence
Provide a record
Show courtesy
Avoid misunderstanding
State all the details
Reference Letters: Take prior approval
Letters of Recommendations: period of association, nature of relationship,
assessment; Specific, but avoiding incidences; strength and weaknesses
Employment letters: Invitation for test, interview, selection, appointment :
specify the time date and venue and the documents to be produced
Appointment letter; Nature of job and appointment; salary and perquisites ;
date and time..
Enquiries and Replies
 Many types: mostly to search the best suited terms and conditions;
 What is needed to be specified like; item, description, specifications,
commercial terms and conditions; delivery and payment terms
 Solicited and Unsolicited enquiries
 Opening and Closing sentences
Orders and Execution Letters
 After the verification , orders are issued
 Full details… References, part numbers, specs, terms and conditions. listing
of items etc..
Acknowledgement letters:
 Thank you
 Acceptance
 Mention what is accepted in specific terms
Complaints & Grievances
Statement of what has gone wrong with proof
Statement of Loss with factual figures
An appeal to Suppliers’ ethics and reputation
A formal request for adjustments
 Drafting : Accurate, Factual, clearly explain, State the desired steps, Do not
loose temper and tone, Be courteous, No offensive words, avoid threats, do
not attribute faults to anyone specifically unless very sure.
 Close with a formal and reasonable request
When to write a Complaint letter
Goods not received on time
Damages goods
Quality compromise
Unsatisfactory works
Improper function of a product
Delivery at wrong place
Note: In addition, you may have to send complaint letters to government
Adjustment letters
 Complaint letters are not nuisance; it gives a chance for relook; Since the
retention of the customer is important, adjustment letters are very keen
When the Customer is write:
Acknowledge accepting the mistake pin pointed
Grant adjustments in clear terms
Express regret on the negligence
Let a senior officer sign the letter
Lose with a positive expression/ statement
Apology wherever needed
Two ways: You can own the mistake or write a letter of correction
The shorter the better may not work since you have to explain the situation
and offer the compensation adjustments etc
When the customer is not correct
Very carefully worded letters
Be sympathetic but very firm on your stand
Beginning and concluding sentences
Reassurance of future cordial business relations
Circular Letters
Information and message to a Large number with specific objective like: opening
of a new branch, change in address, reduction in sale price, admission,
retirement, death of partner, entering into joint venture, introduction of new
product line, organizing a seminar obtaining an agency business etc
AIDA principle
Give a personal touch
Precise and informative
Thank the reader
Main content; explain the benefit
Memos, Orders, Circulars and Notes
Memos: Memorandum – a note to help the memory
Conveys the routine messages
Submitting periodical reports
Changes in the Organistions; Instructions to the staff
Confirming a decision conveyed over phone
Calling for explanation of a misconduct
Asking for some specific information
Granting/ withdrawing some permissions
 Inexpensive,
 Convenient,
 Future reference,
 Quick
 Establishes Accountability
 Disadvantages too : Chain of understanding is better than the chain of
(Just like any other letter: pre writing, writing and rewriting stages are done)
Office Orders
Authoritative directions flowing downward
Posting, transfer, section change, disciplinary action etc
Specify clearly; keep language simple etc
Careful as it is very sensitive
Office Notes
 Among officers of same rank
 Giving and seeking information
 Horizontal communication
State your request Upfront : Polite, undemanding & personal tone; Direct
approach; Be specific and precise
Explain and Justify your Request : Explain the importance; Mention the potential
benefit in responding; most important point first; break into individual topic
Request for specific action: Courteous tone; make it easy to comply by giving
appropriate contact info; express gratitude; state the deadlines etc
Email :
The fastest and current
No paperwork needed
Avoid capitals and block style
Jot down comments
Stored on hard disk
Formalities are dropped after a couple of communications
It is more of a conversation
Handling of mails: Different files and folders; A note can be added when others’
letter is circulated
Diary Maintenance
An informal process of writing
Helps the writer to unburden and unwind
Helps as a record of happenings
Date it
Personal and confidential;
Business diarizing : Important tool get reminded of the things to be
accomplished and attended to on a day to day basis
A application letter is written by the applicant to sell his abilities, skills and
It may be in two ways:
a) In response to an advertisement or
b) Self-initiated.
