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NOVA’s Vaccines: Calling the Shots The Invisible Threat Our lives are connected, can pose invisible threats, pass germs Disease unseen for a century are returning, people dying in developed world Some parents are electing not to vaccinate their children Why and how vaccines work, what should be considered in vaccinating kids San Francisco, CA All parents want healthy children, becoming an expectation 90% of parents vaccinate children, 28 immunizations in first 2 years Many concerns—how many given at one time, when they should be done 1% of parents don’t vaccinate at all—why and what are the consequences? 7 week old baby—whooping cough got there first before vaccinated—struggles to breathe— perstussis—bacteria—bortadella persussis—nasty bronchitis, lots of coughing, can stop breathing (1 in 100 will die) No cure, antibiotics can help though Rarely seen, but now back—50,000 cases in 2012, 20 died Vaccine can wear off after a few years, so older children are vulnerable Measles Outbreak 2011—30,000 measles case in Europe, UK, US Unvaccinated orthodox community hit and spread quickly Department of Health tried to keep it from spreading—spread in air—can remain for 2 hours— spread in elevator, very infectious 90% of people who are exposed but aren’t immune get the disease 3 months, 3500 people exposed, 58 were infected, all unvaccinated In 2000 had declared measles to be eradicated in US Worldwide, some mainstream pockets of populations that choose not to vaccinate Mom is vaccinating but has decided to spread out vaccinations more, another waited to start schedule until 3 years old Worry about their immune systems’ ability to respond, seizures Need shots to enter kindergarten, can claim religious exemption It’s ok to question vaccines—worthy being concerned about 1955 first polio vaccine was announced—parents knew first hand individuals with the extremely virulent diseases, now they don’t seem as pressing Rotovirus vaccine 1991—measles outbreak in Philly, watched several children helplessly die The History of Vaccines 500 years ago 1 in 3 children died before age of 5 Evolved from traditional medicine—India—smallpox—line up to buy disease—draw blood from healthy person, rub with scabs from infected individual Rarely get infected twice—get protection from first exposure 400,000 people would die from smallpox every year—introduced technique to England Jenner—demonstrate that intentional infection with cowpox would prevent smallpox—name his invention vaccine after vaca (cow) People started to get concerned—inoculating with biological fluids but didn’t know how it worked—made people afraid and question use (much like today) Immunity—natural defense system Depends on white cells to fight against disease Look for specific germs, if don’t know it, white cells attack and replicate Tag germs with antibodies to be disposed of Leave behind memory cells—look for invader and sound alarm if it returns Youngest people have the weakest immune system—germs have coevolved to evade our immune system—white cells might not be strong or fast enough Vaccine sends in weakened or dead part of germ, easier for immune system to win quickly Different vaccines can be combined, reduces number of shots kids need Very successful as a whole, few parents worry about losing kids to infectious disease Herd Immunity Measles outbreak in NY—majority of people exposed were vaccinated The less the disease exists, the safer each person is—herd immunity Need at least 95% of community to be vaccinated for it work well Only 89% of France vaccinated against measles—2011 there were 15,000 cases Risk tolerance is low but distorted notion of how invulnerable we are Low vaccination can be amplified by mistrust and amplified by media Play on people’s emotions—children hurt by vaccines Dravet Syndrome Seizures after getting vaccines, stopped breathing—vaccine caused fever—seizures continued constantly Bring son to neuroscientist Dravet syndrome—severe seizures—mutations in a gene—not passed by parents—vaccine was the seizure trigger (fever), not caused by vaccine Rely on other people to keep their son safe Majority of children don’t have any symptoms—some swelling, fever, one time seizure Polio Extremely rare cases—got polio—1990—got oral vaccine—hard to walk Thousands of US children were paralyzed and died from polio 1955—polio vaccine—SULK, SABEN—rate plummeted by 99% Small chance in oral form virus could mutate and become harmful—any cases are too many 2000 oral form was replaced by safer injectable form—too many had to suffer Sometimes vaccines are blamed without any concrete evidence Science of Autism Autism—1 in 70 children are diagnosed on spectrum—unsure of cause Noticed symptoms around time of vaccination—more vaccines and more children with disorder Correlation doesn’t imply causation Autism and MMR—published in major scientific paper—no one could replicate findings Dozens of studies that don’t link vaccines and autism Autism in DNA—runs in families—compare gene sequences Play role in brain development and how brain communicates, may also have environmental factors Autism begins in the womb—10 and 24 weeks—fetal origin HPV Vaccine against cervical cancer—Guardacil—HPV—human papoloma virus The most common cancer causing virus—70% of people catch it, some get cancer from it Some see as lifesaving vaccine, others concerned that they don’t have the info to decide Vaccinate boys and girls before sexually active (11 or 12) Any intimate contact may spread virus, so