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Emancipation Proclamation
- Jan 1st 1863
- Abolished slavery in areas of rebellion
- Envision freedom for most slaves
- Black en admitted to army
- Reunifying and reestablishing the nation after four years of
division and civil war
13TH amendment
- Abolishes slavery everywhere in the nation
14th amendment
- Rights of Citizenship to anyone born or naturalized in US
- Prevents states from violating or restricting civil rights
- Makes fed gov responsible for enforcing civil rights
15th amendment
- Right to vote and groups are soon reenrolling blanks across the
10% Plan
- Issued by Lincoln during civil war
- 10% loyalty oath
Wade-Davis Bill
- Proposed by racial republicans in congress
- Secession is treason to be punished
- Keep confed from returning to power
- Give civil rights and the vote to blacks
Freedmens Bureau
- Chartered by congress to aid to ex slaves in the form of food,
medical care, education, limiting attempts to distribute land
- Only for a year
- Contracts grant a share of the crop in exchange for tools and land
Vagrancy Laws
- Restrict black movement and forced labor if convicted
Radical Republicans
- Presume they will lead reconstruction though laws that promote
equality, right to vote, conditions for state read mission, etc.
Black Codes
Military Reconstruction Act
- Military rule to enforce civil rights
- States have to write new constitution that accepts civil rights and
the 14th amendment, 15th amendment
- Generals will serve as military governors and army will protect
black rights and voting till they do
- Northerners who went south after the war
- Most were trying to help rebuild or help ex slaves
- White southerners who cooperate with Reconstruction, often
opposed secession and from places without slaves
- White southerners who regain control of the stare governments
in the late 1800’s and put in place segregation
- “Saved” the south from corruption and racial equality
Ku Klux Klan
- Formed in 1866 as a veterans group
- Almost immediately transformed into a political terror
- Specific role in redemption: use terror to ensure white supremacy
and the election of redeemers
Us vs. Cruikshank/Colfax massacre
- Colfax county Louisiana
- White mob attacked a group of blacks and killed 150 blacks at a
Louisiana courthouse to keep them from voting
- Cruikshank and others were arrested for violating enforcement
Compromise of 1877
Lost cause
- Southerners say they were doomed to loose the war (less
industry, smaller population)
- Sees pre war south as good
- “North won the war but south won the peace”
Jim Crow laws
- Established segregation
Please bs Ferguson
- Blacks in New Orleans challenged segregation in cars
New South
- The south begins industrializing and diversifying in this period
The Frontiers thesis
- The frontier west formed American democracy
Battle of the Little Big Horn
- Lt. Colonel George Custer encounters a large group of natives
- Ignores orders not to attack
- Probably largest gathering of natives ever
- Custards men completely wiped out
Wounded Knee
- Wovoka: a Paiute Indian from Utah – orphaned and raise among
- Lakota add a war like element
Dawes severalty act
- Officially enacts assimilation
o Divide tribal land int farm plots of 160 acres and distribute
o Schools teacher white cultural habits and skills
- Assimilation did not work as intended
o Loose nativeness, become prosperous whites
- America is being transformed into a mass, intercontinental
economic system
Transcontinental Railroad
- Omaha to Sacramento
- Huge land grants
- Complicated in Utah in 1869
Credit Mobilier
- Finance company set up by RR’s to help coordinate loans, grants,
etc with federal gov
Cattle drives
- The drive of longhorns from Texas to Abilene
Homestead act of 1862
- Allows for land to be obtained for free from govt
- People accomplish tasks by sharing work, tools, equipment
Exodisters and Benjamin “Pap” singleton
- Black migrants who flee in 1878 to establish pioneer colonies in
western Kansas
- Ability to control price in an industry through a lack of
- Little or no involvement in business activity by government
Vertical integration
- Unify aspects of production, manufacture, distribution, etc.
together under one firm
Horizontal integration
- Buying up all competing firms
- Place control and assets of several companies under out of state
board of directors
Frederick Winslow Taylor and scientific management
- Study manufacturing processes and organizations to find the most
effective to procure
Mass marketing
- Incentive to develop the big corporations
Sears and roebuck
- Helps create national awareness of the products of huge firms
Robber barons vs industrial statesmen
- We’re they greedy, corrupt, selfish, thieves,
John d Rockefeller
- Standard oil
Andrew Carnegie
- Carnegie steel (now us steal)
J.P. Morgan
- Creates the investment bank
New immigrants vs old immigrants
- New (southern and Eastern Europe)
- Old ( Pre civil war, northern and Western Europe)
Ellis island and the experience
- Immigrants take steamship to Ellis island
- Admittances to US through physical and questions
- Immigration of whole towns men similar people in neighborhoods
Bosses and political machines
- Parties recruit immigrants by landing them jobs and getting them
places to live in exchange for votes
Brick and mortar Catholicism
- Catholics begin decades of building Churches, schools,
orphanages, hospitals, etc
- Prejudice against the foreign born
Thomas Malthus
- How book says population will inevitably outstrip food production
David Ricardo and the iron law of wages
- Always pay the lowest wages
Social Darwinism
- Societies evolve by survival of the fittest just as animals do
- Forced sterilization, abortion, etc. on retarded, infirm, and racial
groups to improve genetics
Eugene vs debs
Pullman strike
Company towns
- Factories provides housing, police, sewer, stores
Knights of labor
- Labor union and a arterial brotherhood trying to create a sense of
- Unskilled workers and immigrants
- 8 hour days
American federation of labor
- Skilled workers
- Non political
o Focused strictly on making improvements in the workplace
Hay market affair
- 1886 strike in Chicago led by anarchist
o Bomb kills police
- Sentenced to death though likely innocent
- One anarchist is a knight of labor and they are discredited
Gospel of wealth
- Andre Carnegie
- Wealthy must give back what they accumulated
- Allow poor to improve themselves
Social gospel
- Christianity must address social problems and the poor
Populism/peoples party
- Farmers party
- Use say government activity and regulations is the solution to
bank and railroad
- Print money based on silver
- Regulate banks
- Gov ownership of railroads
- Appeal to ordinary people
- Monopolies and political machines have created mass poverty
and corrupt democracy
- Use law and regulations to reform business and gov
- Diff with populism – Easter cities and progressivism begin as
populism dies off
Woman’s suffrage
- 1920 19th amendment is made allowing women to vote ;;;;;;;;;;;;
Jane Addams, settlement houses, hull houses
Ida Tarbell
Jacob Riis
Uptown Sinclair
Sherman antitrust act and trust-bounding
Explain how ex-slaves in the South asserted or received new
freedoms through mobility, organizations, and constitutional
amendments. Explain various ways that white southerners limited
and denied these rights and liberties through law, labor contracts, and
coordinating political activity with violence. Identify how
Reconstruction helped blacks acquire full rights in the long-term.
Ex slaves gained civil rights and freedoms through many ways, from the
14th amendment granting them citizen ship, to the 15ht amendment
allowing them to vote who comes into power. But what really helped
them was the 13th amendment abolishing slavery all together. But it all
started with the emancipation proclamation which abolished slavery in
all parts of rebellion. Along with this we also se the Wade-Davis bill.
Brought together by radical republican. This bill not only denied the
confederates power but also was another playing part in the
abolishment of slavery. We also see help from the Freedman’s bureau
which was Chartered by congress to aid to ex slaves in the form of food,
medical care, education, limiting attempts to distribute land. All though
it only lasted a year it was a huge stepping stone to help ex slaves get
back to society.