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ECE 692 Grid Measurement and Simulation
Abdulelah Alharbi
April 8, 2022
Getting started and basic features of PSCAD,
System Simulation of PSCAD,
Converting a solved PSS/E Case to PSCAD.
Access to PSCAD,
Software Introduction,
Environment overview,
Create a project,
Run simulation.
Access to PSCAD:
1. Free version
Network size: 15 nodes
2. Educational version
Ask ithelp in EECS Department (25 licenses)
Network size: 200 nodes
3. Professional version
Ask ithelp in EECS Department (1 license)
Network size: unlimited nodes
Latest version: 4.5.4 (announced in 12/23/2014)
4. Remote access or
Software Introduction:
Power System Computer Aided Design
 Algorithm: EMTDC( ElectroMagnetic Transient in DC System) developed
by Dr. Dennis Woodford in Manitoba-HVDC Research Centre in last 70th.
 A simulator of ac power systems, low voltage power electronics systems, high
voltage DC transmission ( HVDC), flexible AC transmission systems ( FACTS),
distribution systems, and complex controllers.
 Applications
AC transients
2. Fault and protection
3. Transformer saturation
4. Wind power
5. Power quality
Design power electronic systems and controls including FACTS, active
filters, series and shunt compensation devices.
Environment overview:
Load a case:
To load an existing Case
File Load  Examples
Create a case:
1. Build a blank project
 New  New Case;
 Type name “tutorial1” and choose a path;
 Click “OK”;
 Click “Save” on the quick access toolbar.
How to find components:
1. Right click in design window, add component
How to find components:
2. Under tab “Components”
3. In master library
Draw a circuit:
 The circuit is drawn in Schematic window.
 Change parameters of components
1. Double click;
2. Or right click and choose “edit parameters”
1. Measured by the component itself.
2. Measured by meters( Ammeter, Voltmeter, Multimeter)
Output signals:
 Data label
The name of data label should be the same as the signals' name from meters.
 Output channel
The name of output channel could be assigned any name for display.
 Connect data label to output channel
1. Add Graph Frame
Right click  Add component  Graph Frame
2. Add Overlay Graph
Right click on Graph Frame  Add Overlay Graph
3. Add output signals to graph
Press ctrl and left click output channels, then drag it to graph.
Time settings could be set by
Project  General Settings Runtime
Getting started and basic features of PSCAD,
System Simulation of PSCAD,
Converting a solved PSS/E Case to PSCAD.
 Breakers,
 Faults,
 Distributed Transmission Line,
 Generators,
 Exciters,
 Transformers,
 Loads,
 Group components with a module.
Breakers and Faults:
 Breakers
Single phase, three phase breakers
 Control Breakers (0: closed; 1:open)
Timed breaker logic.
Manual switch.
Custom built relay model.
Note: when control goes from 0 to 1, the breaker will open at the first current zero.
Breakers and Faults
 Faults
11 faults
 Clear Faults( 0: closed; 1:faulted)
Timed fault logic.
Manual switch.
Custom built control model.
Create a distributed transmission line:
 Right click in the design window
 Component wizard  Transmission line
and enter a name, then click Finish.
 Double click the line in the design window
 Select type of transmission line model
Master Library  Bergeron Model
 Add tower cross-section
Master Library  Line/Cable Constants
Manual Data Entry
 Additional options
It is optional, just for display function
1. Configuration  Type of setting for initial conditions
a. None (Preferred option, which simply allows entry of terminal voltage magnitude and phase for initialization.)
b. Powers
c. Currents
2. Interface to Machine Controllers
2.1 Supply Terminal Conditions to Exciter:
a. None,
b. Terminal Voltage,
c. Terminal Current,
d. Both Voltage and Current
2.2 Smoothing Time Constant: used in smoothing the signal sent to the exciter [s]
2.3 Output Exciter Initialization Data (Ef0): required field voltage is used to initialize the exciter, so that the machine can be switched from source
mode to machine mode smoothly.
2.4 Output Governor Initialization Data (Tm0): the required mechanical torque is used to initialize the turbine and/or governor, so that the
machine can be switched from 'locked-rotor' to 'free running' mode smoothly.
