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Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage. Monarch Butterflies Qualify for Endangered List. They Still Won’t Be Protected. 1. Officials said they did not have the money or resources to protect the species , eventhough it meets the criteria under the Endangered Species Act. The monarch butterfly is threatened with extinction, but will not come under federal protection because other species are a higher priority, federal officials announced Tuesday. 3. “We conducted an intensive, thorough review using a rigorous, transparent science-based process and found that the monarch meets listing criteria under the Endangered Species Act,” Aurelia Skipwith, the director of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, said in a statement. “However, before we can propose listing, we must focus resources on our higher-priority listing actions.” As part of the decision,  monarchs status will be reviewed each year by the agency and conservation efforts will continue. 4. monarchs,which undertake an astonishing, multigenerational migration from as farnorth as Canada to overwinter in centralMexico — has declined by 75 percent since the 1990s, scientists estimate.  Across the Rocky Mountains, Western monarchs have seen an even more alarming drop. NO CHANGE , however, ; although, yet, A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE captured seized realized A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE monarch’s status’s monarchs’ status monarchs status’ 2. Monarchs have long  grabbed human hearts, fluttering through yards, parks and fields on wings that look like miniature works of art. But their numbers have been decimated by climate-change-fueled weather events and pervasive habitat loss in the United States.  The number of Eastern  A. B. C. D. A. NO CHANGE B. monarchs — which undertake an astonishing, multigenerational migration from as far north as Canada to overwinter in central Mexico, has C. monarchs, which undertake an astonishing, multigenerational migration from as far north as Canada to overwinter in central Mexico, have D. monarchs — which undertake an astonishing, multigenerational migration from as far north as Canada to overwinter in central Mexico — has  Some of this collapse is tied to a need for milkweed, the only plant that monarch caterpillars can eat.  Milkweed has declined across monarch breeding grounds throughout the United States since farmers started using crops that are genetically modified to tolerate Roundup, a brand of weedkiller.  Milkweed often grew among crops, but cannot survive spraying. In recent years, as the monarchs’ plight has grown more dire,  Milkweed was planted along other native plants that nourished the adults for the movement that was emerged. Everyday citizens, advocacy groups and government agencies have planted 500 million milkweed stems, officials said, providing a lifeline for monarchs. 5. To make this paragraph most logical, sentence 3 be placed A. B. C. D. 6. A. NO CHANGE (Milkweed was planted along other native plants that nourished the adults for the movement that was emerged.) B. caterpillars’ milkweed was held along other native plants that nourished the adults for the movement. C. a movement has emerged to sustain the species by planting milkweed for caterpillars along with other native plants that nourish the adults. D. caterpillars were held along other native plants that nourished the adults for the movement. But given the increasing toll from climate change, which  is fueling winter storms that wipe out millions at a time in Mexico, droughts that kill them in the United States and temperature changes that may cause them to migrate too early or too late, efforts to protect monarchs have not been enough. “While all of these people that care about monarchs are doing a lot of positive things, there are a lot of negative things happening at the same time,” said Karen Oberhauser, a conservation biologist at the University of Wisconsin who has studied monarchs since 1985. “We’re running as fast as we can to stay in the same place.” Federal protection would have helped, Dr. Oberhauser said. But officials said Tuesday they do not have the money or resources to protect all the species that need it. “We have to work within the funding resources that we have,” said Lori Where it is now Before sentence 2 After sentence 4 After sentence 5 7. A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE (is fueling) was fuelled are fueling were fuelled Nordstrom, assistant regional director for ecological services for the Fish and Wildlife Service’s Midwest region. Officials announced Monday that the northern spotted owl merits an increase in protective status from threatened to endangered, but the change was also scuttled to focus on higher priority species. Currently  ;723 animal species are listed as endangered or threatened in the United States. In addition to climate change and habitat loss, monarchs are killed by pesticides sprayed on crops, and in cities, towns and backyards for mosquito control. In addition to climate change and habitat loss, monarchs are killed by pesticides sprayed on crops, and in cities, towns and backyards for mosquito control. “The Biden administration is going to unfortunately be spending quite a bit of time simply bringing us back to where the status quo was four years ago,” said Ya-Wei Li, director for biodiversity at the Environmental Policy Innovation Center. 