In either case the job application letter should attract the interest of the the
reader. The Curriculum Vitae ( CV) or Resume’ to be attached too. Job application
letter is not a Company business letter; it is more of a personal letter or
application. Hence, it is on the plain paper and the layout shall be
From: your imaginary address
To : address of the Company to whom the application is sent
Kind Attn : The name and designation of the Officer whose name has been
specified in the advertisement ; if not , this can be omitted
Reference/ Subject : The reference of the advertisement
The body of the letter : This is where you have to sell yourselves briefly and
Complimentary close
Enclosures : CV/ Resume/ Reference letters etc..
To catch the readers’ attention:
Innovate and apply strategies in the opening paragraph.
Ask yourselves: why should the reader go through it;
Attention line and reference
To make the letter individualistic, highlight specific traits
When unsolicited Application letters are sent, you may resort to as below
 Show your strongest skill : example :“ if you need a regional specialist
meeting targets consistently while fostering strong customer relationships,
please consider my qualifications”
 Describe your Understanding of the Job:
 Mention the name of a known person from whom you got the information
When Solicited applications are sent, please do as below also in addition to the
usual other routine writings
Refer to the advertisement / Identify from where you got information :
example : “ Your job posting on January 1,2020 in Economic Times was noticed by
To express your confidence in applying, something like this with suitable
modifications from case to case, can be used
“While applying for this post, may I confidently inform you that ten years of my
experience with the ABC Ltd would equip me to serve your Company in a very
meaningful manner.”
To express and convey your caliber and effectiveness, something like below
could be tried.
“Using the skills gained from three semesters of college training in business
communication, I could develop an effective collection system for ABC Ltd. that
reduced the bad debt position by 20 pct.”
Curriculum Vitae (CV )
 CV is course of life; factual record of candidate’s qualifications and
experience; Chronological statement of biographical details. CV is Objective
in nature.
 Name, DOB, address etc; educational qualification in order; extracurricular
activities; Projects undertaken, Work experience
 It does not fully reveal on the personality of the candidate.
 Present qualifications and experiences in reverse order means from present
to the past
 It is the summary of Skills, Accomplishments and Education
 No specific format and the purpose is to attain the goal of getting a chance
for an interview
 Resume to include; Name and Address ; Career objective, Qualifications;
Course work, Projects etc; Experience; Skills , Abilities; Activities & awards;
References ( only if it is asked ) ; Other personal details at length are not
 Career Objective or Goal : It has to be directly related to the post applied;
Avoid I and my
 Educational or Professional Qualifications: Stress on the qualification in
relation to the post; grade may be highlighted
 Related course work, Projects, Award etc: Relevant items only
 Work experience: Date & Year, Organization; Job title, Responsibilities,
significant contribution etc
 Skills & Abilities: This is a must
It is a sale piece, hence make it attractive
Resume Format
 Heading like letter head..
 Job/Career Objective : should not be vague; Be in line with the company
activities and not something unrelated
 Specialization
 Education
 Scholarships/Awards
 Achievements
 Strengths : team player; self-confident, learner
 Work experience : instead of ‘no’ activities
 References
Some additional points if needed to be used especially when questions are
asked to answer in the application format
 A situation necessitating your direct involvement: leadership qualities to
be evident from the description
 Situation differing from others: Be assertive and logical; own responsibility
of your action
 Describing a challenging situation undertaken: Communicate growth in
terms of learning, innovating and contributing ( This has to be carefully
done for not communicating wrongly; ideally if this is asked only
 Event or experience: Present motivational factors
 Add anything of you : positive personality traits
 What influenced your course of thinking : do not be abstract ; recalling
people should be carefully done
Note: Refer a book and learn a good Resume, CV and a Job application letter
A report means an account given or opinion formally expressed for
specific purpose after proper inquiry, investigation and consideration of
facts affecting the situation.
Business report is an objective and planned presentation of facts to one
or more persons for specific business purpose.
“ A business report is an orderly, objective communication of factual
information that serves some business purpose “
Definition of Report explained
Orderly : not casual exchange of information
Objective : No prejudices, presumptions, ideas
Communication: Transmission of meaning and understanding
Factual Information: Only facts are to be included
Business Purpose: Should serve a specific business purpose
 Variety of reports: Feasibility reports, Periodic sales reports, Production
reports, annual company reports & reports to ensure compliance with the
statutory requirements
 It may be Upward/ External/ Oral/ Written/ very formal
Types of Reports
 On the basis of Legal Requirement
 On the basis of Formality : The formal structure includes: Prefatory parts –
title, reference etc; Body – introduction, text, summary of findings
recommendations; Supplemental parts – appendix, bibliography, index
 On the basis of Frequency : routine annual, auditors, statements etc..
 On the basis of Functions: Progress, Sales etc..