3. Variable Initialization Data
a. Source [0] to Machine [1] Transition
0: While 0, the machine is modeled as a simple 3-phase voltage source.
1: When 1, the machine runs in 'constant speed' mode.
b. Lock-rotor [0] <-> Normal Mode [1] Transition
While 0, the machine will run in 'constant speed' mode.
When 1, the machine will run as a full-blown machine.
4. Basic Data
Rated RMS Line-to-Neutral Voltage
Rated RMS Line Current
Base Angular Frequency
Inertia Constant
Number of Coherent Machines
5. Generator Data Format
6. Initial Conditions
Terminal Voltage Magnitude at Time = 0Terminal Voltage Phase at Time = 07. Initial Conditions if Starting as a Source
8. Initial Conditions if Starting as a Machine
9. Output Variable Names
10. Output Variables for Controller Initialization
Source (0) machine (1) Transition
Give a variable name. This will change its assigned value from 0 to 1 when the machine is switched from a 'source' to a
'machine'. Use this variable in the exciter model to initialize it
Constant speed (0) normal (1) Transition
Give a variable name. This will change its assigned value from 0 to 1 when the machine is switched from a 'constant speed
operation' to a 'normal machine'. Use this variable in any governor/turbine models to initialize them
 Refer to example “sync_Sctest_exercise” .
Exciter (AC exciter as example):
 Ef:
Computed field voltage applied directly to synchronous machine
 If
Measured field current from synchronous machine
 Vref
defines the voltage reference for the synchronous machine terminals. It can be derived from a
number of different components, which might include a slider, a real constant component or some
other signal.
a 3-element array and receives its data from the attached synchronous machine
 Ef0
defines the output field voltage to the machine during the initialization period. Defined by user or
from the attached synchronous machine.
 Vref0
The initialized value of the reference voltage Vref and can be applied at the users discretion
Exciter Setting:
AC Exciter Type
Exciter Status (Come from attached machine)
0: Initialize
1: Normal
Output Internally Computed Initial
Refer to example “sync_exciter_exercise”
0-0.3s, work as source mode
0.3-0.5s, work as machine with lock rotor mode
After 0.5s, work as a machine with normal mode
Name: T1
3 Phase Transformer MVA: 100MVA
Base operation frequency: 60
Winding #1 Type: Delta
Winding #2 Type: Y
Positive Sequence Leakage Reactance: 0.1
Winding Voltages
Winding 1 Line to Line voltage (RMS): 13.8 kV
Winding 2 Line to Line voltage (RMS): 230 kV
Constant power load
 Load:
Constant Impedance load:
• RLC Branch Components
• Variable RLC Components
• 3 phase loads
Group components with a module:
Before create a module, the number of ports and the type of ports should be determined.
Port is the connection between the component and the outside system
port type: electrical, input, output
Node/data type of electrical ports: fixed, removable, switched, ground
Node/data type of input & output ports: integer, real, logical
• Right click in the design window
• Create  Component
• Enter the name, title, check module
• Add number of ports
• Enter the name, dimensions, type of each ports
• Click Finish
A blank module will appear in the design window
Group components with a module:
Double click the blank module
Build the circuit inside the module
Connect the module to the outside system
Getting started and basic features of PSCAD,
System Simulation of PSCAD,
Converting a solved PSS/E Case to PSCAD.
 Power flow setup,
 Demo.
General Method of Power Flow Setup:
PSCAD can not solve power flow, so the power flow needs to be set manually.
1. Determine the terminal voltage magnitude and phase
2. Run
all the generators as fixed AC source until the system is stable.
To ensure that the steady state condition of the network is reached smoothly , time to ramp source to rated is set to a time interval
entered by the user (0.1s for example)
3. Switch the fixed AC source to Generators with lock rotor mode.
“Source [0] to Machine [1] transition” under “Variable Initialization Data”
4. Enable exciters
5. Enable governors
Getting started and basic features of PSCAD,
System Simulation of PSCAD,
Converting a solved PSS/E Case to PSCAD.
