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Name : _____________________________ Chapter 5 Cell Division __________________________________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 5 : CELL DIVISION WORKSHEET 5.1 Chromosomes and Chromosomal Number Score __ /__ ____ 1. Complete the graphic organizer given. Organisms types Reproductive cells ________________ _ characteristic are formed through mitosis Have two sets of chromosomes i.e. _____________(2n) ___________ characteristic in Reproductive organs Have ________ _________of chromosomes i.e. haploid (___) [5 marks] 2. What is a CHROMOSOME? a. The nucleus of a cell contains ___________________ b. Each chromosome consists of a long _______________ molecule which carry genes. c. The number of chromosomes or the ____________ _______________ of a certain species is constant but varied from one species to another. d. In humans, the nucleus in the somatic cell has ________ chromosomes (23 pairs or 2n). The gametes have a _______________ number of chromosomes i.e. 23 chromosomes. [6 marks] Name : _____________________________ Chapter 5 Cell Division __________________________________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 5 : CELL DIVISION WORKSHEET 5.2 : The Cell Cycle Score __ /__ ____ Complete the graphic organizer below: The Cell Cycle Growth phase 1 Synthesis of ___________ occur G1 phase Chromosomes I appear as ________________ T G2 phase DNA Synthesis phase E Replication of ___________ occurs P Duplicated chromosomes appear as ________________ Growth phase 2 The cell _________ The cell is metabolically ________________ [10 marks] S E Name : _____________________________ Chapter 5 Cell Division __________________________________________________________________________________________ Score __ /__ ____ CHAPTER 5: CELL DIVISION WORKSHEET 5.3 : Mitosis Complete the table below with suitable words. Stage of mitosis Diagram Explanation The chromosomes ______________ and become short and thick. They consists of sister ____________ joined together at the centromere. METAPHASE The spindle fibres begin to form. The _____________ disappears The nuclear membrane ____________ The centromeres of all chromosomes line up on the _____________ ___________ The mitotic spindle is now fully formed The two __________ __________ are still attached to each other. The two sister chromatids _____________ Each is pulled to the _____________ _____ by the shortening of the spindle fibres. The two sets of chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the cell TELOPHASE The chromosomes become less visible They become ________________ The spindle fibres disappear A new nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes [15 marks] Name : _____________________________ Chapter 5 Cell Division __________________________________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 5: CELL DIVISION Score __ /__ ____ WORKSHEET 5.4 : APPLICATION OF MITOSIS 1. The diagram below shows the sequence in the cloning process. Fill in the blanks with the correct answers. BLACK & WHITE RABBIT (somatic cell donor) WHITE RABBIT (Egg cell donor) An unfertilized ____________ is taken from ovary Somatic cell (2n) Diploid nucleus is removed ___________ (n) nucleus is removed using UV light Egg cell without a _________ _______ (2n) nucleus is inserted into empty egg cell Egg cell contains diploid nucleus Early embryo New cloned Embryo is rabbit ____________ into (genetically surrogate mother identical with the ____________ rabbit) [7 marks] Name : _____________________________ Chapter 5 Cell Division __________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Fill in the blanks with the correct answers. Tissue culture is the growth of tissues of living organisms in a suitable and sterile _______________, containing nutrients and growth hormones. [1 mark] 3. The figure below shows the in vitro tissue culture technique. Complete the flow chart below. A small piece of tissue that is root or ____________, is taken from the carrot The ____________ is placed onto the culture medium Plant cells divide by _________ to form a callus Cells in the _________ develop into embryos and later into plantlets Plantlets are then transferred to the _______ and grow into adult plants. [ 5 marks ] Name : _____________________________ Chapter 5 Cell Division __________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Complete the graphic organizer regarding the advantanges and disadvantanges of cloning below. Cloning Disadvantages Advantages Produce a ______number _________________ of genetically identical young plants in a short All clones have the same time. level of ________ towards Cloned plants and certain diseases. animals give better and increased _________ for example, better and more Clones do not show any prevent the process of _____________ If the ___________ fruits, milk and meat. environment changes, then Cloning prevents the clones will not survive endangered species from ___________ [ 7 marks ] Name : _____________________________ Chapter 5 Cell Division __________________________________________________________________________________________ Score __ /__ ____ CHAPTER 5: CELL DIVISION WORKSHEET 5.5: THE IMPORTANCE OF MEIOSIS Fill in the blanks with the correct answers. 