 On the basis of Subject Matter : Marketing, Production, Accounting
 On the basis of Length : Short or Long
 On the basis of Writers : Individual or Committee reports
Steps in Report Writing
 Prewriting
 Writing
 Rewriting
Essentials of a business report
 Clarity : of thought and Expression
 Completeness: to include all the necessary info; Facts, figures, tables,
graphs etc
 Conciseness: Crist & Short ; do not overload
 Objectivity: Impartial ; Honest; without favoritism & victimization
 Accuracy: Wrong information may have unforeseen impacts
 Appearance: Presentation matters; should be Interesting
 Consistency : similar to accuracy
 User Oriented: Purpose is the target
 Relevant: History is fine as long as it is relevant
 Tone : decides the underlying intent and meaning
Check list on Report writings
 Analyze the Situation: Purpose clarification; Identify various goals; Prepare
work plan
 Gather Information: Research; reuse or adapt the existing information with
 Selection of Medium: Based on target/beneficiary of the report
 Organize the information: Direct approach if receptive; Indirect if skeptical
Annual Reports
An annual report is a comprehensive report on a company's activities throughout
the preceding year. Annual reports are intended to give shareholders and other
interested people information about the company's activities and financial
performance. At its most basic, an annual report includes: General description of
the industry or industries in which the company is involved, audited statements of
income, financial position, cash flow, and notes to the statements providing
details for various line items.
You can often find a company's annual reports on the company's own website.
Annual reports can generally be found in the area of the company's website that
contains information for investors.
Annual report is usually the best source of information for most people to
determine the financial health of a company. An annual report gives a basic
overview of the company over the past year. It usually includes: an opening letter
from the CEO, a business profile, a management analysis, and financial data.
Definition : A conversation between two parties that is structured and prepared
to achieve a purpose involving the exchange of information
An employment interview is a meeting during which both you and the prospective
employer ask questions and exchange information
The Typical sequence of the Interview is : Screening; Selection and Final stage
 Structured Interview : series of predetermined questions
 Open ended: Interviewer adapts based on the answers you give
 Panel/Group Interview: Interview board will have more people with
different areas of expertise
 Behavioral Interview: will be asked to relate specific incidents and
experiences from your past : here readymade and stereo-type answers
cannot work
 Situational Interview: Something similar to above except an imaginary
situation is given
 Work Interview: The most realistic; work related; business problems; role
play etc
Types of Interview
Can be classified into eight types
Employment Interviews : Selection of the new employee
Orientation Interviews : Familiarizing the new recruits to the environment
Counseling Interviews : Helping the employee with job related matters
Performance Appraisal Interviews : Evaluation of the performance
Grievance Interviews : Employee complaints redressal
Correctional Interviews : Correction and Change of action plan
Exit Interviews : While leaving the Organization to get feedback
Information Gathering Interviews : Work related from existing employee
Planning the Interview
It is not an easy task as it might sound and much skill is needed to plan an
effective Interview: It includes
 Content of the Interview : purpose concentrated
 Resume : Interviewer to be fully aware of the candidates’ details etc
 Strategy : Specific strategy to conduct the interview in line with the need
 Environment : Just like any environment, the Interview room to be
conducive and comfortable
 Timing of the Interview: Specific timing convenient to all
 Seating arrangement : Space between the Interviewer and the interviewee
depending upon the nature of the Interview
Conducting the Interview
It is more important than the arrangements where the actual process takes place
Opening of the Interview: welcome greeting etc
Building positive relationship: Initiate the dialogue and make comfortable
Explain the purpose of the Interview
A word about the type of questions to be asked : Open questions like “ tell
about yourselves, What are your views on the recent political turmoil in the
country “ etc should be aimed at finding out the personality of the
candidate ; Closed questions like “ Which training course you have passed;
What did you do when your Supervisor got angry with you unnecessarily “
can be aimed at knowing the attitude of the person; Pure subject based
questions also shall be included
Job Interview Checklist
Be ready to make a positive impression in the warm-up stage : alert; greet with a
smile and direct eye contact; firm hand shake; take seat only when asked; listen
for the clues; positive body language like straight
Convey your value to the Organization during the question answer stage : Let
the Interviewer lead the conversation; answer only after the question is finished;
listen carefully; not the monosyllable answers alone; carefully put forward your
questions at the appropriate time.