 E-TRAN, which is developed by ELECTRANIX
Corporation, is a tool that allows for an automated
conversion of a very large system into PSCAD
(EMTDC) models from load flow programs .
 It directly translates PSS/E data files (.raw, .dyr,
and .seq) into PSCAD files (.psc and .pscx).
 E-TRAN internally solves the steady state phasor
equations and uses this information to initialize
the system in PSCAD and make the system
suitable for stability simulation analysis.
E-TRAN allows for the system to be partially or fully converted (all its nodes)
into PSCAD.
Make sure the parameters of the generator models in PSS/E are
reasonable, otherwise it will cause the numerical problems in the generator
transition process from voltages sources to machines in PSCAD.
E-TRAN typically converts the load model in PSS/E to constant PQ models
in PSCAD, which will probably lead to instability after releasing the load in
PSCAD. If allowed, load can be changed to the constant impedance model
to make the system stable after releasing load.
The .raw file needs to be solved before being converted to the PSCAD file.
Typically, both the .raw and .dyr files are needed in translation. If there is
only a .raw file, the translation can be done. However, the PSCAD file
translated based on the .raw file only can not simulate dynamic processes.
To request a trial version of E-TRAN,
contact ELECTRANIX at:
[email protected]
The E-TRAN runtime library for PSCAD
can be downloaded from:
 To get the E-TRAN software :
1. First go to the Electranix website at and scroll down to the ETran Client Login at the bottom of the page. Enter the user name and password that are given
after contacting ELECTRANIX.
2. Download the E-TRAN License Manager and install it on a server, or some other computer
that will always be on. If you will be using E-TRAN as a single user, this can be the computer
you will install E-TRAN on.
3. When you install the License Manager, you will get the option to request a license.
4. Enter your information into the form. This will send the required information to create a
5. You will get an e-mail about your license once they have processed your request.
6. Download E-TRAN and install it on any computers you want to run E-TRAN on.
Steps to run the PSCAD model:
 Make sure that the file "ETRAN_G95.lib" exists in the directory
"C:\Program Files (x86)\E-TRAN_V3\EMTDCLib\gnu\ETRAN_G95.lib".
 If not, create the folder and copy the
"E-TRAN_Runtime_Lib_3_2\EMTDCLib\gnu\ETRAN_G95.lib" into it.
 Open the file "E-TRAN_Runtime_Lib_3_2\PSCADLib\PSCAD.pcsx" in PSCAD.
 Make sure the “.raw” file and “.dyr” file is in the same folder as the “.pcsx” file you
opened in PSCAD.
 Open the file ".pcsx" in PSCAD.
Some references:
 PSCAD Forum
 User’s Guide of PSCAD
 A comprehensive resource of EMTDC
 Application of PSCAD
Practice Exercise (1):
• Based on example “simpleac” [in the tutorial folder in
the examples]
1. Use synchronous machine instead of ac source Refer to
example “sync_exciter_exercise”
2. Build your own 230V transmission line with Bergeron
3. Apply 10% load shedding in the following scenarios:
1. Synchronous machine without exciter (lock rotor
2. Synchronous machine with exciter (free rotor mode)
4. 5. Repeat 3 and 4 by applying a fault.
Practice Exercise (2):
• 1. Build a three phase ac system (you can delete the BRK)
• 2. Replace AC sources with Synchronous Machines (Use the Generator in
example “sync_SCtest”).
• 3. Measure and plot the voltage and current through the load.
• 4. Please refer to “OOS_Protection”, Apply any 2 different kinds of fault
close to the loads on the above system. Solve 3nd problem again.
Practice Exercise (3):
Build a two machine one line system.
Rated power of one machine group: 12GW (120MW*100)
Transmission line: 500kV Begeron model
Constant power load
10% load shedding at bus 1 to trigger an electromechanical propagation. Monitor the frequency
and angle at bus 1 and bus 2.
Study the effect of the following parameters on propagation time
between bus 1 and 2.
Transmission length: 300km, 600km;
Tie-line power: 300MW, 600MW;
Inertia of machine 1, 3.
Notes: when study on variable, fix the other two variables.
Thank You