1. The importance of meiosis a. Meiosis is a process of nuclear division to reduce the number of ____________ in the new cells to half the number of chromosomes of the _________________ cells. b. Each gamete contains the ______________ number of chromosomes (n). c. During fertilization, two gametes will fuse together to form a ________________ zygote (2n). Thus, the diploid chromosomal number in organisms can be ____________________. [5 marks] 2. Complete the diagram below about the human life cycle. Haploid ______ Gamete formation through ____________ _______ sperm Fusion of gamete through __________________ ovary ________ _ _______ zygote (2n = 46) Multicellular diploid adults (2n = ________) Development and growth through _____________ [8 marks] Name : _____________________________ Chapter 5 Cell Division __________________________________________________________________________________________ Score __ /__ ____ CHAPTER 5: CELL DIVISION WORKSHEET 5.6 : THE STAGES OF MEIOSIS For question 1, fill in the blanks with the correct answers. 3. The stages in Meiosis PLANTS Occurs in MEIOSIS Anthers which produce ___________ stages In an _____________ to produce the egg cell/ovum MEIOSIS II MEIOSIS I _____________ ANIMALS followed by Metaphase I _____________ Anaphase II _____________ _____________ In the _____________ to produce sperms In the ovary to produce ________________ _ [10 marks] Name : _____________________________ Chapter 5 Cell Division __________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Meiosis - Draw the diagrams and complete the table below. Diagram STAGES Explanation DIAGRAM EXPLANATION The chromosomes begin to condense and become ________and _________ The ____________chromosomes come together to form bivalents through a process called ______________ Each homologous chromosome is made up of two sister _____________ PROPHASE I Exchange of segments of DNA occur between non-sister chromatids in a process called ________________ The points at which segments of chromatids cross over are called ___________ At the end of this stage, the nucleolus and the nuclear ___________disappear. The two pairs of centrioles migrate to the opposite pole of the cell which then act as central points from which the ___________ ______________ appear. The chromosomes are lined up side by side as tetrads on the metaphase _________ ___________ The _________________ does not divide Name : _____________________________ Chapter 5 Cell Division __________________________________________________________________________________________ The _______________ chromosomes separate and are pulled away by the spindle ANAPHASE I fibres to the opposite poles of the cell. Although the cell started with 4 chromosomes, only _________ chromosomes move towards each pole. The chromosomes arrive at the _____________ TELOPHASE I Each daughter nucleus now has a ___________ number of chromosomes ( only one set of chromosomes/ no more homologous chromosomes ) The spindle fibres disappear.The ___________ ____________ reappears to surround each set of chromosomes, followed by the ____________ process. CYTOKINESIS takes place The nuclear membranes of the daughter cells disintegrate again PROPHASE II The spindle fibres reform The chromosomes (each still made up of sister chromatids) line up at the metaphase plate METAPHASE II Each sister chromatid is attached to the spindle fibres at the centromere. Name : _____________________________ Chapter 5 Cell Division __________________________________________________________________________________________ The centromeres of sister chromatids separate to form individual chromosomes ANAPHASE II The chromosomes move towards the opposite poles of the cells TELOPHASE II The nucleoli and nuclear membranes reform. The spindle fibres break down Cytokinesis occurs Four haploid daughter cells are formed. [25 marks] Name : _____________________________ Chapter 5 Cell Division __________________________________________________________________________________________ Score __ /__ ____ CHAPTER 5: CELL DIVISION WORKSHEET 5.7: COMPARING MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS 1. Compare Meiosis I with Meiosis II. Meiosis I Meiosis II Similarities a. During prophase, the chromosomes become condensed and ______________ b. In metaphase, the chromosomes align at the __________________________ c. The number of chromosomes in daughter cells is _____________________ Differences During prophase I, ____________ No crossing over occurs during _____________ occurs. _________ During metaphase I, ________________ During metaphase II, ________________ chromosomes align at the metaphase align at the metaphase plate plate. Separation of __________ ________to Separation of _________ ________ to the opposite poles during Anaphase I. the opposite poles during Anaphase II. Number of daughter cells produced are Number of daughter cells produced are ______________ _________ [11 marks] Name : _____________________________ Chapter 5 Cell Division __________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Distinguish between mitosis and meiosis. Similarities Mitosis Meiosis 1. _________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________ Differences Mitosis Meiosis Aspect Location of occurrence Number of nuclear division Synapsis of homologous chromosomes Crossing over Number of daughter cells produced Chromosomal number in daughter cells Genetic content in daughter cells Role [19 marks] Name : _____________________ Chapter 5 Cell Division ___________________________________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 5: CELL DIVISION WORKSHEET 5.8 CELL CYCLE – Summary CELL CYCLE Complete the concept map below [16 marks] Stage INTERPHASE M phase Stage in type Meiosis S phase Score __ /__ ____ Stage Stage Prophase Animal cell Plant cell Formation of Formation of plat cell ____________ ___________ Anaphase I followed by Telophase II Name : _____________________________ Chapter 5 Cell Division ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Score __ /__ ____ CHAPTER 5: CELL DIVISION WORKSHEET 5.9 Summary Complete the following crossword puzzle. 