Close on a strong Note: Watch and listen for sign of going to end; It is appropriate
to ask for time in case the offer is made; Do not bring up salary issue ,but be
prepared to discuss if needed; End with a warm smile and hand shake and thank
Summary ( on Interview )
 An Interview is a purposeful conversation between two parties to achieve
specific objectives
 Should specifically decide on content, purpose and timing of the Interview.
 Should seriously study the Resume; Conducive environment to be created;
Both closed and open questions
 Good preparation; answer clearly, confidently and precisely; honest and
Some Common Interview Questions
Tell us about yourself : “ My name is ……; I am born in TCR and completed my
education there. After graduating from Kerala Varma college, joined JMC in 2019.
I could get an opportunity to do a summer project at IOC in the marketing
division. I believe that I am capable of doing hard work as I am honest and
punctual “
What are your strengths : ( focus on positive things ) “ Keen observation with a
view to learn newer things; Dedicated hard work. Unconditional loyalty “
What are your weaknesses; (Be careful here; some unrelated to the specific job.)
“Uncomfortable in public speaking “
Why do you wish to work in our organization : (Be objective, realistic and
rational) “ A few of the employees here in this company are known to me well ;
they are very happy and content with the working atmosphere and satisfied with
their jobs and the remuneration and benefits received; these attracted me very
much. “
Why have you been changing jobs : ( Carefully answer this without bookish
idealism) I had been fortunate enough to get my previous employments where I
could learn many things ; The reason my job changes were basically to increase
my satisfaction and content levels with the duties I perform and to enjoy better
work atmospheres. Of course, the increased pay and other fringe benefits also
were added attractions.
Tell us how you can contribute: “Besides improving the sales, I am confident to
try to develop some of the untapped niche markets for the unique products of
your Company.” Another one : “ I had the opportunity to attend a recent class
room course on Effective Business Communication when I could find out my
hidden potential of informal communication and I am pretty confident to
influence and improve the internal communication in this company very much
effectively “
If our company will get a contract with some bribes given would you do it:
“Keeping in view of the reputation of this company, I can never even think of it;
moreover, I would not dream of doing anything which hurts my self-respect.”
Your current responsibilities: “Currently I am the Asst. Manger in Finance Dept.
of ABC Ltd. My duties include to keep a watch on all outward payments and its
accounting and documentation together with the banking transactions and the
needed documentation.”
Salary expectations : “ My present salary is 45000; In addition, I get the medical
benefit, Leave travel concession and conveyance allowance. My expectation from
you is in the same terms plus a reasonable house rent allowance and partial
reimbursement of my children’s school fees.”
Group Communication
A group may be defined as “ three or more persons interacting and influencing
one another through the process of Communication “
Types of Groups : Formal or Informal
 Formal groups are explicitly designed and define in the organizational
structure such as committees, task forces et.
 Informal group emerges spontaneously without deliberate design which are
formed on a common interest and aim
Group Communication is indented to share a common goal and communicate
collectively to achieve it. During small group communication the participants
analyze data, evaluate the nature of the problem, decide and provide a possible
solution or procedure.
Group communication is a mode of communication in an organization, between
employers and employees, and employees in teams/groups. Group
communication can further be looked from a marketing perspective as
communicating to a group of people or target customers in order to market a
The purpose of group communication is to exchange information in order to make
decisions, resolve confusion, build rapport and get closer to attaining the business
goal. However, group communication also has an effect on how the individuals in
the group treat each other and feel about each other.
Group Communication skills
Express the feelings in an open but non-threatening way. listen carefully to
others. ask questions to clarify others' ideas and emotions.
Common fate : Sharing a common outcome with other members; (2)
(2) Mutual benefit : An enjoyable, rewarding experience associated with
group membership;
Social structure : A stable organization of relationships among members;
Interaction and communication among members
Self-categorization: Perceiving oneself as a member of the group.
Group Discussion is really a test of interpersonal skills
 This is used as a technique to screen candidates after a written test by
almost all large organization whether it is private or public
 What it primarily evaluates is the ability to effectively inter act in a group
while discussing a given topic.
 The evaluators mainly concentrate on the group dynamics: Group dynamics
is a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a
social group (intragroup dynamics), or between social groups (intergroup
Group Dynamics has 5 Stages :
Forming a group ;
Performing and
A meeting is when two or more people come together to discuss one or more
topics, often in a formal or business setting. Meetings also occur in a variety of
other environments.
There are four main types of meetings:
Information seeking meetings
Decision making meetings
Innovation / planning meeting and
Sales meetings.
Some classify the meetings into 5 as below:
 Formal Meetings.
 Annual General Meeting(AGM).
