Download ethics criminal justice

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
What is the role of the researcher?
What are some ethical issues
in criminal justice research?
Biomedical Research Issues
 Use
of human subjects in research
Deceptive experiments
 Consent
(Nuremberg Code)
 Aids
Research in Africa and Asia (1997) as
compared to the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1978)
What are some other examples?
Social Science
Social scientific studies that relate to crime and deviance.
Miligram’s Obedience to Authority (1974)
Zimbardo’s simulated prison experiment (1972,1973,1974)
Humphrey’s Tearoom Trade (1970)
Project Camelot (1965)
Do researchers have the ethical right to put subjects in a position of
emotional stress in the name of science?
Other Research Misconduct
Research Fraud: When researchers purposely
fabricate or misrepresent their findings.
Examples: “Piltdown Hoax” and the “Tasaday
Plagiarism: When a researcher/writer presents
the ideas or work of someone else as his or her
Ethical Issues and Guidelines
in Criminology/Criminal Justice Research
Avoid procedures that may harm respondents.
Informed Consent? Use of volunteers only?
Risk/benefit ratio (Knowledge / Harm) ?
Honor commitments to respondents and respect
reciprocity. Reciprocity: Mutual trust between
researcher and subject. Biomedical research?
Ethical Issues and Guidelines
in Criminology/Criminal Justice Research
Exercise objectivity and professional integrity in
performing and reporting research. Honesty, integrity
and objectivity. Acknowledge others who assisted in
Protect Confidentiality and Privacy of Respondents.
Avoid misrepresentations. Protect confidentiality of
sources and information (pseudonyms), i.e.,shield laws,
court decisions, Brajuha Case (field notes), Ofshe Case
(suit by organizations), Hutchinson Case (public
Ethical Issues and Guidelines
in Criminology/Criminal Justice Research
Subjects should be made aware that they may unintentionally
be compromised.
Pseudonyms should not be indiscriminately revealed.
Research should be open to other qualified social scientists.
If research has potential policy implications then the limitations
of the findings should be revealed.
Government supported research should be unclassified and
not used as cover for government intelligence work.
What are research “targets”
in criminal justice?
What would be an example of a unique
ethical problem for the researcher when the focus of
research is a “target”
such as prison inmates?
Three Forms of Regulation
for Acceptable Research Conduct
Codes of Ethics, i.e., Academy of Criminal Justice
Sciences, National Institute of Justice (NIJ), and
American Society of Criminology (ASC); and
Institutional Review Boards (IRBs).
Procedures imposed by the federal government, i.e.,
HEW, HHS. The Belmont Report (National Commission
for the Protection of Human Subjects) updated HEW
guidelines: the principles of respect for persons,
beficence, and justice.
Legal regulation in the court; i.e., Omnibus Crime
Control and Safe Streets Act (1973) and “shield laws.”
Avoiding Research Problems
Consider an alternate means of data gathering. For
example use two prisons, one control group and
one the experimental group as opposed to both
groups in one prison.
Report aggregate data as opposed to individual
Assume personal liability for the morality of your
Role of the Researcher
Primary role is that of scientist.
The role of the researcher requires one to be
objective and “value free” in approaching and
reporting subject matter.