1 2 3 4 5 7 6 8 12 11 9 10 13 14 15 16 [16 marks] Name : _____________________________ Chapter 5 Cell Division ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Clues for the crossword puzzle. Across : 1. A membrane- bound structure within a cell which carries out a particular function. 4. A thread-like structure composed of chromatin and carries genes in a linear sequence which determines the individual characteristics of an organism. 7. The green pigment found in all photosynthetic organisms such as green plants, algae and some bacteria. 9. The process of nuclear division which results in the formation of two genetically identical daughter nuclei. 10. The stage at which the sister chromatids are pulled apart to the opposite poles of the cell during mitosis. 14. The solution that fills the vacuoles of plant cells. It contains sugars, amino acids and waste materials. 15. The process of nuclear division that reduces the number of chromosomes in daughter cells to half that of the parent cell. 16. Cytoplasmic division is also known as ___________________ Down : 2. A unit of inheritance composed of a sequence of nucleotides of DNA. 3. A small dense round body within the nucleus of a non dividing eukaryotic cell that is the site of ribosome assembly. 5. The stage at which the chromosomes are arranged randomly at the metaphase plate during mitosis. 6. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum. 8. Membrane-bound sacs that contain hydrolytic enzymes which digest complex organic molecules. 11. Gametes contain only one set of unpaired chromosomes or a ______________ number of chromosomes (n). 12. Deoxyribonucleic acid. 13. During prophase of mitosis, each pair of centrioles acts as a central point from which the _________________ fibres radiate. Name : _____________________________ Chapter 5 Cell Division __________________________________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 5 : CELL DIVISION (SUMMARY) WORKSHEET 5.10 : Cell & Mitosis Crossword Puzzle 5.10/1 Name : _____________________________ Chapter 5 Cell Division __________________________________________________________________________________________ CLUES: ACROSS 1. One member of a chromosome doublet. 6. Dark-staining body (composed of 2 chromatids) inside a cell during M-phase. 7. Chromosome number of sterile animals such as a mule. 9. Body part with definite physiological function (made up of more than one type of tissue). 10. Shrinkage of the cell contents (within cell membrane) due to water loss. 12. Prominent intracellular plant organelle that contains mostly water. 14. World's smallest flowering plant that produces the world's smallest fruit. 17. Phase of mitosis when conjoined sister chromatids separate from each other. 18. Number of haploid sets in a hexaploid cell. 20. Diameter of field of view in millimeters when using the 4X objective. 21. Purple, grape-like bodies inside cells of a potato tuber. 22. Phase of mitosis when chromosomes become visibly shortened and thickened. 23. Organelle site of cellular respiration and ATP production. 26. Number of haploid sets of chromosomes in a decaploid cell. 28. Aggregation of the same type of cells all performing a similar function. 29. Exactly 1000 of these metric units equals one millimeter. 30. Color of dye used to stain cheek epithelial cells in the Biology lab. 31. A female chicken (domestic fowl). [The opposite of a rooster.] 32. Acronym for Palomar Community College. 35. Movement of water molecules through a selectively-permeable cell membrane. 39. Phase of mitosis when chromosome doublets line up along the equatorial plate. 40. Primary molecular composition of chromatids--in addition to protein. 41. Site of synthesis of ribosomal RNA within the nucleus of a cell. 43. A haploid female reproductive cell. 44. Minute, membrane-bound structure in cytoplasm with a specific function. CLUES: DOWN 1. Found in the cytoplasm of animal cells during M-phase (typically in pairs). 2. Approximately 25 of these metric units makes one inch. 3. Stain used to test for the presence of starch molecules. 4. How many cubical grains of ordinary table salt (NaCl) equals one millimeter? 5. Number of Barr bodies inside the cheek cell of a human male. 6. Photosynthetic organelle inside plant cells. 8. Cell with two sets of chromosomes. 11. Mitosis actually refers to the division of this organelle into duplicates. 13. Region where 2 chromatids of a chromosome doublet are attached. 14. Plant cell structure composed of cellulose and lignin. 15. Radiating protein strands at poles of an animal cell during M-phase. 16. Number of sets of chromosomes in a diploid cell. 19. Phase of cell cycle when the organelles and chromosomes replicate. 20. Number of cells in field of view with 4X objective (each cell is 0.8 mm). 24. Number of Barr bodies inside cheek cell of male with Klinefelter's Syndrome. 25. Movement of water molecules into porous material causing swelling. 27. Number of haploid sets of chromosomes in a nonaploid cell. 28. Phase of plant mitosis when the cell plate forms. 29. One set of chromosomes from the mother. 32. One set of chromosomes from the father. 33. Intracellular (intravacuolar) plant structure composed of calcium oxalate. 34. Cell with only one set of chromosomes. 36. Season of the year when smallest, most dense oak wood cells are produced. 37. Season of the year when largest stem (xylem) cells of an oak are produced. 38. Protein strands that attach to the centromere region during M-phase of cell cycle. 42. Smallest subunit of a living system--containing cytoplasm and organelles.