 Statutory Meetings.
 Board Meetings.
 Informal Meetings.
Need and Importance and planning of Meetings
 Meetings are vitally important – if done well.
 Meetings help people feel included, trusted, and that they are important
team members, as well as giving them the opportunity to contribute to the
success of our companies.
 Meetings and individual one-on-one conversations are fuel that runs our
The most common NEED to have a meeting is to discuss something face to face. It
could be a new idea, a new opportunity, a problem, to brainstorm something,
reach a decision about something or any number of things. But it all comes down
to discussion and face to face interaction.
Why a meeting is important is because it helps a group to reach a common
decision when urgent and crucial matters need to be discussed and brainstormed
through personal interaction. Email or conference call may not effectively iron out
any issues arising in the office. Team meetings are important and an essential part
of building a team and achieving the team's objectives. The meetings are an open
opportunity to come together, reflect on progress and help each other.
A Checklist for planning a meeting
Identify the purpose of the meeting.
Make sure you really need a meeting.
Develop a preliminary agenda.
Select the right participants.
Assign roles to participants.
Decide where and when to hold the meeting and confirm availability of the
 Send the invitation and preliminary agenda to key participants and
stakeholders; Send any reports, pre-reading, or requests for materials that
may require preparation from participants
 Meeting presentation, Press Conference and Press release are to be
planned well in advance
 Prepare yourself
When planning for a productive meeting you have to ask yourself the who, what
why, where and how and when questions more commonly associated with
 Why? Determine the purpose of the meeting.
 What? Specify the end result of the meeting. (This is especially important
for scrum meetings.)
 Who? Determine who needs to be there.
 What? Specify what information needs to be presented.
 When/Where? Specify schedule of the meeting, such as the date, time,
duration and location.
 Who/How? Notify all attendees in advance by email, text, alerts, etc.
Meeting Notice
A Notice of Meeting of a Company is a document informing the members or
directors of a company about an upcoming meeting. This document specifies the
date, time and place of the meeting and the general nature of the business to be
transacted at the meeting.
Notice of a Meeting should contain
It should be under proper authority.
It should state the name of the organisation.
It should state the day, date, time, and place. ...
It should be well in advance. ...
It should state the purpose and, if possible, the agenda.
It should carry the date of circulation and convener's/secretary's signature.
 It should go to all persons required
Meeting Agenda
Agenda is the list of items to be considered at a meeting. It is also called business
or order of business. It comes from the Latin word agendum (singular) which
means ‘a thing to be done.’ But agenda (the Latin plural) is used as a singular
 It is the route map of the meeting.
 The agenda may be a part of the notice or may be attached as an annexure.
 The convenor/secretary prepares it in consultation with the chairperson
and gets his approval.
 The items of agenda should cover all that is necessary to be considered at
that time. Meetings take time and effort to arrange; hence the agenda has
to be well thought out.
A typical agenda may be as below
1. Apologies from absent members (need not be written previously)
2. Condolences if any (may or may not be written previously)
3. Reading and approval of minutes of the last meet
4. Matters arising out of previous meet’s minutes (this need not always be
5. Urgent and non-controversial items
6. Matters requiring closer discussion and debates
7. Any new, on-the-spot items with the approval of the chairman
8. Date of the next meet.
The last item in a meeting is a vote of thanks to the chairman but this need to be
mentioned. The items are mentioned briefly or elaborately according to the
practice or need.
Minutes of the Meeting
The minutes of a meeting are the record of the discussions/decisions done and
made in the meeting.
 They have an official status;
 they are useful in law, and in some cases required by law to be written.
 Minutes are final when they are approved by the members of the group to
which they relate, generally in the next meeting, and signed by the
Press Conference
A press conference or news conference is a media event in which newsmakers
invite journalists to hear them speak and, most often, ask questions. A joint press
conference is the one which held between two or more talking sides.
Press conferences bring reporters together for a story. A press conference is a
staged public relations event in which an organization or individual presents
information to members of the mass media
Press Release
It is an official statement issued to newspapers giving information on a particular
A press release, news release, media release, press statement or video release is
an official statement delivered to members of the news media for the purpose of
providing information an official statement or making an announcement. Press
releases can be delivered to members of the media both physically and
A presentation is the process of presenting a topic to an audience. It is typically a
demonstration, introduction, lecture, or speech meant to inform, persuade,
inspire, motivate, or to build good will or to present a new idea or product.
