* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE MEGA PACKET Base your answers to questions 1 through 4 on the map in your answer booklet and on your knowledge of Earth science. The map shows the path of a tornado that moved through a portion of Nebraska on May 22, 2004 between 7:30 p.m. and 9:10 p.m. The path of the tornado along the ground is indicated by the shaded region. The width of the shading indicates the width of destruction on the ground. Numbers on the tornado's path indicate the Fujita intensity at those locations. The Fujita Intensity Scale (F-Scale), in the left corner of the map, provides information about wind speed and damage at various F-Scale intensities. 1. Describe one safety precaution that should be taken if a tornado has been sighted approaching your home. 2. Identify the weather instrument usually used to measure wind speed. 3. State a possible wind speed of the tornado, in kilometers per hour (km/h), when it was moving through the town of Bennet. 4. On the map, place an X at a location where the tornado damage was greatest. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 5 through 8 on the passage and the graph below and on your knowledge of Earth science. Great Lake Effects The Great Lakes influence the weather and climate of nearby land regions at all times of the year. Much of this lake effect is determined by the relative temperatures of surface lake water compared to the surface air temperatures over those land areas. The graph below shows the average monthly temperature of the surface water of Lake Erie and the surface air temperature at Buffalo, New York. In an average year, four lake-effect seasons are experienced. When surface lake temperatures are colder than surface air temperatures, a stable season occurs. The cooler lake waters suppress cloud development and reduce the strength of rainstorms. As a result, late spring and early summer in the Buffalo region tends to be very sunny. A season of lake-effect rains follows. August is usually a time of heavy nighttime rains, and much of the rainy season is marked by heavy, localized rainstorms downwind from the lake. Gradually, during late October, lake-effect rains are replaced by snows. Generally, the longer the time the wind travels over the lake, the heavier the lake effect becomes in Buffalo. Finally, conditions stabilize again, as the relatively shallow Lake Erie freezes over, usually near the end of January. Very few lake-effect storms occur during this time period. 5. Explain why the Buffalo surface air temperatures increase faster and earlier in the year than do the surface water temperatures of Lake Erie. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 6. On the map, draw one straight arrow in Lake Erie to show the winter wind direction most likely to bring the heaviest lake-effect snows to Buffalo. 7. Identify one weather variable that determines whether Buffalo receives rain or snow from a lake-effect storm in October. 8. The passage states, "The cooler lake waters suppress cloud development..." because the water cools the air above its surface. Explain why this cool air above the lake surface reduces the amount of cloud development. Base your answers to questions 9 through 11 on the map below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The map shows surface air temperatures for some locations in the United States on a day in November. The 20°F, 30°F, 40°F, and 70°F isotherms are shown. Points A, W, X, Y, and Z represent locations on Earth's surface. The air temperature at location A is shown. 9. Describe the evidence shown on the map that indicates that the temperature gradient between locations W and X is greater than the temperature gradient between locations Y and Z. 10. Identify the air temperature at Watertown, New York. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 11. On the map below, draw both the 50°F and 60°F isotherms. Extend each isotherm to the edge of the map. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 12 through 14 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The diagram represents a weather balloon as it rises from Earth's surface to 1000 meters (m). The air temperature and wet-bulb temperature values in degrees Celsius (°C) and the air pressure values in millibars (mb) are given for three altitudes. 12. A cloud is forming at 1000 meters. Identify the phase change that is occurring at 1000 meters to produce the cloud. 13. Determine the dewpoint and the relative humidity of the air at Earth's surface. 14. Identify the names of the instruments carried by the weather balloon that recorded the air pressure and air temperature. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 15 and 16 on the map of Australia below and on your knowledge of Earth science. Points A through D on the map represent locations on the continent. 15. The cross section below represents a mountain between location C and D and the direction of prevailing winds. Explain why location D has a wetter climate than location C. 16. Explain why location A has a cooler average yearly air temperature than location B. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 17 through 20 on the weather map below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The weather map shows atmospheric pressures, recorded in millibars (mb), at locations around a low-pressure center (L) in the eastern United States. Isobars indicate air pressures in the western portion of the mapped area. Point A represents a location on Earth's surface. 17. Convert the air pressure at location A from millibars to inches of mercury. 18. Identify the compass direction toward which the center of the low-pressure system will move if it follows a typical storm track. 19. Identify the weather instrument that was used to measure the air pressures recorded on the map. 20. On the weather map above, draw the 1012 millibar and 1008 millibar isobars. Extend the isobars to the east coast of the United States. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 21 through 23 on the generalized climatic moisture map of North America below and on your knowledge of Earth science. Areas are classified as generally dry or generally wet, and then ranked by relative moisture conditions. Glacial and mountain climate areas are also shown on the map. Points A, B, C, D, and E indicate locations on Earth's surface. 21. Explain why location D has a cooler climate than location E. 22. State the climate factor that causes a cold climate at location C. 23. Explain why the climate at location A is more moist than the climate at location B. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 24. The cross section below represents the windward and leeward sides of a mountain range. Arrows show the movement of air over a mountain. Points X and Y represent locations on Earth's surface. Describe how the air's temperature and water vapor content at point X is different from the air's temperature and water vapor content at point Y. Base your answers to questions 25 through 28 on the graph and map below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The average monthly temperatures for Eureka, California, and Omaha, Nebraska, are plotted on the graph. The map indicates the locations of these two cities. 25. Identify the surface ocean current that affects the climate of Eureka. 26. Identify the month with the greatest difference in the average temperature between these two cities. 27. Explain why Omaha, which is farther inland, has a greater variation in temperatures throughout the year than Eureka, which is closer to the ocean. 28. Calculate the rate of change in the average monthly temperature for Omaha during the two-month period between October and December, as shown on the graph. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 29 and 30 on the weather map below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The map indicates the location of a low-pressure system over New York State during late summer. Isobar values are recorded in millibars. Shading indicates regions receiving precipitation. The air masses are labeled mT and cP. The locations of some New York State cities are shown. Points A and B represent other locations on Earth's surface. 29. The cross section below represents the atmosphere along the dashed line from A to B on the map. The warm frontal boundary is already shown on the cross section. Draw a curved line to represent the shape and location of the cold frontal boundary. 30. An air mass acquires the characteristics of the surface over which it forms. Above, circle the type of Earth surface (land or ocean) and describe the relative temperature of the surface over which the mT air mass most likely formed. 31. Describe the effect that global warming most likely will have on both present-day glaciers and sea level. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 32 through 34 on the table below, on the map, and on your knowledge of Earth science. The table lists the latitude, longitude, and barometric pressure, in millibars (mb), of the center of a low-pressure system (L) as it moved across North America from March 14 to March 17. The map in your answer booklet shows the center of this low-pressure system (L) and associated fronts on March 14. The location of the low-pressure system 24 hours later on March 15 is also indicated. 32. On the station model below, using the proper format, record the barometric pressure of the low-pressure center (L) on March 16. 33. Calculate the average speed, in kilometers per hour, at which this low-pressure center (L) traveled during the 24 hours between March 14 and March 15. 34. On the map, use the latitudes and longitudes listed in the data table to plot the March 16 and March 17 locations of the center of the low-pressure system (L) by placing an X at each location. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 35 and 36 on the Atlantic hurricane map below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The arrows on the map show the tracks of various hurricanes that occurred during late summer and early fall. 35. Several of these hurricanes have affected land areas. Describe two actions that people who live in hurricaneprone areas should take in order to prepare for future hurricanes. 36. Describe one ocean surface condition or atmospheric condition that makes the area over the Atlantic Ocean between 10° N latitude and 20° N latitude ideal for these hurricanes to form. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 37 through 39 on the data table below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The table shows air temperatures recorded under identical conditions at 2-hour intervals on a sunny day. Data were recorded 1 meter above ground level both inside and outside of a glass greenhouse. 37. Most atmospheric scientists infer that global warming is occurring due to an increase in greenhouse gases. State the names of two greenhouse gases. 38. Calculate the rate of change in the outside air temperature from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. in Celsius degrees per hour. 39. Describe the color and texture of the surfaces inside the greenhouse that would most likely absorb the greatest amount of visible light. Base your answers to questions 40 through 43 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The diagram represents portions of the water cycle. Letters A, B, and C represent processes in the water cycle. Arrows show the movement of water. 40. What is the main source of energy for the water cycle? ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 41. Describe the general relationship between the amount of rainfall and the amount of runoff represented by C. 42. Identify the process represented by B. 43. Identify one process represented by A. Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the station models below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The changing weather conditions at a location in New York State during a winter storm are recorded on the station models. 44. As this storm approached, the National Weather Service issued a winter storm warning. Identify two items that should be included in emergency preparedness supplies for a winter storm. 45. From 12 noon Thursday until 8 p.m. Thursday, the total amount of snowfall was 12 inches. Calculate the snowfall rate, in inches per hour. 46. State the relative humidity at this location at 8 p.m. Thursday. 47. Complete the table by recording the weather data shown on the station model for 12 noon Thursday. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 48 through 50 on the data table below, the map on the following page, and on your knowledge of Earth science. The data table shows the air pressure in the eye (center) and the maximum sustained wind speed around the eye of Hurricane Wilma from October 18 through October 25, 2005. The data were collected at the same time each day. The map shows the geographic locations of the eye of Hurricane Wilma from October 18 to October 25. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 48. Draw a line to indicate the general relationship between air pressure in the eye of the hurricane and the wind speed around the eye of this hurricane. 49. State the compass direction in which Hurricane Wilma moved from October 22 through October 25. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 50. Identify the latitude and longitude of the eye of Hurricane Wilma on October 24. Label your answer with the correct units and directions. Base your answers to questions 51 through 53 on the weather station model below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The model shows atmospheric conditions at Oswego, New York. 51. Convert the coded air pressure shown on the station model into the actual millibars of air pressure. 52. Explain how the data on the station model indicate a high relative humidity. 53. Fill in the correct information for each weather variable listed for this station model. Air temperature: ____________ °F Dewpoint: ___________ °F Wind speed: ___________ knots Cloud cover: ___________ % ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 54 through 57 on the weather map below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The map shows air temperatures (in °F) at locations in the northeastern United States and part of Canada. Syracuse, New York, is labeled. Line AB represents a stationary frontal boundary. 54. Explain why locations near the Atlantic Ocean have air temperatures that are warmer than locations farther inland. 55. Write the two-letter weather map symbol for the type of air mass that is most likely located north of frontal boundary AB. 56. Convert the air temperature at Syracuse from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius. 57. On the map, draw the isotherm for 0°F. Extend each end of the isotherm to the edge of the map. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 58 through 60 on the model below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The model shows the movement of water in the water cycle. Arrow A represents a process within the water cycle. 58. A portion of the land surface shown was recently paved with asphalt and concrete. Describe the change in the amount of runoff and infiltration that will occur. 59. How many joules of heat energy are required to evaporate 2 grams of water from the lake surface? 60. Identify one water cycle process represented by arrow A. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 61 through 63 on the data table below and on your knowledge of Earth Science. The table shows the area, in million square kilometers, of the Arctic Ocean covered by ice from June through November. The average area covered by ice from 1979 to 2000 from June to November is compared to the area covered by ice in 2005 for the same time period. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 61. Identify one greenhouse gas that is believed to cause global warming. 62. Scientists have noted that since 2002, the area of the Arctic Ocean covered by ice during these warmer months has shown an overall decrease from the long-term average (1979-2000). State one way in which this ice coverage since 2002 and the ice coverage shown in the 2005 data above provide evidence of global warming, when compared to this long-term average. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 63. Use the information in the data table to construct a line graph. On the grid, plot the data for the area covered by ice in 2005 for each month shown on the data table and connect the plots with a line. The average area covered by ice for 1979-2000 has been plotted and labeled on the grid. Base your answers to questions 64 through 67 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth Science. The diagram represents a portion of a stream and its surrounding bedrock. The arrows represent the movement of water molecules by the processes of the water cycle. The water table is indicated by a dashed line. Letter A represents a water cycle process occurring at a specific location. Letter d represents the distance between the water table and the land surface. 64. Explain why the distance, d, from the water table to the land surface would decrease after several days of heavy rainfall. 65. Slightly acidic groundwater has been seeping through cracks and openings in the limestone bedrock of this area, producing caves. State whether the type of weathering that produces these caves is mainly chemical or physical , and identify one characteristic of limestone that allows this type of weathering to occur. 66. Describe the soil permeability and the land surface slope that allow the most infiltration of rainwater and the least runoff. 67. Identify water cycle process A, which produces cloud droplets. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 68 through 71 on the diagram below, which shows the windward and leeward sides of a mountain range. Arrows show the movement of air over a mountain. Points A and B represent locations at sea level on Earth's surface. 68. Compared to the temperature and relative humidity of the air at point A, describe how the temperature and relative humidity of the air are different as the air arrives at point B. 69. Explain why air cools as it rises up this mountain. 70. What is the relative humidity at the base (bottom) of the cloud on the windward side of the mountain? 71. Identify one weather instrument that could be used to determine the dewpoint of the air at point A. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 72 through 76 on the map and passage below. A Lake-Effect Snowstorm A snowstorm affected western New York State on October 12 and 13, 2006. A blend of weather conditions caused more than 24 inches of heavy, wet, lake-effect snow, bringing much of western New York to a standstill. The New York State Thruway was closed to traffic between exits 46 and 59, which are circled on the map. The isolines on the map show the amount of snowfall, measured in inches, resulting from this storm. Points A and B represent locations on Earth's surface. 72. Identify two hazards to human life or property that can result from a snowstorm of this size. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 73. Identify the most probable direction from which the wind was blowing to produce the pattern of snowfall shown on the map. 74. Determine the number of inches of snow that was received in Niagara Falls, New York, from this snowstorm. 75. Approximately how many miles of this section of the Thruway were closed due to the snowstorm? 76. On the grid, construct a profile of the snowfall amounts along line AB by plotting the isoline amounts that cross line AB. The amounts for points A and B have been plotted. Complete the profile by connecting all the plots with a line. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 77 through 79 on the data table below, which shows the average carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentrations in Earth's atmosphere for specific years from 1930 to 2010. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere that contributes to global warming. The average carbon dioxide concentrations were measured in parts per million (ppm). 77. Identify one greenhouse gas, other than carbon dioxide, that contributes to global warming. 78. Calculate the rate of change from 2000 to 2010 of the average carbon dioxide concentrations, in parts per million per year. 79. On the grid, construct a line graph by plotting the average carbon dioxide concentrations in Earth's atmosphere for each year shown on the data table. Connect the plots with a line. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 80 and 81 on the climate graph below, which shows the average monthly precipitation and average monthly air temperatures at city X. City X is located near a mountain range in the Southern Hemisphere. 80. Below state whether the climate of city X is dry or wet. Then, on the cross section, place an X on Earth’s surface to indicate the most likely location of city X. 81. What evidence shown on the graph indicates that city X is located in the Southern Hemisphere? ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 82 through 85 on the map in your answer booklet, which shows surface air temperatures, in degrees Fahrenheit, for a portion of the United States. These temperatures were recorded at noontime on the same winter day. Two coastal cities are labeled: Atlantic City, New Jersey, and Miami, Florida. Other selected locations are labeled A, B, and C. 82. A frontal boundary exists between locations B and C. Identify one process that causes clouds to form in the moist air rising along this frontal boundary. 83. Explain why the noontime winter air temperatures in Miami, Florida, are usually higher than the noontime winter air temperatures in Atlantic City, New Jersey. 84. Calculate the temperature gradient between locations B and C in °F per mile. 85. On the map, draw the 60°F isotherm from location A to the western edge of the map. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 86 through 88 on the map below, which shows a portion of New York State and Canada. The arrows represent the direction of the wind blowing over Lake Ontario for several days early one winter. 86. Explain why the surface of Lake Erie freezes much later in the winter than the surrounding land surfaces. 87. Compared to the average winter air temperature in Watertown, New York, explain why the average winter air temperature in Old Forge, New York, is colder. 88. Explain why Oswego, New York, usually gets more snow than Toronto, Canada, when the wind is blowing in the direction shown on the map. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 89 through 91 on the passage below. Mount Manaro Erupts! Mount Manaro is a volcano on Ambae Island, about 1400 miles northeast of Australia. Ambae Island is located in the South Pacific Ocean at 15° south latitude, 168° east longitude. After Mount Manaro had erupted in 1995, Ambae Island residents developed an evacuation plan. When Mount Manaro began erupting gas, steam, and ash on November 27, 2005, scientists and residents watched the volcano carefully. The eruption became more severe on December 9, 2005, when steam and gases rose 1.8 miles up into the air. Rocks and ash began to fall on nearby farms and homes. Thousands of people left their homes, making it the largest evacuation ever on Ambae Island. 89. On the diagram below, draw one arrow through point X and one arrow through point Y to indicate the direction of tectonic plate motion near Mount Manaro. 90. Identify the ocean current off the northeast coast of Australia that most affects the climate of Ambae Island. 91. Name the highest layer of the atmosphere into which the steam from the volcanic eruption rose on December 9, 2005. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 92 and 93 on the map below, which represents the geographic source regions of two air masses, X and Y. The arrows represent the convergence of these air masses, which may result in tornadoes. 92. A tornado watch or warning is issued for a location in the area labeled Tornado Alley. State one safety precaution that should be taken to avoid possible injury from this tornado. 93. Use the standard two-letter air-mass symbols to identify air-masses X and Y. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 94 and 95 on the map below, which represents the center of a low-pressure system indicated by L. The 1000-millibar (mb) isobar is drawn around the center of this low-pressure system. 94. Identify one factor that usually causes many low-pressure centers to generally move from west to east across the United States. 95. On the map above, draw two additional isobars around the outside of the 1000-mb isobar in a way that indicates that the strongest winds are west of the low-pressure center. Base your answers to questions 96 and 97 on the data table below and on the partial weather station model for Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. 96. State the actual barometric pressure at Oklahoma City. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 97. On the partial weather station model for Oklahoma City above, add the correct weather map symbols to indicate the weather conditions shown in the data table. Base your answers to questions 98 and 99 on the data table below, which shows the air temperature, in degrees Fahrenheit, and air pressure, in inches of mercury (Hg), recorded at a weather station in New York State from 11 a.m. to 7 p.m. on a day in September. 98. State the relationship between air temperature and air pressure from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. 99. On the grid below, construct a line graph by plotting the data for the air temperature for each time from 11 a.m. to 7 p.m. Connect the plots with a line. The data for air pressure have been plotted. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 100 through 104 on the weather graphs below, which show data recorded at Syracuse, New York, as a winter storm moved across the region between December 1 and December 4, 2007. Graph 1 shows air temperatures and dew points. Graph 2 shows barometric pressures. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 100. Complete the table below by identifying one instrument used to determine barometric pressure and one weather variable determined by using a psychrometer. 101. A radar image of this storm is shown below. The darkest regions on the radar image show areas of precipitation. Letter L marks the location of the center of the low-pressure system. Draw an arrow on the radar image to show the most probable path this winter storm followed. Begin the arrow a letter L. 102. On the station model below, record the barometric pressure for Syracuse at 4 p.m. on December 2. 103. On which date and at what time did the relative humidity reach 100% in Syracuse? 104. State the relationship between the air temperature and the barometric pressure in Syracuse on December 2. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 105 through 109 on the two maps below. Map 1 shows air temperatures in the United States and Mexico, recorded in °F, at the points shown on the map. Map 2 shows the location of a low-pressure system at the time these air temperatures were measured. An occluded front extends from the center of the low-pressure system (L) to point A. Lines AB and AC are two other frontal boundaries. Two air masses are shown. The storm system later moved toward New York State and produced an ice storm. 105. State one action New York State residents should have taken to prepare for the approaching ice storm. 106. Explain what caused the center of this low-pressure system to move toward New York State. 107. Describe the general surface wind pattern associated with the low-pressure system shown on map 2. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 108. On map 2, draw weather front symbols on the correct sides of both line AB and line AC to show the most probable type and direction of movement of each front. 109. On map 1, draw the 32°F isotherm. 110. On the weather station model below, using the proper format, record the four weather conditions shown below. Dewpoint: 48°F Air pressure: 998.3 mb Wind: from the southeast Wind speed: 10 knots Base your answers to questions 111 through 114 on the graphs and map below. The map shows a view of Earth from above the North Pole. Points on the map indicate the positions of Reykjavik, Iceland, and Yakutsk, Russia. The graphs show average monthly air temperature (line graphs) and amount of precipitation (bar graphs) for both locations. 111. Identify one warm and one cool ocean current that affect the climate of Iceland. Warm: _____________________________ Cool: ______________________________ ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 112. Describe one way the yearly precipitation in Yakutsk differs from that in Reykjavik. 113. Explain why Reykjavik has cooler summers and warmer winters than Yakutsk. 114. Write the two-letter weather map symbol for an air mass that originates over Yakutsk. Base your answers to questions 115 through 117 on the diagram below, which represents Earth's water cycle. The arrows represent some water cycle processes. Letter A indicates a surface location on Earth. 115. How many joules (J) of heat energy are released by each gram of water vapor that condenses to form cloud droplets? 116. Describe one surface condition change at location A that would decrease the rate of runoff. 117. Other than evaporation, which water cycle process transfers large amounts of water vapor into the atmosphere from the forest? ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 118 and 119 on the map and passage below. The map shows isolines of average yearly rainfall, in centimeters, for the Congo River region of Africa. The climate of the Congo River region is mainly influenced by air from two source regions. One air-mass source region is over the Benguela Current along the west coast of Africa. This air mass moves at low altitudes toward the Congo River region. A second air-mass source region is located over the South Equatorial Current along the east coast of Africa. This air mass moves at higher altitudes over the Congo River region. 118. Explain why air masses that form over the South Equatorial Current move at higher altitudes than air masses that form over the Benguela Current. 119. According to the map, what is a possible average yearly rainfall amount received on the equator (0°) at 20° E? Base your answers to questions 120 and 121 on the passage below. Average temperatures on Earth are primarily the result of the total amount of insolation absorbed by Earth’s surface and atmosphere compared to the amount of long-wave energy radiated back into space. Scientists believe that the addition of greenhouse gases into Earth’s atmosphere gradually increases global temperatures. 120. Explain how increasing the amount of greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere increases global temperatures. 