8. A. NO CHANGE (;723 animal species are listed as endangered or threatened in the United States.) B. ,723 animal species are listed as endangered or threatened in the United States. C. :723 animal species are listed as endangered or threatened in the United States. D. 723 animal species are listed as endangered or threatened in the United States. In the meantime, officials and monarch advocates are calling on Americans to plant milkweed and other nectar-rich native plants in their backyards or wherever they can. Rallying around monarchs, they point out, will create habitat that  sustain species up and down the food chain. In Osage, Iowa, where Wayne Fredericks farms soybeans and corn, he has several acres of land in a federal program that pays him to maintain habitat that supports pollinators. He sees hundreds of monarchs during the summer, and also pheasant and quail. “ It’s a delight,” he said, and a win-win for his bottom line and biodiversity. Scaling up these and other efforts is critical to saving monarchs, said Wendy Caldwell, the director of Monarch Joint Venture, a partnership of government agencies, conservation groups, businesses and academic programs to protect the monarch migration across the United States.  9. A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE ( sustain) maintain nourishes cherish A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE It is a catch, Wow, that’s fantastic, It’s a glory 10. 11. Which of the following quotations from Caldwell most effectively conclude the paragraph? A. “Habibat loss along with climate change will be the reason behind the extinction of the monarch butterflies.” B. “Monarch butterflies are threatened to be extinct soon.” C. “We need all hands on deck.” D. “Climate change will be the end of the human race and any living organism.” Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage. The Discovery of Tutankhamun’s Tomb The 20th century saw a race  betweenexcavators to discover Tutankhamun’s tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Several discoveries were made that first seemed to be related to Tutankhamun’s tomb, but were just false alarms. But finally, in 1903, an automobile accident happened, which eventually led to the discovery of Tutankhamun’s tomb. How? Lord Carnarvon-Howard Carter Partnership Lord Carnarvon, whose car was the second car ever to be registered in England, had the first car accident in history. And like most wealthy Englishmen, he went to  Egypt to recover. He found the country quite fascinating and decided to stay and conduct excavations there.  That’s how he ended up hiring Howard Carter, an unemployed excavator who was trying to survive by selling paintings. But they couldn’t excavate in the Valley of the Kings because the concession belonged to Theodore Davis then. So they then excavated in other places. But after five years, they gave up because they hadn’t found much. Things turned in 1917. The Carter-Carnarvon team got permission to excavate the Valley of the Kings because Theodore Davis had given up the concession. Davis thought the Valley was exhausted, and there was nothing left to be found. Carter and Carnarvon took the concession with one aim: looking for Tutankhamun’s tomb. 12. A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE along among within 13. Which choice most effectively combines the sentences at the underlined part? A. Egypt to recover; founding B. Egypt to recover then to found C. Egypt to recover, and he found D. Egypt to recover, he found 14. Which choice provides the most effective transition from the previous paragraph? A. NO CHANGE B. Theodore Davis was one of the obstacles Lord Carnarvon faced C. The Valley of the Kings, being far away from the city, was hard to excavate D. Having partnered with Howard Carter, Theodore Davis went with his team on an excavation expedition. 15. Carter had  comprehensive and thorough knowledge about the Valley of the Kings due to his long experience in excavation and being the chief inspector in the area. He made an accurate map of the valley and determined every spot that had to be excavated. They planned to excavate every inch of the valley, right down to bedrock, to find the long-searched-for tomb of Tutankhamun. A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE thoroughly comprehensive comprehension comprehensive A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE significant consequential momentous 16. Although WWI put a break to their mission, they were finally able to make a breakthrough in 1922. The team had been excavating the valley for several years with no  bulky gains. Finally, Lord Carnarvon got frustrated and decided to give up. But Carter insisted and asked him to give him one more season. He even pledged to pay for it, although he didn’t have the money. Lord Carnarvon accepted, and they went back to excavation. The first thing Carter found was a step that he thought would lead to a tomb. When they uncovered all the steps, they found a wall at the end of the steps. The wall was sealed,  which made Carter certain thathe had found an intact tomb. He wired Carnarvon in England and asked him to come to Egypt immediately. When Carnarvon arrived, they cut a small hole in the wall. Carter looked through the hole into the tomb and said he saw wonderful things. He said he saw the glint of gold everywhere. That was just the beginning of the discovery of a tomb full of objects gilded with gold. 17. Which choice adds to the significance of the finding in the first part of the sentence? A. NO CHANGE B. which made accessing it even harder C. leading carter to give up his excavation D. requiring an elite of scientists unsealing it  While entering, the first room was fullof furniture like ritual beds on which Tutankhamun was laid. It took them almost