some parents don’t want children to get it because they don’t want to encourage sexual activity Other parents advocate use—could have saved their children’s lives Weighing Risk Risks surround us every day—not just in vaccines Vaccines aren’t risk free—side effects—life threatening rxn—1 in 10 billion We worry about that 1 in 10 billion, make decision based on this fear Make each decision when comparing risk to benefit More people vaccinated, more protected everyone can be Need to get back into mindset of polio times and realize that vaccines are better than no vaccination Personal exemption rates have increased to over 5%, CA has higher restrictions and requirements for parents to opt out of vaccinating Ethics--greater good for greater number of people Name: _____KEY______________ Pd: _____ + √ 0 VACCINES: Calling the Shots Before we watch the DVD, predict whether each statement is TRUE or FALSE in the prediction column. As we watch, conclude whether the statement is actually TRUE or FALSE. Prediction Actual FALSE 1. Approximately 70% 90% of parents choose to vaccinate their children. TRUE 2. Vaccines can wear off after a few years, so some require booster shots to provide the appropriate immunity. FALSE 3. Approximately 50% 90% of people exposed to measles that are not immune actually get sick from the virus. TRUE 4. Families can claim religious exemption to avoid having their children get the required vaccinations to attend school. FALSE 5. In the 1500s 1 in 10 1 in 3 children died before the age of 5. FALSE 6. Vaccines got their name from the word for sheep cow. TRUE 7. Vaccines contain weakened or dead parts of antigens, making it easier for immune system to win quickly. MATCHING: 8. __B___ Pertussis 9. _C____ Measles 10. _A____ Smallpox 11. _D____ Polio A. Causes small puss filled bumps on skin, infection of cowpox created immunity against this virus B. Inflammation of the lungs, lots of coughing, commonly affects infants and young children C. Causes fever and red rash on the skin, US declared free of this virus in 2000 but has returned, very infectious D. Affects the spinal cord leaving many infected individuals paralyzed, infection rate dropped by 99% when vaccine was introduced in 1955 12.Define and provide an example of the following terms: Eradicate Herd immunity Immuno-compromised Virulent Eradicate—to get rid of, measles was declared to be completely eradicated from the US in 2000 Herd immunity—safety in numbers, if 95%+ of community is vaccinated, unvaccinated are protected because likelihood of disease appearing is very small—too many anti-vaxxers and people who are immunocompromised are in trouble Immuno-compromised—people with weakened, undeveloped, or non-existent immune systems, people with AIDS/HIV, young and elderly, undergoing cancer treatments, etc Virulent—extremely harmful disease, very severe and potentially harmful symptoms, viruses like measles and polio are extremely virulent 13.AGREE OR DISAGREE with the following statements and EXPLAIN WHY: The threat of contagious disease is underappreciated. AGREE—vaccines have prevented the outbreaks that were typical in the past, general public not used to the widespread losses that occurred during these times Vaccines cause autism. DISAGREE—study has not been able to be replicated, even though subjects were diagnosed as being autistic after they had received vaccines, does not mean that vaccines CAUSED the autism (correlation does not imply causation) Vaccination and any associated risk is better than not vaccinating at all. AGREE—most of the side effects are minimal and occur at a very low frequency, there is more risk riding in a car than getting a vaccine DISAGREE—if immunocompromised already, may be too much to handle, have to depend on herd immunity to stay well Name: _______________________ Pd: _____ + √ 0 VACCINES: Calling the Shots Before we watch the DVD, predict whether each statement is TRUE or FALSE in the prediction column. As we watch, conclude whether the statement is actually TRUE or FALSE. Prediction Actual 1. Approximately 70% of parents choose to vaccinate their children. 2. Vaccines can wear off after a few years, so some require booster shots to provide the appropriate immunity. 3. Approximately 50% of people exposed to measles that are not immune actually get sick from the virus. 4. Families can claim religious exemption to avoid having their children get the required vaccinations to attend school. 5. In the 1500s 1 in 10 children died before the age of 5. 6. Vaccines got their name from the word for sheep. 7. Vaccines contain weakened or dead parts of antigens, making it easier for immune system to win quickly. MATCHING: 2. _____ Pertussis 3. _____ Measles 4. _____ Smallpox 5. _____ Polio E. Causes small puss filled bumps on skin, infection of cowpox created immunity against this virus F. Inflammation of the lungs, lots of coughing, commonly affects infants and young children G. Causes fever and red rash on the skin, US declared free of this virus in 2000 but has returned, very infectious H. Affects the spinal cord leaving many infected individuals paralyzed, infection rate dropped by 99% when vaccine was introduced in 1955 6. Define and provide an example of/purpose for THREE of the following terms: Eradicate Herd immunity Immuno-compromised Virulent 7. AGREE OR DISAGREE with the following statements and EXPLAIN WHY: The threat of contagious disease is underappreciated. Vaccines cause autism. Vaccination and any associated risk is better than not vaccinating at all.