121. Identify one major greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 122 and 123 on the table below, which shows weather data recorded at Albany, New York. 122. State one reason why rain was unlikely at the time the data was collected. Support your answer by using the data. 123. Complete the station model in your answer booklet using the proper format to accurately represent these six weather conditions. Base your answers to questions 124 through 128 on on the passage and map below. The map shows the average yearly precipitation in New York State measured in inches. Landscapes and Precipitation Moisture from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean is carried to New York State by storm systems and air currents. Rain and snowfall amounts vary by region. Heavy snow belts are located near Lake Erie and Lake Ontario as well as in the plateau regions of eastern and northern New York State. Long Island and New York City usually experience lighter snowfalls. Snowfall amounts are converted to inches of water to determine yearly precipitation. 124. Describe two actions that could be taken to prepare for a forecasted severe snow event. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 125. On the map below, draw one arrow to show the path that air travels to produce heavy lake-effect snowfall in Oswego, New York. 126. Identify one process that occurs in rising air that produces clouds from water vapor. 127. Identify the New York State landscape region that has the greatest average yearly amount of precipitation. 128. Identify two bodies of water that are major sources of moisture for the precipitation that occurs in New York State. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 129. Base your answer to the following question on the map below. The map shows the precipitation totals, in inches, from January 2003 through May 2003 for the North Carolina locations represented by dots. Precipitation totals for locations A and B are recorded on the map. The towns of Newport and Beaufort are labeled on the map. Explain why the intensity of insolation received at Beaufort, North Carolina, on a clear day is greater than the intensity of insolation received at Buffalo, New York, on the same clear day. Base your answers to questions 130 through 132 on the cross section below, which shows two weather fronts moving across New York State. Lines X and Y represent frontal boundaries. The large arrows show the general direction the air masses are moving. The smaller arrows show the general direction warm, moist air is moving over the frontal boundaries. 130. Which type of front forms when front X catches and overtakes front Y? 131. Explain why the warm, moist air rises over the frontal boundaries. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 132. Which type of front is represented by letter X? Base your answers to questions 133 through 136 on the information and weather map below. The weather map shows the center of a low-pressure system. The dashed line represents the dry line which separates cT and mT air masses. Isobars are drawn at intervals of 4 millibars. Letter A indicates a weather station model. 133. In what compass direction will the center of this low-pressure system most likely move if it follows a normal storm track? 134. Explain why the warm air is rising along the warm front. 135. Compared to the temperature and humidity of the air on the east side of the dry line, describe the temperature and humidity of the air on the west side. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 136. The atmospheric conditions in eastern Nebraska are represented on the map by a station model labeled A. Below, fill in the correct information for each weather variable, based on station model A . Air temperature: _______________°F Dewpoint: _______________°F Wind direction from: _______________ Wind speed: _______________ knots Cloud cover: _______________ % 137. On station model D below,draw the proper symbol to indicate a 25-knot wind coming from the west. 138. What evidence indicates that station C has the highest relative humidity? 139. Convert the air temperature at station A into degrees Celsius. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 140. Base your answer to the following question on the four weather station models, A, B, C, and D, below. List the letters of the four station models, in order, from the station with the highest air-pressure reading to the station with the lowest air-pressure reading. Base your answers to questions 141 through 144 on on the weather map below, which shows a low-pressure system located over central United States. Points A, B, and C represent locations on Earth's surface. The isobars on the map show air pressures in millibars. 141. What evidence shown on the weather map indicates that point C is experiencing greater wind speeds than point A? ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 142. What is the two-letter symbol used on a weather map to indicate the warm, moist air mass that is over point C? 143. What evidence shown on the map indicates that point B is most likely experiencing precipitation? 144. On the map above, draw an arrow, beginning at the L, to show the direction the low-pressure center will most likely move in the next two days. Base your answers to questions 145 through 147 on on the map below, which shows an imaginary continent on a planet that has climate conditions similar to Earth. The continent is surrounded by oceans. Two mountain ranges are shown. Points A through D represent locations on the continent. 145. Explain why location C has a warmer and drier climate than location D. 146. Identify one factor that causes a colder climate at location B than at location A 147. Identify one labeled latitude on this continent where a high-pressure zone exists and dry air is sinking to the surface. Include both the unit and compass direction in your answer. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 148 and 149 on the United States map below, which shows recorded temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit for October 2, 2004. The 60°F isotherm has been drawn on the map. 148. Identify the two-letter weather map symbol for the dry, cold air mass over North Dakota. 149. Draw the 70°F isotherm. Extend the isotherm to the edges of the continent. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 150 through 152 on the diagram below, which shows air masses, clouds, and rain associated with two fronts that are influencing weather conditions in New York State. Letters A, B, and C represent three air masses. The arrows show the direction of air and front movements. 150. Identify one process that causes clouds to form in the air rising along the frontal surface between air mass A and air mass B. 151. Identify the type of front shown between air mass B and air mass C. 152. Identify the most likely geographic source region for air mass B. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 153 through 157 on the weather map below, which shows two fronts associated with a low-pressure system. 153. Warm, moist air is rising along the two frontal surfaces. Describe how the water vapor in this rising air forms clouds. Include dewpoint and condensation in your answer. 154. Which type of weather front has entered New York State? 155. On the weather map above, place an X where precipitation is most likely occurring. 156. On the weather map above, write the air-mass symbols to indicate the most likely locations of the continental polar air mass and maritime tropical air mass that have formed this low-pressure system. 157. On the weather map above, write the letter L at the location of the center of the low-pressure system. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 158 through 161 on the map below, which shows a portion of the United States where 148 tornadoes occurred during a 24-hour period in April 1974. The paths of the tornadoes are shown. 158. Most of these tornadoes occurred with thunderstorms along cold fronts. Identify the water cycle process that forms clouds along cold fronts. 159. A school receives a tornado warning. Describe one emergency action that a teacher and the students in a classroom should immediately take to protect themselves from injury. 160. Describe the air movement most likely found within these tornadoes. 161. Explain why all the tornadoes moved toward the northeast. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 162 through 165 on the map provided below, which shows weather station models and some weather variables for a portion of the United States. Selected weather stations are labeled A, B, and C. 162. Which weather condition is indicated by the present weather symbol at station C? 163. The city represented by weather station B is currently being affected by an air mass that originated over the Gulf of Mexico. What is the two-letter air-mass symbol used to represent this air mass? 164. State the air pressure, in millibars, at weather station A. 165. On the map above, draw the 50°F isotherm. The isotherm must extend to the edges of the map. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 166 through 170 on the satellite image shown below. The satellite image shows a low-pressure system over a portion of the United States. Air-mass symbols and frontal boundaries have been added. Line XY is one frontal boundary. Points A, B, C, and D represent surface locations. White area represent clouds. 166. State the compass direction that the center of this low-pressure system will move over the next few days if it follows a normal storm track. 167. Explain why location C most likely has a cooler temperature than location D. 168. Describe one piece of evidence shown on the map that suggests location A has a lower relative humidity than location B. 169. State one process that causes clouds to form in the moist air along the cold front. 170. In the picture above, draw the proper symbol to represent the most probable front on line XY. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 171 and 172 on data table below, which shows the average number of days with thunderstorms that occur over land areas at different latitudes each year. 171. State the relationship between latitude and the average number of days each year that thunderstorms occur over a land area. 172. On the grid below,plot, with an X, the average number of days per year a thunderstorm occurs over a land area for each latitude shown on the data table.Connect the centers of the Xs with a line. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 173 through 177 on weather map below. The isobars show air pressures, in millibars. Points A and B indicate locations on the map. 173. Describe the pattern of the surface winds around the center of the low-pressure system (L). 174. Write the names of the cities listed below in sequence from lowest relative humidity to highest relative humidity. Albuquerque ChicagoNew York City 175. Describe the evidence shown on the map that indicates strong winds were blowing between Miles City and Pierre. 176. Calculate the pressure gradient along a straight line between point A and point B on the map. Label your answer with the correct units. 177. On the weather map above, place an X centered on the geographic region that was most likely the source of the mT air mass. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 178 and 179 on the barogram below, which shows air pressure recorded in millibars at Green Bay, Wisconsin, from April 2 through April 4, 1982. 178. What most likely caused the changes in air pressure for the period of time shown on the graph? 179. Calculate the rate of change in air pressure from 10 a.m. to 8 p.m. on April 3. Label your answer with the correct units. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 180 through 182 on the graph below, which shows the average monthly temperatures for a year for city X and city Y. Both cities are located at the same latitude. 180. What evidence shown on the graph indicates that both cities, X and Y, are located in the Northern Hemisphere? 181. Explain why city X has a greater difference between summer and winter temperatures than city Y. 182. What was the range in the average monthly temperatures for city Y during the year? Base your answers to questions 183 through 185 on the information on the four station models shown below. The weather data were collected at Niagara Falls, Syracuse, Utica, and New York City at the same time. 183. New York City was experiencing a wind blowing from the south at 10 knots with hazy conditions limiting visibility to of a mile. On the station model below for New York City, place, in the proper location and format, the information below. • wind direction • wind speed • present weather • visibility 184. Explain how the weather conditions shown on the station models suggest that Utica had the greatest chance of precipitation. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 185. What was the air pressure in Niagara Falls? Base your answers to questions 186 and 187 on the topographic map shown below. Letters A, B, C, D, and E represent locations on Earth's surface. Letters K, L, M, and N are locations along Copper Creek. Elevations are measured in meters. 186. Calculate the gradient between points B and C and label your answer with the correct units. 187. What is the elevation of location A? ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 188 through 190 on the weather map below. The weather map shows a low-pressure system in New York State during July. The L represents the center of the low-pressure system. Two fronts extend from the center of the low. Line XY on the map is a reference line. 188. Identify one action that people should take to protect themselves from lightning. 189. The forecast for one city located on the map is given below: “In the next hour, skies will become cloud covered. Heavy rains are expected with possible lightning and thunder. Temperatures will become much cooler.” State the name of the city for which this forecast was given. 190. The cross section below shows a side view of the area along line XY on the map. On lines 1 and 2 in the cross section, place the appropriate two-letter air-mass symbols to identify the most likely type of air mass at each of these locations. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 191 through 193 on the diagram below, which shows the temperature change when a parcel of air warms, rises, and expands to form a cloud. Location A is at the base of the cloud. 191. State the relative humidity of the air at location A. _____________ % 192. Assume the cooling rate of the rising parcel of air is constant. Determine the temperature of the air parcel at the 3350-foot altitude. Express your answer to the nearest tenth of a degree. ________________ ºF 193. Explain why the warmer air rises. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 194. The diagram below shows conditions that commonly cause fog to form over land in coastal areas. A weather station at the lighthouse records a temperature of 36°F and an air pressure of 1016.4 mb. Using the proper weather map symbols, place the following information in the correct positions on the weather station model below. • Present weather • Dewpoint • Air pressure • Wind direction • Wind speed ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 195 through 199 on the map and data tables below. The map shows the location of Birdsville and Bundaberg in Australia. Data table 1 shows the average monthly high temperatures for Birdsville. Data table 2 includes the latitude and longitude, elevation above sea level, and the average rainfall in January for Birdsville and Bundaberg. 195. On the map, draw the 30° S latitude line. 196. Explain why Bundaberg will experience solar noon before Birdsville each day. 197. State one reason for the difference in the average January rainfall for Birdsville and Bundaberg. 