an year to clear out the room. An enormous gilded shrine had taken up the entire burial chamber. The wooden shrine was difficult to dismantle because the wood was 1,000 years old, and they had to be very careful. When Carter finally dismantled it, he found another shrine inside it. And then, there were two more shrines inside it. 18. It seems strange, doesn’t it? A pharaoh is buried in his tomb with literally thousands of objects, no expense spared, and there is NO CHANGE Upon entering, By entering, Enter the scientists, A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE was had have A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE dodged fled ducked 19. Inside the fourth shrine, Carter found a spectacular thing—a beautiful sarcophagus. Inside it there  were coffins nested inside each other. Finally, he got to a stone sarcophagus, which was very difficult to open. But he finally managed to open it. They were finally able to discover the mummy of Tutankhamen, the first pharaoh whose mummy was still in the tomb, which was also found intact. After discovering the tomb, Carter said several times that Tutankhamun eluded him. What did he do about this? Up until then, Tutankhamen, a king, was just a mystery, just a name. But Carter wasn’t just a treasure hunter. He was looking for knowledge, and what had  eluded Carter and everybody else was that they still didn’t know anything about Tutankhamun. There were no papyri in the entire tomb. There was nothing that gave more information about his parents. In fact, to this day archaeologists continue to debate about Tutankhamen’s lineage. A. B. C. D. 20. nothing historical to tell us about who he was. There were other things about the tomb that were rather puzzling.  However, nocrown was found inside the tomb. Yet he was the king of Egypt. They had his throne and his baby sandals. They even had his baby throne when he was a baby and when he was a boy-king. But where was his crown? A possible explanation to this can be that perhaps the crown was a magical object, passed from king to king. So that was the one object that the pharaoh could not take with him to the next world. But Tutankhamen sure tried to take everything else to the next world. The discovery that Carter made was, no doubt, a highly valuable one, but it didn’t tell much about Tutankhamun—  a mystery that remains unsolved. 21. A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE Moreover, That is, For example, 22. Which choice provides the most effective conclusion to the passage? A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE carter still has a long journey an ancient Egyptian king an exceptional discovery Question 23-33 are based of the following passage Electric Cars Are Coming. How Long Until They Rule the Road? Around the world, governments and automakers  focuses on selling newer, cleaner electric vehicles as a key solution to climate change.  in contrast, it could take years, if not decades, before the technology has a drastic effect on greenhouse gas emissions. One reason for that It will take a long time for all the existing gasoline-powered vehicles on the road to reach the end of their life spans. This “fleet turnover” can be slow  analysts said, because conventional gasoline-powered cars and trucks are becoming more reliable, breaking down less often and  last longer on the road. The average light-duty vehicle operating in the United States today is 12 years old, according to IHS Markit, an economic forecasting firm. That’s up from 9.6 years old in 2002. 23) a. No change B. are focused C. is focused D. will be focused 24) which of the following best sets up the discussion that follows in the paragraph? A. B. C. D. No change nevertheless As a result That being 25) A. B. C. D. No change , Analysts said-, analysts said, -- Analysts said 26) a. no change b. lasted c. lasting d. was lasting  “Engineering quality has gotten significantly better over time, in part because of competition from foreign automakers like Toyota,” said Todd Campau, who specializes in automotive aftermarket analysis at IHS Markit. Newer passenger vehicles still mostly run on gasoline. And they’re likely to  stay around for a while due to the radical advances witnessed at the field. Today, Americans still buy roughly 17 million gasoline-burning vehicles each year. Each of those cars and light trucks can be expected to stick around for 10 or 20 years as they are sold and resold in used car markets. , place for trading old cars. And even after that, the United States exports hundreds of thousands of older used cars annually to countries such as Mexico or Iraq, where the vehicles can last even longer with repeated repairs. In order for almost all cars on the road to be electric by 2050, new plug-in sales would need to quickly ramp up to 100 percent in the next 15 years. 