Giving an effective presentation means working with both the audience and the
“ A sales presentation" is an example
Elements of a Presentation:
Mastery of the subject:
A friendly feeling for the audience:
Body of the presentation
Study the product technically
6 Types of Presentations
Providing Information.
Teaching a Skill.
Reporting Progress.
Selling a Product or Service.
Making a Decision.
Solving a Problem.
Visual supports for presentation
Visual presentation refers to the expression of ideas using visual aids such as
visual multimedia. Like television screens, web pages, environmental contexts
retail displays and road signs, visual communication is virtually everywhere.
Visual aids are exactly what they sound like: a visual support to you while you
stand and speak. The most popular visual aids for business presentations are
graphs and charts, which are visual representations of data and their relationships
to other data. Examples include tables, line graphs, bar charts, pie charts, etc
Presentation preparation
Maintain a consistent visual style.
Use good visuals and graphics.
Avoid clutter.
Don't get too fancy with fonts.
Use color carefully.
Bring it to life with animation wherever necessary
Create eye-catching charts.
To make a presentation Effective
Show your Passion and Connect with your Audience.
Focus on your Audience's Needs.
Keep it Simple: Concentrate on your Core Message.
Smile and Make Eye Contact with your Audience.
Start Strongly.
Remember the 10-20-30 rule for slideshows.( According to the 10/20/30
rule, a PowerPoint presentation should have ten slides, should not be more
than twenty minutes, and contain font of thirty points.)
 Tell anecdotes and stories.
Corporate Communication
Corporate communication is the practice of developing, cultivating and
maintaining a corporate identity or brand image.
The corporate communications team provides initiatives to mold company image,
communicate with internal and external audiences, and sustain a long-term
positive reputation.
Corporate communication is a set of activities involved in managing and
orchestrating all internal and external communications aimed at creating
favorable point of view among stakeholders on which the company depends.
Scope and Importance of Corporate Communication
The scope of corporate communication includes
Internal communications,
Public relations,
Social media,
Customer communications and
Investor relations.
When combined, these elements of corporate communication strengthen your
company's brand and presence in the marketplace.
One of the benefits of corporate communication is that it helps to keep
employees informed about the direction of the company. This helps to boost
morale, increase engagement and help employees to understand what the future
of the company holds for them.
Importance of Corporate Communication
The importance of corporate communication includes:
 Establishing a strong company brand that is recognizable through all
corporate communication
 Ensuring that all employees from the top down know how to communicate
that brand and feel comfortable doing so
 Building brand trust both inside and outside the organization
 Creating open channels of communication that allow for feedback, criticism
and positive reinforcement
 Engaging with customers and clients and providing them a voice as well as a
look into your company
 Enhancing transparency with employees, shareholders and the public
 Keeping your staff on track with goals and company messaging
Components of Corporate Communication
Corporate branding.
Corporate and organizational identity.
Corporate responsibility.
Corporate reputation.
Crisis communication.
Internal/employee communication.
Investor relations.
Public relations: issues management and media relations.
Role of Social Media
Social media are interactive computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the
creation or sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of
expression via virtual communities and networks.
The emergence of social media has created a new avenue for facilitating daily
information and communication needs. As technology grows and expands our
range of communication, social media is becoming a vital tool for daily social
interaction. It creates opportunity for people to interact with each other in a way
that is both helpful and essential to socially motivate people. The rapid fire quick
communication style that captivates the older generation, the newer generation
has shifted our conversations from ‘face-to-face’ instances to ‘through –thescreen’ ones.
Social Media is described as the collection of online communication channels
dedicated to community based input, interaction, content sharing and
collaboration. Some of the commonly known communication websites are
Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Pinterest. With the help of this websites people
can share memories, reconnect with friends, plan events, and communicate
almost instantaneously. The social media has positive as well as negative impacts
on communication skills.
 Role of social media in business communication is building a conversation
with one's clients and consumers. Companies are successfully using social
media to drive sales, build traffic, find employees, build community, and
create a positive, well-known brand.
 Social media is a good platform for feedback.
 Reviews and customer loyalty are more benefits of using social media for
 The publicly shared opinions, word of mouth, will develop customer trust
and loyalty.
The Reasons for Social Media
Improved Brand awareness
Cost effectiveness
Engage with your customers easily
Improved brand loyalty
Healthier customer satisfaction
Market place awareness
More brand authority and Increased traffic
Please Note: The above is the notes compiled and written in line with the
Syllabus; points and details and texts taken from various books, internet etc;
what is included in the notes is only the brief points which you have to develop
with additional descriptions wherever necessary.
Joy Joseph
[email protected]