198. State one factor that could account for the difference between the average high temperatures recorded in December for Birdsville and Bundaberg. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 199. On the grid, plot with an X the average monthly high temperatures for Birdsville, Australia. Connect the Xs with a line. The average monthly high temperatures for Bundaberg have already been plotted on the graph for you. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 200 through 204 on the passage below. The passage describes a tornado produced from a thunderstorm that moved through a portion of New York State on May 31, 1998. New York Tornado A small tornado formed and moved through the town of Apalachin, New York, at 5:30 p.m., producing winds between 40 and 72 miles per hour. The tops of trees were snapped off, and many large limbs fell to the ground. The path of the destruction measured up to 200 feet wide. At 5:45 p.m., the tornado next moved through the town of Vestal where winds ranged between 73 and 112 miles per hour. Many people experienced personal property damage as many homes were hit with flying material. At 6:10 p.m., the tornado moved close to Binghamton, producing winds between 113 and 157 miles per hour. A 1000-foot television tower was pushed over, and many heavy objects were tossed about by the strong winds. Then the tornado lifted off the ground for short periods of time and bounced along toward the town of Windsor. At 6:15 p.m., light damage was done to trees as limbs fell and small shallow-rooted trees were pushed over in Windsor. The tornado increased in strength again at 6:20 p.m. as it moved into Sanford. Some homes were damaged as their roof shingles and siding were ripped off. One mobile home was turned over on its side. The tornado moved through the town of Deposit at 6:30 p.m., creating a path of destruction 200 yards wide. The tornado skipped along hilltops, touching down occasionally on the valley floors. However, much damage was done to homes as the tornado's winds reached their maximum speeds of 158 to 206 miles per hour. The tornado weakened and sporadically touched down after leaving Deposit. By 7:00 p.m., the tornado had finally ended its 1 -hour rampage. 200. Calculate the tornado's average rate of travel, in miles per minute, between Vestal and Windsor, by using the map and equation below. Express your answer to the nearest tenth. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 201. Using the Fujita Scale shown below and the information in the passage, complete the table by assigning an F-Scale number for the tornado as it passed through each town given in the table. 202. Which type of front was located at the boundary between the advancing cold, dry air mass and the warm, moist air mass? 203. The tornado mentioned in this passage was produced by cold, dry air from Canada quickly advancing into warm, moist air already in place over the northeastern United States. List the two-letter air-mass symbols that would identify each of the two air masses responsible for producing this tornado. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 204. On the map, draw the path of the tornado and the direction the tornado moved, by following the directions below. • Place an X through the point for each of the six towns mentioned in the passage. • Connect the Xs with a line in the order that each town was mentioned in the passage. • Place an arrow at one end of your line to show the direction of the tornado's movement. Base your answers to questions 205 through 207 on the cross section and bar graph below. The cross section shows a portion of Earth's crust along the western coast of the United States. The points show different locations on Earth's surface. The arrows show the prevailing wind direction. The bar below each point shows the yearly precipitation at that location. 205. State one reason why colder temperatures would be recorded at the top of the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range than at the top of the Coastal Mountain Ranges. 206. What is the yearly precipitation total for the four points located in the Coastal Mountain Ranges? 207. Explain why the valleys have lower amounts of precipitation than points on the western slopes of the mountain ranges. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 208 and 209 on the diagram below, which represents water molecules attached to salt and dust particles within a cloud in the atmosphere. 208. State one natural process that causes large amounts of dust to enter Earth’s atmosphere. 209. Explain why salt and dust particles are important in cloud formation. Base your answers to questions 210 through 212 on the information below, which describes the past and present climate of Antarctica, and on your knowledge of Earth science. Antarctica's ice sheet has an average thickness of 6600 feet and holds approximately 70% of Earth's freshwater. Ice layers in Antarctica preserve information about Earth's history. Fossil evidence found in the bedrock of this continent shows that Antarctica was once tropical and is a potential source of untapped natural resources. Antarctica is now a frozen desert with very little snowfall. 210. Scientists are concerned that the Antarctic ice may melt as the result of global warming. State one effect that this melting would most likely have on Long Island, New York. 211. What evidence is preserved in Antarctica that provides information about Earth’s past climates? 212. Explain why Antarctica’s cold climate is responsible for its very low amount of yearly precipitation. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 213 through 217 on the data table and map below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The data table shows the altitude of the top of a thunderstorm cloud and the probability of hail being formed for a location in New York State. The map shows the average number of days per year hail strikes the ground in different regions of the United States. 213. State one way that humans could protect themselves from harm if a severe hail warning is issued for their locality. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 214. The table above shows weather conditions recorded in Syracuse, New York, at the time of a severe hailstorm. On the weather map station model below, use the correct symbols and proper format to indicate the six weather conditions shown in the table. 215. State the average number of days per year that Syracuse, New York, will experience hail. 216. Into which atmospheric temperature zone (layer) above New York State would the top of a thunderstorm cloud extend to have a 100% probability of hail? 217. Describe the relationship between the altitude of the top of a thunderstorm cloud and the probability that hail will be produced by that cloud. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 218 through 221 on the passage below and on your knowledge of Earth science. Watching the Glaciers Go Mountain glaciers and ice caps in tropical areas of the world are melting fast and may vanish altogether by the year 2020. That was the chilling news last year from Lonnie Thompson, a geologist at Ohio State University's Byrd Polar Research Center who has been studying icy areas near the equator in South America, Africa, and the Himalayas for two decades. It doesn't take a glacier scientist to see the changes. In 1977, when Thompson visited the Quelccaya ice cap in Peru, it was impossible not to notice a schoolbus-size boulder stuck in its grip. When Thompson returned in 2000, the rock was still there but the ice wasn't — it had retreated far into the distance. Most scientists believe the glaciers are melting because of global warming — the gradual temperature increase that has been observed with increasing urgency during the past decade. Last year a panel of the nation's top scientists, the National Research Council, set aside any lingering skepticism about the phenomenon, concluding definitively that average global surface temperatures are rising and will continue to do so. "Watching the Glaciers Go," Popular Science,vol. #7, January 2002 218. Describe one action humans could take to reduce the global warming that is melting the Quelccaya ice cap. 219. Some glaciers currently exist near Earth’s equator due to the cold, snowy climate of certain locations. Which type of landform exists where these glaciers occur? 220. Describe the arrangement of sediment deposited directly from glaciers. 221. State one greenhouse gas that is an excellent absorber of infrared radiation and maybe responsible for global warming. Base your answers to questions 222 and 223 on the station model below, which shows the weather conditions at at 4 p.m. on a particular day in June. 222. The winds shown by this station model were blowing from which compass direction and at what wind speed? ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 223. What was the actual barometric pressure, according to the station model, to the nearest tenth of a millibar? Base your answers to questions 224 through 226 on the cross section below, which shows a typical cold front moving over Florida in early summer. 224. Central Canada was the geographic source region for the cP air mass shown in the cross section. Identify the most likely geographic source region for the mT air mass shown in the cross section. 225. State one process that causes clouds to form in this rising air 226. Explain why the warm, moist air is rising at the frontal boundary. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 227 and 228 on the map and graph below and your knowledge of Earth science. The map shows the length of the growing season in New York State, expressed in days. The growing season is the average number of days between the last frost in spring and the first frost in fall. The graph line shows the relationship between the latitudes of Riverhead, New York; Albany, New York; and Massena, New York; and the length of the growing season at these three locations. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 227. Compare the length of the growing season in a lowland region with the length of the growing season in a mountain region at approximately the same latitude. 228. For Riverhead, Albany, and Massena, state the relationship between latitude and the length of the growing season shown by the graph. 229. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below which shows warm, moist air moving off the ocean and over a mountain, causing precipitation between points 1 and 2. Describe two changes that occur to the warm, moist air between points 1 and 2 that would cause cloud formation. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 230. On the weather map station model above, using the proper format, record the six weather conditions shown below. Wind: from the northwest Wind speed: 10 knots Barometric pressure: 1022.0 mb Cloud cover: 50% Visibility: 5 mi Precipitation (in the past 6 hours): .45 in Base your answers to questions 231 and 232 on the data table below, which shows the amount of water vapor, in grams per cubic meter, that will saturate 1 cubic meter of air at different temperatures. 231. Describe the relationship between the air temperature and the amount of water vapor necessary to saturate the air. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 232. above,construct a line graph of the data, following the directions below. On the grid provided a Place the name of the correct variable along the y-axis. Include the correct units. b Mark an appropriate numerical scale showing equal intervals along the y-axis. c Plot the amount of water that will saturate 1 cubic meter of air at the temperatures shown in the data table. Connect the points with a smooth, curved line. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 233. Base your answer to the next question on the map provided below. The map shows six source regions for different air masses that affect the weather of North America. The directions of movement of the air masses are shown. Label the air masses by writing the correct symbol in each circle on the map. Label the air masses by writing the correct symbol in each circle on the map. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 234 and 235 on the map below, which shows one method of classifying Earth's surface into latitudinal climate belts. In the tropical climate belt, the average monthly temperatures never drop below 18°C. In the polar climate belts, the average monthly temperatures never rise above 10°C. The isotherms show the average monthly temperature of the coolest and warmest months. Effects of elevation have been omitted. 234. Describe a specific characteristic of insolation received in the tropical climate belt region that causes the average monthly temperature to remain warm all year. 235. According to the isotherms on the map, locations in the mid-latitude climate belts have average monthly temperatures between what values? ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 236 and 237 on the weather map provided below,which shows surface air-pressure readings, in millibars, at various locations in the United States and Canada. The 1020-millibar isobars have been drawn and labeled. 236. What weather instrument was most likely used to measure these air pressures? 237. Draw the 1024- and 1028-millibar isobars on the weather map provided above. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 238 and 239 on the weather map below, which shows the position of a low-pressure system. The L is the center of the low. The shaded portion represents an area of precipitation. A weather station model for Albany, New York, is shown on the map. 238. Complete the weather data table above for Albany, New York, based on the station model shown on the map. 239. What type of front extends eastward from the low-pressure center? ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 240 and 241 on the weather map provided below, which shows a large white band of clods moving toward the southeast. The line shown in the middle of the white cloud band is the frontal boundary between a cP air mass and an mT air mass. Two large arrows show the direction the front is moving. 240. On the weather map, place an X centered on the geographic region that was most likely the source of the warm, moist (mT) air mass. 241. On the frontal boundary line on the weather map provided above, draw the weather front symbol to represent the front moving toward the southeast. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 242 through 245 on the data table, which shows recorded information for a major Atlantic hurricane and the map below. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 242. Describe the relationship between air pressure and wind speed associated with this hurricane. 243. Identify the weather instrument used to measure the air pressure associated with this hurricane. 244. Label the September 15 (9/15) position of the hurricane on the map. Starting from this plotted position on September 15, draw a dashed line on the map provided aboveto indicate the storm's most likely path for the next 5 days. 245. Using the latitude and longitude data in the table, place an X on the map provided above for each location of the hurricane during these 6 days. Connect all the Xs with a solid line. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 246. The atmospheric conditions at a given location are represented by the weather station model below. On the lines provided below, fill in the correct information for each variable listed, based on this weather station model. Air Pressure: __________________ mb Air Temperature: __________ °F Amount of precipitation during last six hours: ________ inch(es) Cloud Cover: __________% Present Weather: ____________________ Base your answers to questions 247 and 248 on the table provided below. 247. Describe how the Atlantic Ocean surrounding climate region 5 has most probably influenced the average temperatures of this region during January, February, and March. 248. On the grid provided, construct a bar graph of the average monthly temperatures provided above for climate region 5. January has been completed for you. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 249 through 251 on the map and graphs below. The map shows five climate regions of New York State. The bar graphs show average monthly temperatures of four of these climate regions. 249. What landscape characteristic of climate region 3 most likely causes it to have both cooler summer temperatures and cooler winter temperatures than climate region 2? 250. What climate variable, other than temperature, was also used to identify these areas as four different climate regions? 251. The average monthly temperatures for climate regions 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a similar yearly pattern of change. Identify one climate control factor that these four climate regions have in common that most probably causes this similarity in temperature pattern. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 252 through 255 on the weather map below, which shows a weather system over the northeastern United States and weather data for several locations. Isobars show a low-pressure (L) center. Point X is a location in Canada. 252. Describe how clouds form when warm, humid air rises along the cold front. a Include the terms dewpoint and either expansion or expands in your answer. b State the phase change that occurs at the dewpoint. 253. Describe the five specific weather conditions for Charleston indicated by the station model on the weather map. Complete the chart provided above and include appropriate units where necessary. 254. State the relationship between isobar spacing on the map and wind velocity. 255. On the weather map above, draw a curved arrow through point X to show the general direction of surface winds on that side of the low-pressure center. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 256 through 259 on Read the passage below: Greenhouse Effect The warming of Earth's surface and lower atmosphere tends to intensify with an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. The atmosphere allows a large percentage of the visible light rays from the Sun to reach Earth's surface. Some of this energy is reradiated by Earth's surface in the form of long-wave infrared radiation. Much of this infrared radiation warms the atmosphere when it is absorbed by molecules of carbon dioxide and water vapor. A similar warming effect is produced by the glass of a greenhouse, which allows sunlight in the visible range to enter, but prevents infrared radiation from leaving the greenhouse. The absorption of infrared radiation causes Earth's surface and the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere to warm to a higher temperature than would otherwise be the case. Without this "greenhouse" warming, Earth's average surface temperature could be as low as –73°C. The oceans would freeze under such conditions. Many scientists believe that modern industrialization and the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) have increased the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide. This increase may result in an intensified greenhouse effect on Earth causing significant alterations in climate patterns in the future. Scientists estimate that average global temperatures could increase by as much as 5°C by the middle of the 21st century. 256. State one possible change humans could make to significantly reduce the amount of greenhouse gases added to the atmosphere each year. 257. Explain why most scientists believe an increase in the greenhouse effect will cause sea levels to rise. 258. State a possible wavelength, in centimeters, of infrared radiation. 259. The lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere has undergone a large increase in temperature due to the presence of greenhouse gases. State the name of this temperature-zone layer. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 260 through 263 on the table below. The table shows air temperatures and air pressures recorded by a weather balloon rising over Buffalo, New York. 260. This rising weather balloon also recorded dewpoint temperatures. If the dewpoint at 1,500 meters was 12°C, what was the relative humidity of the air at 1,500 meters above sea level? 261. State the relationship shown in the table between altitude above sea level and air pressure recorded by the rising weather balloon. 262. What weather instrument is usually attached to a weather balloon to measure air pressure? ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 263. On the grid, construct a graph of altitude above sea level and air temperature by following the directions below. a Plot an X for the air temperature recorded at each altitude shown on the table. b Connect the Xs with a solid line. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 264 and 265 on the isotherm maps below which show the average monthly air temperatures (°F) over a portion of Earth's surface for January and July. 264. From January to July, there is a smaller temperature change in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern Hemisphere. Explain why the Southern Hemisphere's larger ocean-water surface causes this smaller temperature change. 265. The hottest average January temperatures occur at approximately what latitude? Base your answers to questions 266 through 268 on the weather station model below. 266. a What specific type of precipitation is occurring at this weather station? b State one additional weather condition shown by the station model. Explain how this weather condition provides evidence of high relative humidity. 267. What is the actual air pressure shown by this weather station model? 268. On the weather station model provided, draw the proper symbols to indicate a wind of 25 knots blowing from the southeast. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 269. Base your answer to the following question on the temperature field map below. The map shows air temperatures, in degrees Fahrenheit, recorded at the same time at weather stations across North America. The air temperature at location A has been deliberately left blank. a On the map provided,use smooth, curved solid lines to draw the 30°F, 40°F, and 50°F isotherms. b What is the most probable air temperature at location A? ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 270 through 273 on the atmospheric cross section below, which represents a winter storm system. Zones A, B, C, and D are located on a west to east line at approximately 43° N latitude across New York State. This cross section shows how solid and liquid forms of precipitation depend on the air temperature above Earth's surface. The storm is moving from west to east. 270. Describe the general air movement and temperature change that caused the clouds associated with this storm to form. 271. As the storm moves eastward, the type of precipitation received in Syracuse changes. State the type of precipitation that will immediately follow freezing rain. 272. At the time of the events represented by the cross section, Syracuse, New York, is experiencing the weather conditions shown above. The temperature, dewpoint, and wind direction are shown on the weather station model above. Using proper format, add the information shown in the table to the model provided above. 273. Explain why sleet is occurring in Zone B. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 274 through 276 on the weather map provided, which shows partial weather-station data for several cities in eastern North America. 274. State the general relationship between air temperature and latitude for locations shown on the map. 275. State the actual air pressure, in millibars, shown at Miami, Florida. 276. Calculate the temperature gradient between Richmond, Virginia, and Hatteras, North Carolina, by following the directions below. a Write the equation for gradient. b Substitute data from the map into the equation. c Calculate the average gradient and label your answer with the correct units. 277. Identify by name the surface ocean current that cools the climate of locations on the western coastline of North America. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 278 through 280 on data tables I and II and on the Hurricane Tracking Map below. Table I represents the storm track data for an Atlantic hurricane. Location, wind velocity, air pressure, and storm strength are shown for the storm's center at 3 p.m. Greenwich time each day. Table II shows a scale of relative storm strength. The map shows the hurricane's path. 278. Calculate the average daily rate of movement of the hurricane during the period from 3 p.m. August 24 to 3 p.m. August 28. The hurricane traveled 2,600 kilometers during this 4-day period. Follow the directions given below. a Write the equation used to determine the rate of change. b Substitute data into the equation. c Calculate the rate and label it with the proper units. 279. The hurricane did not continue moving toward the same compass direction during the entire period shown by the data table. Explain why the hurricane changed direction. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 280. Describe two characteristics of the circulation pattern of the surface winds around the center (eye) of a Northern Hemisphere low-pressure hurricane. 281. Base your answer to the next question on the cross section provided below, which represents a house at an ocean shoreline at night. Smoke from the chimney is blowing out to sea. a Label the two lines provided on the cross section above to show where air pressure is relatively "high" and where it is relatively "low." b Assume that the wind blowing out to sea on this night is caused by local air-temperature conditions. Label the two lines provided on the cross section above to show where Earth's surface air temperature is relatively "warm" and where it is relatively "cool." ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 282. The weather map below shows a typical midlatitude low-pressure system centered in Illinois. a On the weather map provided above, indicate which boxed area has the highest surface air temperatures by marking an X in one of the four boxes on the map. b On the weather map provided above, draw an arrow to predict the normal storm track that this low-pressure center would be expected to follow. 283. A weather station records the following data: Air pressure is 1,001.0 millibars. Wind is from the south. Wind speed is 25 knots. Using the proper weather map symbols, place this information in the correct locations on the weather station model provided above. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 284 through 286 on the weather map provided in your answer booklet. The weather map shows a low-pressure system over part of North America. Five weather stations are shown on the map. Lines AB, BC, and BD represent surface frontal boundaries. Line AB represents an occluded front that marks the center of a low-pressure system. Symbols cP and mT represent different air masses. 284. Other than low pressure, state two weather conditions associated with a low-pressure center. 285. Name the geographic region over which the mT air mass most likely formed. 286. On the weather map provided place the proper front symbols on lines AB, BC, and BD. Place the front symbols on the correct side of each line to show the direction of front movement. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 287 and 288 on the maps below, which show areas of hurricane formation and normal hurricane paths in the Atlantic Ocean during May, July, and September. The areas of hurricane formation usually have surface ocean-water temperatures greater than 80°F. 287. State one reason why most hurricane paths curve northeastward as hurricanes move north of 30° N latitude. 288. How does the area of hurricane formation change from May to September? 289. Using the proper format, place the following data on the weather station model provided below. Dewpoint = 74°F Cloud cover = 100% ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 290 through 293 on the maps below, which show the spread of a volcanic ash cloud from the 1982 eruption of El Chichón in Mexico, as seen from weather satellites. 290. As the ash cloud moved away from El Chichón, some ash particles fell back to Earth. a Describe how the size of the particles affected the pattern of deposition. b Describe how the density of the particles affected the pattern of deposition. 291. State the most likely effect of the ash cloud on the temperature of areas under the cloud on April 25, 1982. 292. State what caused the main ash cloud to spread in the pattern shown on the map of April 25, 1982. 293. Identify the direction toward which the ash cloud spread from April 5 to April 25. 294. An Earth science class is preparing a booklet on emergency preparedness. State one safety measure that should be taken to minimize danger from each of the following threats. a Thunderstorm b Tornado c Volcanic eruption ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 295 through 297 on the diagram below, which shows a hygrometer located on a wall in a classroom. The hygrometer's temperature readings are used by the students to determine the relative humidity of the air in the classroom. 295. Describe how water evaporating from the wick attached to the wetbulb thermometer lowers the temperature reading of that thermometer. 296. Besides relative humidity, identify another weather variable of the air in the classroom that may be determined by using both temperature readings on the hygrometer. 297. Based on the temperature readings shown in this diagram, determine the relative humidity of the air in the classroom. 298. The following weather data was collected at Boonville, New York. On the station model provided above, using the proper format, record: • the amount of cloud cover • the barometric pressure • the symbol for the present weather ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 299 through 301 on the data table below. The table shows the elevation and average annual precipitation at ten weather stations, A through J, located along a highway that passes over a mountain. 299. Although stations C and F are at the same elevation, they have very different amounts of average annual precipitation. Explain how the prevailing wind direction might cause this difference. 300. State the relationship between the elevation of weather stations A through E and the average annual precipitation at these weather stations. 301. On the grid provided above, graph the data shown on the data table by following the directions below. a Mark the grid with a point showing the elevation of each weather station. b Surround each point with the proper symbol from the symbol chart to show the amount of average annual precipitation for the weather station. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 302. The weather satellite photograph of a portion of the United States and Mexico provided below. The photograph shows the clouds of a major hurricane approaching the eastern coastline of Texas and Mexico. The calm center of the hurricane, the eye, is labeled. a State two dangerous conditions, other than hurricane winds, that could cause human fatalities as the hurricane strikes the coast. b Describe one emergency preparation humans could take to avoid a problem caused by one of these dangerous conditions. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 303 through 306 on The weather satellite photograph of a portion of the United States and Mexico provided below. The photograph shows the clouds of a major hurricane approaching the eastern coastline of Texas and Mexico. The calm center of the hurricane, the eye, is labeled. 303. At the location shown in the photograph, the hurricane had maximum winds recorded at 110 miles per hour. Within a 24-hour period, the hurricane moved 150 miles inland and had maximum winds of only 65 miles per hour. State why the wind velocity of a hurricane usually decreases when the hurricane moves over a land surface. 304. State the latitude and longitude of the hurricane's eye. The compass directions must be included in the answer. 305. Cloud droplets form around small particles in the atmosphere. Describe how the hurricane clouds formed from water vapor. Include the terms "dewpoint" and either "condensation" or "condense" in your answer. 306. This hurricane has a pattern of surface winds typical of all low-pressure systems in the Northern Hemisphere. On the satellite photograph provided, draw three arrows on the clouds to show the direction of the surface wind movement outside the eye of the hurricane. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 307 through 309 on the table below, which shows the concentration of ozone, in ozone units, in Earth's atmosphere at different altitudes. [One ozone unit is equal to 10 12 molecules per cubic centimeter.] 307. State how incoming solar radiation (insolation) is affected by the ozone in the atmosphere. 308. State the name of the temperature zone of the atmosphere in which the concentration of ozone is greatest. 309. On the grid provided, construct a line graph of the ozone concentration in the atmosphere recorded at the different altitudes shown on the table by plotting the data from the table and connecting the points. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 310 through 312 on the magazine article and diagram below. Lake-Effect Snow During the cold months of the year, the words "lake effect" are very much a part of the weather picture in many locations in New York State. Snow created by the lake effect may represent more than half the season's snowfall in some areas. In order for heavy lake-effect snow to develop, the temperature of the water at the surface of the lake must be higher than the temperature of the air flowing over the water. The higher the water temperature and the lower the air temperature, the greater the potential for lake-effect snow. A lake-effect storm begins when air flowing across the lake is warmed as it comes in close contact with the water. The warmed air rises and takes moisture along with it. This moisture, which is water vapor from the lake, is turned into clouds as it encounters much colder air above. When the clouds reach the shore of the lake, they deposit their snow on nearby land. A typical lake-effect storm is illustrated in the diagram below. The area most likely to receive snow from a lake is called a "snowbelt." Lake Ontario's snowbelt includes the counties along the eastern and southeastern ends of the lake. Because the lake runs lengthwise from west to east, the prevailing westerly winds are able to gather the maximum amount of moisture as they flow across the entire length of the lake. There can be lake-effect snowfall anywhere around the lake, but the heaviest and most frequent snowfalls occur near the eastern shore. In parts of the snowbelt, the lake effect combines with a phenomenon known as orographic lifting to produce some very heavy snowfalls. After cold air has streamed over the length of Lake Ontario, it moves inland and is forced to climb the slopes of the Tug Hill Plateau and the Adirondack Mountains, resulting in very heavy snowfall. 310. State why very heavy snowfall occurs in the Tug Hill Plateau region. 311. State why locations east and southeast of Lake Ontario are more likely to receive lake-effect snow than are locations west of the lake. 312. State the relationship that must exist between water temperature and air temperature for lake-effect snow to develop. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 313 through 315 on the paragraph below, which describes some factors that affect Earth's climate. Earth's climate is in a delicate state of balance. Many factors affect climate. Any small change in the factors may lead to long-term cooling or warming of Earth's atmosphere. For example, during the last 100 years, measurements have shown a gradual increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. This change has been linked to an increase in Earth's average atmospheric temperature. Variations in the tilt of Earth's axis have been similarly linked to the occurrence of ice ages. Both the increases in temperature and the occurrence of ice ages have been linked to changes in global sea level. 313. State what would happen to the average summer and winter temperatures in New York State if the tilt of Earth's axis were to decrease from 23 ° to 20°. 314. State one way that the recent increase in average global temperature can cause changes in ocean water level. 315. State one reason for the increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere during the last 100 years. Base your answers to questions 316 through 318 on the weather information below. A student using a sling psychrometer obtained a dry-bulb reading of 20°C and a wetbulb reading of 16°C for a parcel of air outside the classroom. 316. On another day, the student determined the dewpoint was 70°F. Record the dewpoint, using the proper format, in the correct location on the weather station model provided above. 317. State the change in relative humidity as the air temperature and the dewpoint get closer to the same value. 318. State the dewpoint. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 319 through 321 on the weather maps below. The weather maps show the positions of a tropical storm at 10 a.m. on July 2 and on July 3. 319. The storm formed over warm tropical water. State what will most likely happen to the windspeed when the storm moves over land. 320. Windspeed has been omitted from the station models. In one or more sentences, state how an increase in the storm's windspeed from July 2 to July 3 could be inferred from the maps. 321. State the dewpoint temperature in Tallahassee on July 2. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 322 and 323 on the map below, which represents a satellite image of Hurricane Gilbert in the Gulf of Mexico. Each X represents the position of the center of the storm on the date indicated. 322. State one reason Hurricane Gilbert weakened between September 16 and September 18. 323. Describe one threat to human life and property that could have been caused by the arrival of Hurricane Gilbert along the coastline at the Texas-Mexico border. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 324 through 327 on the reading passage and maps below. The reading passage discusses acid rain. Map I shows the locations of some major United States producers of nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide that are released into Earth's atmosphere. Map II shows the pH concentration of acid rain in the United States. Acid Rain Acid deposition consists of acidic substances that fall to Earth. The most common type of acid deposition is rain containing nitric acid and sulfuric acid. Acid rain forms when nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide gases combine with water and oxygen in the atmosphere. Human-generated sulfur dioxide results primarily from coal-burning electric utility plants and industrial plants. Human-generated nitrogen oxide results primarily from burning fossil fuels in motor vehicles and electric utility plants. Natural events, such as volcanic eruptions, forest fires, hot springs, and geysers, also produce nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide. Acid rain affects trees, human-made structures, and surface water. Acid damages tree leaves and decreases the tree's ability to carry on photosynthesis. Acid also damages tree bark and exposes trees to insects and disease. Many statues and buildings are composed of rocks containing the mineral calcite, which reacts with acid and chemically weathers more rapidly than other common minerals. Acid deposition lowers the pH of surface water. Much of the surface water of the Adirondack region has pH values too acidic for plants and animals to survive. 324. Explain why completely eliminating human-generated nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide will not completely eliminate acid deposition. 325. Describe one law that could be passed by the government to prevent some of the problems of acid deposition. 326. State one sedimentary or one metamorphic rock that is most chemically weathered by acid rain. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 327. State one reason that the northeastern part of the United States has more acid deposition than other regions of the country. Base your answers to questions 328 through 331 on the weather map below, which shows partial weather data for several weather stations. Point A is the center of a low-pressure system. Lines AB and AC represent the frontal boundaries between different air masses. 328. Name the weather instrument used to measure the air pressure at the center of the low. 329. Atlanta, Georgia, has the following additional weather variable measurements. Visibility = 6 miles Amount of cloud cover = 1/2 or 50% Air pressure = 1001.1 millibars On the station model provided, place these three weather measurements in their correct location using the proper format. 330. In each of the three map sections (Section 1, Section 2, and Section 3), draw curved arrows to represent the general direction that surface winds will move in association with the center of the low-pressure system at location A. 331. Draw the correct weather map symbols for the two different fronts located on lines AB and AC. The symbols must show the direction the fronts are moving. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 332 and 333 on the weather station model shown below. 332. State the relative humidity. 333. State the condition represented by the symbol for "present weather." Base your answers to questions 334 and 335 on the weather map below, which shows temperature readings at weather stations in the continental United States. 334. In Richmond, Virginia, the wind direction is from the east at a speed of 20 knots. On the station model provided draw the correct symbols for wind direction and windspeed. 335. On the weather map provided on your answer paper, draw three isotherms: the 40°F isotherm, the 50°F isotherm, and the 60°F isotherm. 336. A parcel of air has a dry-bulb temperature of 18°C and a wet-bulb temperature of 10°C. State the relative humidity of this parcel of air. _______ % 337. State one way in which a hurricane differs from a tornado. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 338 and 339 on the data table and profile below. The data table gives the average annual precipitation for locations A and B. The profile represents a mountain in the western United States. Points A and B are locations on different sides of the mountain. 338. State one probable reason for the difference in average annual precipitation between location A and location B. 339. State the elevation of location A. 340. Base your answers to the following questions on the weather station data shown in the table below. a) State the air temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. b) State the barometric pressure in its proper form, as used on a station model. c) Using one or more complete sentences, state one reason that ultraviolet rays are dangerous. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 341. Base your answers to the questions below on the information below. The climate of an area is affected by many variables such as elevation, latitude, and distance to a large body of water. The effect of these variables on average surface temperature and temperature range can be represented by graphs on grids that have axes labeled as shown below. a) On Grid I, draw a line to show the relationship between elevation and average surface temperature. b) On Grid II draw a line to show the relationship between latitude and average surface temperature. c) On Grid III draw a line to show the relationship between distance to a large body of water and temperature range. d) Explain why the climate near the Equator is warm and moist. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 342 through 345 on the map below and your knowledge of Earth science. The map shows the path of a tornado that moved through a portion of Nebraska on May 22, 2004 between 7:30 p.m. and 9:10 p.m. The path of the tornado along the ground is indicated by the shaded region. The width of the shading indicates the width of destruction on the ground. Numbers on the tornado's path indicate the Fujita intensity at those locations. The Fujita Intensity Scale (F-Scale), in the left corner of the map, provides information about wind speed and damage at various F-Scale intensities. 342. Describe one safety precaution that should be taken if a tornado has been sighted approaching your home. 343. Identify the weather instrument usually used to measure wind speed. 344. State a possible wind speed of the tornado, in kilometers per hour (km/h), when it was moving through the town of Bennet. 345. On the map, place an X at a location where the tornado damage was greatest. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Base your answers to questions 346 through 349 on the passage and the graph below and on your knowledge of Earth science. Great Lake Effects The Great Lakes influence the weather and climate of nearby land regions at all times of the year. Much of this lake effect is determined by the relative temperatures of surface lake water compared to the surface air temperatures over those land areas. The graph below shows the average monthly temperature of the surface water of Lake Erie and the surface air temperature at Buffalo, New York. In an average year, four lake-effect seasons are experienced. When surface lake temperatures are colder than surface air temperatures, a stable season occurs. The cooler lake waters suppress cloud development and reduce the strength of rainstorms. As a result, late spring and early summer in the Buffalo region tends to be very sunny. A season of lake-effect rains follows. August is usually a time of heavy nighttime rains, and much of the rainy season is marked by heavy, localized rainstorms downwind from the lake. Gradually, during late October, lake-effect rains are replaced by snows. Generally, the longer the time the wind travels over the lake, the heavier the lake effect becomes in Buffalo. Finally, conditions stabilize again, as the relatively shallow Lake Erie freezes over, usually near the end of January. Very few lake-effect storms occur during this time period. 346. Explain why the Buffalo surface air temperatures increase faster and earlier in the year than do the surface water temperatures of Lake Erie. ALL CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE 347. On the map below, draw one straight arrow in Lake Erie to show the winter wind direction most likely to bring the heaviest lake-effect snows to Buffalo. 