27) which quotation would best introduce the paragraph a. “Engineering quality has gotten significantly better over time, in part because of competition from foreign automakers like Toyota b. scientists are still unable to determine the reason behind people’s tendencies to keep their old cars c. I think the end to gasoline-operating cars is sooner than one might think d. we, of course, mustn’t overlook theeffect of not shifting to electrical cars on global warming 28) which choice most strongly conveys that cars are likely remaining on the road a. b. c. d. no change Stick Operate function  in contrast , if automakers phased out sales of new internal combustion engines, it’s possible that older gasoline-powered cars might persist for even longer on the roads, as consumers who are unable to afford newer, pricier electric cars  , as a result of their economic instability due to 29) low wages afforded by most companies, instead turn to cheaper used models and drive them more. 30) So policymakers may need to consider additional strategies to clean up transportation, experts said. That could include policies to buy back and scrap older, less efficient cars already in use. It could also include strategies to reduce it’s dependence on car travel, such as expanding public transit  and in turn reducing traffic jam. (most relevant example), so that existing vehicles are driven less often. a. no change b. , where used cars are sold c. where people buy cars previously owned by other people d. omit the underlined portion a. b. c. d. no change Additionally, Nevertheless, for example, 31) the writer is considering deleting the underlined portion, should this part be kept or deleted? a. kept, because it provides evidence for a point mentioned earlier in the paragraph b. kept, because it states the main idea of the passage c. deleted, because it blurs the focus of the paragraph with a loosely related detail. d. deleted, because it contradicts the author’s claim. 32) a. b. c. d. no change American’s dependence Americans’ dependence their dependence a. b. c. d. no change or encouraging biking and walking buying more military planes discouraging obeying the driving safety rules. 33) Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage. Who is Benjamin Franklin? 34. Have you ever seen the face on a $100 bill?  If so you’ve seen Benjamin Franklin, one of America’s Founding Fathers and a key person in US history. Franklin was not only a Founding Father,  he was an inventor, author, diplomat, publisher, and politician. He was an excellent example of a Renaissance Man – a man with many talents and areas of knowledge. Franklin was born on January 17, 1706 in Boston, Massachusetts. He was the 15th child of Josiah Franklin. When Franklin turned 8, he went to school, doing well in writing but  struggling with math. He stopped going to school at the age of 10 to work in his father’s candle shop. Benjamin Franklin loved learning, however, and he read constantly, and he taught himself different subjects; even though, he wasn’t going to school. A. b. c. d. NO CHANGE so, you’ve seen if so, you’ve seen if so, you are seeing A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE but additionally he was but he was but he was also 35. 36. Which choice would best imply that Franklin had a hard time with the math subject? A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE suffering enduring brawling 37. Which choice best combines the underlined sentence? A. NO CHANGE B. he read constantly while also teaching himself different subjects even though he wasn’t going to school. C. he read constantly. Additionally, he taught himself different subjects even though he wasn’t going to school. D. he read constantly and taught himself different subjects even though he wasn’t going to school. Because Franklin loved to read, his father thought he would do well in the newspaper business. He sent Benjamin to work with his brother James at a printing shop. Benjamin and his brother had a rough relationship, but Benjamin used the skills he learned at the print shop throughout his life.  He wrote books and articles, published newspapers and books, and even owned a printing house. People today still quote from Franklin’s writings. “Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise,” is a Franklin saying still quoted today. Franklin wasn’t just a writer and publisher. He was also an inventor and a scientist. He is  formally established for an experiment where he flew a kite in the middle of a storm. This led to the invention of the lightning rod, as well as a better understanding of the connection between lightning and electricity. Franklin also invented  bifocals; something still usedby people today. 38. A. NO CHANGE B. He wrote books, and articles published C. He wrote books and articles, and published D. He wrote books and articlespublished 39. Which choice matches the tone of the passage? A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE so famous well known trending A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE bifocals. Something bifocals, something bifocals, something, 40.  His involvement in the founding of the United States of America might be his most important contribution to the United States, however. Franklin was the only Founding Father to sign the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the  Treaty of Paris. An agreement that ended war between the United States and Great Britain. 41. The author wants to delete the underlined portion. Should the author make this deletion? A. Yes, because it should be put elsewhere in the passage. B. Yes, because it merely repeats information provided in the paragraph. C. No, because it adds a relevant introduction to Franklin’s role in the foundation of the United States. D. No, because deleting the sentence would undermine the author’s claim.  Benjamin Franklin helped change theworld. Who knows how life would be different if this man of many talents  hadnever lived. 42. A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE Treaty of Paris – an agreement Treaty of Paris, an agreementTreaty of Paris; an agreement 43. Which choice would best set up the next sentence? A. NO CHANGE B. Nevertheless, Franklin could've done a better job in office. C. Franklin was one of America’s greatest presidents; however, he lacked certain talents. D. May he rest in peace! 44. A. B. C. D. NO CHANGE had never lived? had not ever lived. had he lived?