348. Identify one weather variable that determines whether Buffalo receives rain or snow from a lake-effect storm in October. 349. The passage states, "The cooler lake waters suppress cloud development ... " because the water cools the air above its surface. Explain why this cool air above the lake surface reduces the amount of cloud development. Answer Key ALL WEATHER CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE MEGA PACKET 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. — go into a 6. basement or underground storm shelter — go to an interior room — stay away from windows 7. — get under something sturdy anemometer or wind speed meter. 254 km/h to 332 km/h 8. — The specific heat of water is greater than the specific heat of land or dry land, so the air over the land heats up faster than the air over the lake. — More energy is required to heat up the same amount of water than to heat the same amount of 9. land. — Air has a lower specific heat than water. — A lot of energy is used to melt the ice on Lake Erie. — Lake Erie is still covered by ice. — The darker land surface absorbs greater insolation. — Land heats up faster than water. 10. Allow credit for any 16. value from 39°F to 41°F. 11. — temperature/air temperature — The average temperature of the air is colder when Buffalo receives snow. — Cooler air near the lake remains close to the surface because it is more dense than surrounding air. — Cold air over the lake is more dense. — Cooler air over Lake Erie is less likely to rise. — Convection is reduced. — Less evaporation occurs when the air is colder. — lack of moisture. — Warm air rises to form clouds. 12. 13. — condensation — water vapor changing to liquid water — gas to liquid 17. Any value from 30.00 to 30.01 in of Hg. 18. — NE — northeast — east — ENE 19. barometer or barograph Allow credit if both 20. dewpoint and relative humidity are correct. — Dewpoint: 8°C — Relative humidity: 40% 14. — The isotherms are closer together between locations W 15. and X than they are between locations Y and Z. — Temperatures between W and X show the same change over a shorter distance. — The isotherms are farther apart between Y and Z. — The isolines are closer together. — The higher elevation at A has a cooler temperature. — Location A is at a higher elevation. — Location A is in the mountains. — Location B is not as high in elevation. Both isobars are correctly drawn to the east coast of the United States or to the edge of the map. Allow credit if both responses are correct. — Air pressure: 21. barometer — Air Temperature: thermometer — Location D has air that is rising, expanding, and 22. cooling to the dewpoint. — Location D is on the windward side of the mountain. — Location D is closer to the ocean. — Location C is on the leeward side of the mountain. —higher latitude, —farther north of the equator, —lower angle of insolation, —location E is closer to the equator. —elevation, —high altitude, —mountains Answer Key ALL WEATHER CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE MEGA PACKET 23. 24. —Location A is on 27. the windward side of mountains. —Location A receives prevailing winds off the ocean. —Location A is closer to the ocean. —Location B is on the leeward side of a mountain range. — Adiabatic warming occurs in descending air at location B after losing most of its moisture on the windward side of a mountain/orographic effect. —The prevailing southwest 28. winds bring moist air to location A. 29. Air temperature at X : — cooler — lower/less — decreased — colder 30. than Y Water vapor content at X: — higher/more 31. — 100% relative humidity — wetter — saturated — more humid than Y 25. California Current 26. January or Jan. — Omaha is 34. surrounded by land, which has a low specific heat. — The Pacific Ocean moderates the temperature/climate of Eureka. — Large 35. bodies of water change temperature more slowly than land does. — Water has a higher specific heat than land. — The relatively drier air around Omaha has a lower specific heat than the moist air around Eureka. 8C°/month or – 8C°/mo — warmer — hot — a tropical temperature Glaciers: — will melt — will retreat — decrease in size — become smaller — shrink — The rate of melting will increase. Sea level: — will rise — increase — higher — coastal flooding 32. 33. any value from 45km/h to 55 km/h 36. – learn about hurricane risks for area, – learn safe emergency evacuation routes/shelter locations, – obtain/check emergency equipment (radio, flashlight, first-aid kit), – have enough water and nonperishable food, – make sure to have materials to secure home (plywood, shatter-resistant glass, hurricane shutters/straps, sandbags), – update insurance. 37. – carbon dioxide/ CO 2, – methane/CH4 , – vater vapor/H 2O, – chlorofluorocarbons/CFC's, – nitrous oxide/N2O, – ozone/O 3 38. – 0.5 C°/h. 39. Color: – black, – dark Texture: – rough, – bumpy, – uneven, –jagged, – coarse 40. — the Sun — insolation — solar radiation/solar energy — sunlight 41. — As precipitation/rainfall increases, runoff increases. — More rain leads to more runoff. — direct relationship — Runoff is usually less than rainfall. 42. — infiltration — water seeping into the ground — absorption/recharge of the storage — seeping/seepage/percolation — water entering/soaking/sinking into the soil – The warm waters that give the hurricane its energy are located in this tropical region of the ocean. – Warm ocean waters between 10° N an 20° N fuel hurricanes. – Warm 43. and/or humid atmopheric conditions exist between 10° N and 20° N. – a maritime tropical air mass, – low air pressure, – rising air currents, – low wind shear. transpiration or evaporation/vaporization or evapotranspiration Answer Key ALL WEATHER CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE MEGA PACKET 44. — first aid kit — 56. blankets — batteries — radio — 57. flashlight — bottled water — food — generator — necessary medications 45. 1.5 in/h or 1 in/h 46. 100% 50. – Latitude - 27° N, Longitude - 80°W 51. 999.5 mb 52. –The dewpoint and air temperature are nearly the same. –Snow is falling in Oswego. –There is 100% cloud cover. –Air pressure is low. 53. 54. 55. Air temperature: 31°F/- Dewpoint: 29°F/Wind speed: 10 knots/Cloud cover: 100% –The ocean changes temperature more slowly than the nearby land does. –Large bodies of water moderate climatic temperatures. –A warm ocean current is flowing nearby. –The water has a higher specific heat than the land does. cP or cA or mP. 64. Runoff: –increases –goes up Infiltration: –decreases –less –would drop to zero/near zero 59. 4520 J 60. –precipitation –raining –snowing –sleeting –hailing 61. –carbon dioxide or CO 2 –methane or CH 4 –water vapor 65. or H2O gas –nitrous oxide or N2O –ozone or O3 –chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs 48. – Northeast 63. 58. 47. 49. any value from –20ºC to –24ºC 62. –The area covered by ice in 2005 was 66. less than the average area covered by ice from 1979 to 2000. –The area covered by ice was less, showing evidence of global warming. –More ice melted in 2005 than the average that melted from 1979 to 2000. –The ice caps were melting, causing less surface ice in 2005. –There was less ice in 2005. 67. condensation 68. Air temperature at B : –warmer –higher –increased Relative humidity at B: – lower –drier –decreased –The heavy rainfall 69. will infiltrate the ground, causing the water table to rise closer to the surface. –Infiltration will occur. –The ground becomes more saturated. –The saturated zone will increase. –The water table will rise. –erosion of the land surface. –Acid dissolves 70. limestone. –The calcite in the 71. limestone chemically reacts with acid. –Limestone is composed of calcite. 72. Soil permeability: –high –The soil is unsaturated. –a soil that allows water to easily or rapidly seep through –The surface of the soil is not frozen. –a very permeable soil –loosely packed large particles Land surface slope: –a gentle slope –a slope that is not steep –a level slope –flat/a flat plain – Air expands as it moves up the mountain. – The molecules move farther apart as the air rises. – Lower pressure at higher altitudes allows molecules to move farther apart. – The less dense air at higher altitudes allow the air molecules to spread out. – 100% – psychrometer – wet- and dry-bulb thermometer – hygrometer – car accidents – power outages – damage to homes –flooding – trees falling on electrical lines/houses/cars – heart attack from shoveling – carbon monoxide poisoning – no heat in the building 73. – southwest –SW – west southwest – WSW 74. –any value greater than 1 in, but less than 6 in. 75. –93 mi to 107 mi. Answer Key ALL WEATHER CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE MEGA PACKET 76. 77. 78. 83. – methane or CH 4 – water vapor or H2O – nitrous oxide or N2 O – ozone or O3 – chlorofluorocarbons/CFCs –2 ppm/y 79. 84. — Miami is located 88. at a lower latitude. — Atlantic City receives a lower angle of insolation/less intense insolation. — The temperatures in Miami are warmed by the Florida Current. — Miami has a longer duration of insolation. any value from 0.20 °F/mi to 0.30 °F/mi. — The air travels over Lake Ontario toward Oswego, picking up moisture that results in more snow. — The air over Toronto contains less moisture. — Lake-effect storms occur on the eastern side of the lake when the wind is blowing in the direction shown. 95. 96. 1013.4 mb. 97. 89. 85. 90. 80. 81. 82. — Its warmest months are in 86. January and February. — Its coldest months are in June and July. — The warm and cold times of the year are the opposite of New 87. York’s. — expansion — cooling to the dewpoint — condensation — cooling — deposition — Water has a 91. higher specific heat 92. than land. — Water takes a longer time to cool than land. — Land surfaces cool faster. — Old Forge is located in the mountains. — 93. Higher elevations have colder temperatures. — Watertown is closer 94. to a large body of water that moderates its temperature. – East Australia Current – South Equatorial Current – 98. E. Australia C. troposphere – go to the basement – stay away from windows – listen to emergency warnings broadcast on radio or TV – go to a community 99. emergency shelter – Air-mass X: cP or cA – Air-mass Y: mT – the prevailing southwest winds – the jet stream – planetary winds 100. — As temperature increased, pressure decreased. — There is an inverse relationship between air temperature and air pressure. — As one variable increases, the other variable decreases. Answer Key ALL WEATHER CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE MEGA PACKET 101. 102. 103. Date: — December 3 — 12/3/07 Time: — 4 p.m. — 4:00 p.m. 106. — Prevailing winds 112. — Yakutsk receives blow toward the less precipitation northeast. — New during the year than York State is located Reykjavik. — in the southwesterly Yakutsk receives wind belt. — The jet more of its stream moved the precipitation in low-pressure system summer than in in that direction. — winter. — Yakutsk prevailing winds — receives a higher Winds are moving percentage of the system northeast. precipitation as snowfall. 107. — Winds are moving counterclockwise. — Winds are moving inward toward the low-pressure center. — in and counterclockwise 104. — As air temperature increased, barometric pressure decreased. — inverse relationship 105. — Residents should have purchased extra supplies, such as food and water. — Residents should have obtained battery-powered radios, flashlights, and/or candles. — Rock salt or de-icing pellets should have been obtained to clear ice from sidewalks and driveways. — Check to make sure enough fuel for heat is on hand to last several days. — People who have emergency generators should check to make sure they are working properly. 108. 109. 118. – Warm air from over the South Equatorial Current is less dense. – The air mass is warmer. – More moisture is present in the warmer air over the South Equatorial Current. – The Benguela Current causes the air to be cooler. 113. — Reykjavik has a 119. Any value from maritime climate. — 2001 cm to 2199 cm The ocean around is correct. Iceland moderates 120. – Greenhouse gases: Reykjavik's climate. absorb the longer — Reykjavik is wave radiation located near a large coming from Earth’s body of water which surface, absorb heats and cools more infrared energy, and slowly than inland trap the heat given locations. — off by Earth. Yakutsk is located 121. – methane, water farther inland. vapor, carbon 114. – cA or cP dioxide (CO 2), or 115. – 2260 J ozone 116. — a decrease in 122. – Temperature and slope — increased dewpoint values are vegetation — far apart. – Relative increased infiltration humidity is very — a more permeable low. – Cloud cover 110. surface is only 25%. – Air pressure of 1017.0 117. – transpiration or mb most likely sublimation indicates the presence of a high-pressure 111. – Warm: Norwegian system. Current or North Atlantic Current – 123. Cool: East Greenland Current Answer Key ALL WEATHER CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE MEGA PACKET 124. — have an ample supply of food — purchase an electric generator in case of a power failure — keep snow removal equipment in good condition and in a convenient location — have an updated medicine kit (buy needed medicines) — stockpile water supplies — purchase flashlights and/or candles 125. An arrow that crosses Lake Ontario and generally points towards Oswego is shown. 132. cold front 133. 134. 135. 136. 126. - cooling condensation - air expands 127. Catskills 128. — Gulf of Mexico — Atlantic Ocean — Lake Erie — Lake Ontario 140. 146. Examples: –Location B is — Toward the located high in the northeast — mountains. Northeastward — –Location A is Eastward 141. Examples: –C is located at a lower between isobars that — Warm air is less elevation. are closely related. dense than cool air 147. 30°N or 30°S –A is located in an — Cool air is more area with a small dense than warm air. 148. cP or cA. pressure gradient. Temperature: — The 149. –The isobars are air on the west side closer together at C. of the dry line is 142. mT cooler — Lower Humidity: — lower 143. Examples: –B is on the west side — being affected by a drier — less 150. – condensation warm front. – expansion –Precipitation often — Air Temperature: – cooling occurs ahead of a 50°F — Dewpoint: – deposition/warm front. –B is 44°F — Wind sublimation located close to a direction from: SE frontal boundary. or Southeast — 151. warm front Wind Speed: 10 144. 152. – Gulf of Mexico Knots — Cloud – a warm ocean cover: 100% surface 137. 145. Examples: –Location C is located in air that is sinking, 129. The angle of compressing, and insolation is greater warming. –Location for Beaufort, North 138. —- The difference C is on the leeward Carolina. Beaufort is between air side of a mountain. at a lower latitude. temperature and –Location D is near The Sun is higher in dewpoint is smallest a large body of the sky at Beaufort. at station C. water. –Air Beaufort is closer to — Station C has the traveling over the the equator. lowest air pressure. mountains loses its — Station C has 130. Occluded front moisture at D. 100% overcast skies. 131. — The warm, moist air is less dense. — 139. any value from 27°C to 28°C. The warm, moist air is lighter. — Warm air is overriding the more dense cold air. 153. Examples: — Rising air expands, cools to the dewpoint, and condensation of water vapor occurs. — Condensation occurs when the dewpoint is reached. — Water vapor condenses when dewpoint is reached. 154. a warm front. 155. Answer Key ALL WEATHER CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE MEGA PACKET 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 166. Examples: – east – northeast 173. Examples: — inward 181. Examples: –City X — counterclockwise is located farther — counterclockwise inland from the 167. Examples: – and toward the ocean. –City Y is Location C is cooler center located closer to a because it is farther large body of water. north. – C is a 174. 182. 10°C to 15°C 175. Examples: — The isobars are close 168. Examples: – together between Location A is Miles City and influenced by a cold, Pierre. — There is a dry air mass. – large pressure Location A has clear gradient between skies. Miles City and Pierre. — The condensation (gas to 169. Examples: – feathers on the liquid) condensation – station models expanding air Examples: – go to indicate strong the structurally 170. winds in that area. strongest area in the 176. Examples: — any school nearest your value from 0.016 to location – go to the 0.018. — millibars lowest level in the per kilometer — school mb/km 171. Examples: — As Examples: – latitude increases, 177. X is located over the counterclockwise – the number of days water in the toward the center with thunderstorms diagonally lined Examples: – The decreases. — Lower area. tornadoes are latitudes have more 178. Examples: – passage located within the thunderstorms. — an of low-pressure SW wind belt.– The inverse relationship system –passage of a planetaiy winds between latitude and cold front –arrival of moved them toward number of days with a warm air mass the northeast. thunderstorms followed by the rain. 172. The centers of eight arrival of a cold air 163. mT or MT 164. 1009.6 mb. 165. continental polar air mass, which is cold, dry air. or nine Xs are within the circles shown on the graph and are correctly connected with a line that passes through the circles. mass 179. 2.8 to 3.2 millibars/hour 180. Both cities have their highest temperatures in June, July, and August. 183. 184. Examples: –The air temperature is closest to the dewpoint in Utica. –The air pressure in Utica is lowest. –The amount of cloud cover is 100% in Utica. –The relative humidity is highest in Utica. –Air pressure is decreasing in Utica. 185. 1020.1 mb 186. 18.9 to 21.1 Correct units: — m/km —meters/km —m/kilometer 187. 10 m 188. Examples: — Move indoors. — Do not use electrical equipment or telephones. — Do not stand under tall objects. 189. Binghamton 190. (1) cP (2) mT 191. 100% 192. 43.5°F Answer Key ALL WEATHER CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE MEGA PACKET 193. Examples: — Warmer air rises because it is less dense. — As temperature increases, density decreases. 194. 198. Examples: – Birdsville is located inland near the center of the continent. – Bundaberg is located near a large body of water (the ocean) that moderates climate temperatures. 199. 195. 200. 0.7 mi/m 196. Examples: – Bundaberg is located east of Birdsville. – Birdsville is west of Bundaberg. – Earth rotates west to east. 201. 206. 134 4 in. 210. Examples: – Sea level would most 207. Responses include, likely rise. – The but are not limited shape of Long Island to: The air on the would change. – western slopes of the submergences – mountains is rising; Long Island would The valleys are become smaller. – located on the Buildings would be eastern side of the flooded. mountain ranges where air is sinking; 211. Examples: – fossils Air is warmed by – volcanic dust – compression as it pollen – trapped descends the gases – microbes mountain slopes, so 212. Examples: – Cold air relative humidity holds very little decreases. water vapor. – Very 208. Responses include, but are not limited to: Dust particles can be blown into the atmosphere by winds; a volcanic eruption; a forest fire. little evaporation takes place in Antarctica. – Antarctica is in a region where air is sinking, therefore, clouds seldom form. – Very little precipitation occurs in a high-pressure area. 209. Responses include, but are not limited 203. Examples: – cP and to: Water droplets mT – mT and cP – 197. Examples: – form on the surfaces 213. Example: – Seek mT and cA – cA and Bundaberg is provided by the salt indoor shelter. – If mT located near the and dust particles; indoors, stay away ocean. – Birdsville 204. Salt and dust from windows. is located inland. – particles are 214. The warm ocean condensation nuclei, current affects the allowing the water climate of vapor to change into 205. Responses include, Bundaberg. – liquid drops, but not limited to: Bundaberg is forming clouds. 215. one day per year The Sierra Nevada located on the Mountain Range is 216. stratosphere windward side of the higher in elevation; mountain. 217. Example: – The Higher elevation higher the altitude of have lower the top of the cloud, temperatures; the greater the Expansional cooling probability that hail increases with will be produced. – higher mountains. direct relationship 202. cold front Answer Key ALL WEATHER CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE MEGA PACKET 218. Responses include, 224. Responses include, 229. Examples: Air rises; 232. but are not limited but are not limited Air expands; Air to: Stop burning to: Gulf of Mexico; cools; The fossil fuels; Reduce A warm ocean temperature reaches the burning of surface the dewpoint; Water tropical rain forests; 225. Responses include, vapor condenses Reduce but are not limited 230. greenhouse-gas to: Expanding air; emissions; Use more Cooling to the alternative energy dewpoint; a. Label the y-axis sources such as solar Condensation; water vapor, collectors and wind Sublimation including units (g/m3 turbines. ). 226. Responses include 219. Responses include, b. Mark an but are not limited 231. Examples: – As air but are not limited appropriate to: Warm, moist air temperature to: A high elevation numerical scale is less dense than increases , the above sea level; along the y-axis. cold, Dry air; Cold amount of water Mountains; A c. Correctly plot six air is moving under vapor that the air plateau or seven points and the warm air and can hold increases. – connect them with a 220. Responses include, forcing the warm air Warm air can hold line. but are not limited upward. more water vapor to: Unsorted than cool air. – It is 233. 227. Acceptable deposits; Moraines; a direct relationship. responses include, Drumlins; Till; – The higher the air but are not limited Mixed sediment temperature, the to, these examples: sizes; Glacial greater the amount As elevation erratics/boulders; of water vapor increases, the Striated sediment required to saturate growing season is te air. 221. Responses include, shorter; The 234. Examples: – This but are not limited growing season is region receives a to: Water vapor (H 2 shorter in the high angel of O); Methane (CH4); mountain region insolation each day. Carbon dioxide (CO than in the lowland – High-density region 2 ); Nitrous oxide (N 2 insolation is O); Ozone (O3); received all year. – 228. Acceptable 237. Chlorofluorocarbons The Sun is higher in responses include, (CFCs) the sky all year. – but are not limited The tropical region 222. From the south to, these examples: receives more southeast (SSE) or The lower latitudes intense sunlight. southeast (SE) at 25 have longer growing knots (±2) seasons; As latitude 238. 235. Between 10°C and increases, the length 18°C or Between 223. 1002.1 mb of the growing 18°C and 10°C season decreases. 239. occluded 236. barometer or barograph Answer Key ALL WEATHER CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE MEGA PACKET 240. 246. Air Pressure : 252. a:•Clouds form 1009.6mb Air when rising air Temperature: 46°F expands and cools to Amount of the dewpoint. precipitation during b:• from gas to last six hours: 0.15 liquid • Water vapor or .15 inch condenses. • An X is located over Cloud cover: 75% deposition • gas to the water in the Present weather: rain solid diagonally lined 247. • The ocean has 253. area. moderated 241. temperatures, making the temperatures 254. • Closely spaced warmer. • It has isobars represent a increased the region of high wind temperatures during velocity. these months. • As isobars become 242. Example: As the air 248. closer, wind speed pressure in the increases. hurricane gets lower, the wind speed 255. increases 243. barometer or barograph 244. 245. 260. 100% relative humidity 261. – Inverse relationship – Indirect relationship – As elevation increases, air pressure decreases 262. barometer or altimeter 263. 264. – Water has a higher specific heat than the land. – Water takes a longer time to heat up and cool down than land. 249. examples: • The elevation of area 3 is higher. • Climate region 3 is located in 256. –Pass a law to limit greenhouse gas a mountainous 265. 20° south (±8°) emissions. –Stop region. burning the rain 250. examples: • forests. humidity • –Increase car precipitation • pool/mass transit moisture use. 251. examples: • similar 257. An increase in latitudes • similar global temperatures duration of will cause glaciers insolation • similar and continental ice intensity of sheets to gradually insolation • similar melt. monthly changes in 258. 0.0001 or 0.001 or the altitude of the 0.01 10 –4 or 10 –3 or Sun 10 –2 259. troposphere Answer Key ALL WEATHER CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE MEGA PACKET 266. a drizzle 272. b Weather Condition – Explanation 100% cloud cover – indicates that saturated air has condensed low visibility ( mile) – is most 273. – Snow is melting likely caused by and refreezing to water droplets in the sleet as it falls. air – The rain freezes as low air pressure – it falls through because humid air is colder air before it less dense than dry hits the ground. air 274. – Temperatures Air pressure decrease as latitude decreased during the increases. – last 3 hours. – This Temperature and change may indicate latitude are inversely that moist air has related. arrived. 275. 1020.8 mb 267. 998.5 millibars 276. 268. 279. examples: – The 286. storm entered the prevailing southwesterly wind belt north of 30° N, which pushed it to the northeast. – The hurricane moved into a different wind Line AB is an belt. occluded front. Line BC is a cold 280. counterclockwise front. and spirals toward Line BD is a warm the eye front. 281. 287. Hurricanes turn northeast due to the planetary wind belt they move into. The jet stream causes the path of most 282. hurricanes to curve toward the northeast. 288. The area of hurricane formation increases from May to September. The area spreads eastward. 269. 277. California Current b any temperature value between the student-drawn isotherms adjacent to point A. 270. air rises and air cools 271. sleet 283. 278. a rate of change = Distance / Time b rate of change = 2,600 km / 4 days r = 2,600 km / 96 hr 284. high relative humidity greater c rate of change = cloud cover 650 km/day increased r = 27 km/hr precipitation 291. temperatures decreased 285. Gulf of Mexico or Atlantic Ocean. 289. Do not allow credit for 74° or 74°F. and Allow credit for shading in the station circle completely. 290. a Larger particles fell closer to the volcano. b More dense particles fell closer to the volcano. Answer Key ALL WEATHER CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE MEGA PACKET 292. examples: – 299. examples: – C is on prevailing or the leeward side. – planetary winds – Prevailing winds the spin of Earth and cause air to rise at the Coriolis effect location F, creating on wind direction more clouds and causing heavier 293. examples: – toward rainfall. Asia (Africa) – westward across the Pacific Ocean 305. examples: – Rising 312. Examples: – The air cools to the temperature of the dewpoint and water lake water at the vapor condenses. – surface must be Condensation occurs higher than the when the dewpoint temperature of the is rached. air flowing over the water. – Water 306. temperature is warmer than air temperature. 300. examples: – As elevation increases from A to E, 294. a: Seek indoor precipitation shelter – Avoid high increases. – direct ground – Stay in relationship your car 307. examples: – Some b: Go to the cellar or 301. insolation is the safest interior absorbed by the room – Stay away ozone. – Harmful from windows, UV radiation is Open house absorbed by ozone. windows c: Evacuate the area 308. stratosphere – Move away from 302. a: – flooding and 309. sites directly tornadoes – storm downhill from the surge and collapsing volcano structures – hail and 295. Examples: – Evaporation is a cooling process. – Water evaporating from a wet wick takes energy from the wet-bulb thermometer. 296. dewpoint 297. 69% 298. lightning – downed electrical wires and flying debris b: – Evacuate to a higher elevation. – Take shelter. – Board up windows. – Build a seawall. 310. rising or cooling air or increased condensation or orographic lifting 303. examples: – Over land there is less 311. Examples: – energy from prevailing winds – evaporating water. – Lake Ontario runs Winds decrease in lengthwise from strength due to west to east, and the friction with the prevailing winds land. pick up moisture as they flow across the 304. 27°30' or 27.5° and entire length. 95°W 313. Example: Winters and summers would be cooler 314. Examples: – Global warming melts glaciers, causing a rise in sea level. – Increased evaporation could lower sea level. 315. Examples: – burning fossil fuels – population increases 316. 317. relative humidity increases 318. 14°C. 319. The windspeed will decrease. 320. Example: – The windspeed is higher where the isobars are closer together. 321. 70° C 322. Example: The hurricane lost it source of energy when it moved over land. Answer Key ALL WEATHER CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE MEGA PACKET 323. Examples: Flooding, 334. wind damage 324. Examples: Natural events like 335. volcanoes and forest fires can also lead to acid rain. 325. Examples: Limit the amount of gases emitted by factories 336. and vehicles. 337. Restrict the use of fossil fuels. 326. Examples: Limestone and marble or any mineral that has the mineral calcite. 338. 327. Examples: The Northeast is densely populated with lots of vehicles and factories. The prevaling winds blow polluntants towards the Northeast. 339. 328. barometer 329. 330. 331. 332. 100% 333. Fog 340. 341. 345. 346. — The specific heat of water is greater than the specific heat of land or dry 33% land, so the air over the land heats up Examples: – faster than the air Tornadoes exist for over the lake. — a shorter period of More energy is time – A hurricane required to heat up is a larger storm. the same amount of Examples: – water than to heat Location A is on the the same amount of windward side of the land. — Air has a mountain – At lower specific heat location B, air is than water. — A lot warming by of energy is used to compression. melt the ice on Lake 1,500 meters Erie. — Lake Erie is still covered by ice. — The darker land surface absorbs greater insolation. — Land heats up faster than water. 347. 342. — go into a basement or underground storm shelter — go to an 348. — temperature/air interior room — stay temperature — The away from windows average temperature — get under of the air is colder something sturdy when Buffalo 343. anemometer or wind receives snow. speed meter. 344. 254 km/h to 332 km/h 349. — Cooler air near the lake remains close to the surface because it is more dense than surrounding air. — Cold air over the lake is more dense. — Cooler air over Lake Erie is less likely to rise. — Convection is reduced. — Less evaporation occurs when the air is colder. — lack of moisture. — Warm air rises to form clouds.