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Name: _______________________________________________ Date: _________________ Block: _____ WKST # Surface Processes Unit Test 2021 1. Which agent of erosion is most likely responsible for the deposition of sandbars along ocean shorelines? A) glaciers C) wave action B) mass movement D) wind action 2. The diagram below represents the size and shape of a pebble. This pebble and 20 other pebbles having a similar size and shape were placed in a rock tumbler with water and allowed to abrade for five days. Which diagram best represents the size and shape of this pebble after the five-day period? A) B) C) D) 3. The cross section below shows the movement of wind-driven sand particles that strike a partly exposed basalt cobble located at the surface of a windy desert. Which cross section best represents the appearance of this cobble after many years of exposure to the wind-driven sand? EC: write Merry Christmas above your name on the bubble sheet. A) B) C) D) 4. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below, which shows the effect that average yearly precipitation and temperature have on the type of weathering that will occur in a particular region. Which type of weathering is most common where the average yearly temperature is 5°C and the average yearly precipitation is 45 cm? A) B) C) D) moderate chemical weathering very slight weathering moderate chemical weathering with frost action slight frost action 5. Which type of climate has the greatest amount of rock weathering caused by frost action? A) B) C) D) a wet climate in which temperatures remain below freezing a wet climate in which temperatures alternate from below freezing to above freezing a dry climate in which temperatures remain below freezing a dry climate in which temperatures alternate from below freezing to above freezing 6. Which rock weathers most rapidly when exposed to acid rain? A) quartzite B) granite C) basalt D) limestone 7. Landscapes will undergo the most chemical weathering if the climate is A) cool and dry B) cool and wet C) warm and dry D) warm and wet 8. The diagram below shows granite bedrock with cracks. Water has seeped into the cracks and frozen. The arrows represent the directions in which the cracks have widened due to weathering. Which statement best describes the physical weathering shown by the diagram? A) B) C) D) Enlargement of the cracks occurs because water expands when it freezes. This type of weathering occurs only in bedrock composed of granite. The cracks become wider because of chemical reactions between water and the rock. This type of weathering is common in regions of primarily warm and humid climates. 9. Which activity demonstrates chemical weathering? A) B) C) D) freezing of water in the cracks of a sandstone sidewalk abrasion of a streambed by tumbling rocks grinding of talc into a powder dissolving of limestone by acid rain 10. The cross section below represents an outcrop of sedimentary rock layers exposed on Earth's surface. Rock layers A, B, C, and D are labeled. Extra Credit: What rock is layer C? _______________ Which rock layer shows the greatest resistance to weathering and erosion? A) A B) B C) C D) D 11. Humus, which is formed by the decay of plant and animal matter, is important for the formation of most A) soils C) sediment B) minerals D) surface bedrock Base your answers to questions 12 and 13 on the photograph below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The photograph shows a small waterfall located on the Tug Hill Plateau. 12. Compared to the bedrock layers above and below the rock ledge shown at the waterfall, the characteristic that is primarily responsible for the existence of the rock ledge is its greater A) resistance to weathering C) thickness B) abundance of fossils D) age 13. Rock fragments that are tumbled and carried over long distances by this stream are most likely becoming A) less dense, harder, and smaller C) more dense, angular, and smaller B) less rounded, jagged, and larger D) more rounded, smoother, and smaller 14. The four limestone samples illustrated below have the same composition, mass, and volume. Under the same climatic conditions, which sample will weather fastest? A) B) C) D) 15. The mineral composition of a residual soil is most affected by the A) depth of the water table C) steepness of hillslopes B) elevation of the surface D) type of bedrock material 16. Which particles will be transported by a stream moving at a velocity of 5 cm/s? A) pebbles, sand, silt, and clay, only C) silt and clay, only B) sand, silt, and clay, only D) clay, only 17. The demonstration shown in the diagram below indicates that powdered limestone reacts faster than a single large piece of limestone of equal mass when both are placed in acid. The most likely reason powdered limestone reacts faster is that it has A) less total volume C) more total surface area B) more chemical bonds D) lower density 18. Sediments found in glacial moraines are best described as A) sorted and layered C) unsorted and layered B) sorted and not layered D) unsorted and not layered 19. Which statement best characterizes the soils found in New York State? A) B) C) D) All the soil has been removed by glaciation. Wind erosion has been the dominant agent in soil formation. Transported soils are similar in composition to underlying bedrock. Transported soils are far more common than residual soils. 20. Pieces of bedrock material that are broken from a cliff and deposited by a landslide at the base of the cliff are best described as A) rounded and sorted C) angular and sorted B) rounded and unsorted D) angular and unsorted 21. Unsorted, angular, rough-surfaced cobbles and boulders are found at the base of a cliff. What most likely transported these cobbles and boulders? A) running water B) wind C) gravity D) ocean currents 22. A sediment particle transported by a stream over a long period of time will most likely show A) B) C) D) a decrease in mass and number of angular edges a decrease in density and size an increase in weight and hardness an increase in volume and number of cleavage planes 23. Base your answer to the following question on the cross section and data table below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The cross section shows the profile of a stream that is flowing down a valley from its source. Points A through E represent locations in the stream. The data table shows the average stream velocity at each location. The volume of water in the stream remains the same at all locations. What is the largest type of sediment that could be transported at location B? A) silt B) sand C) pebbles D) cobbles 24. Which cross section best represents the valley shape where a rapidly flowing stream is cutting into the bedrock in a mountainous area? A) B) C) D) 25. Which landscape characteristic indicates a landscape has been formed primarily by streams? A) residual soil covering a large area C) V-shaped valleys B) coastal sand dunes D) parallel hills of unsorted sediments 26. The block diagram below represents a meandering stream. Which table indicates where the greatest stream velocity and the greatest rate of stream erosion occur? A) B) C) D) 27. The block diagram below represents a section of a meandering stream. The arrows show the direction of stream flow. The stream bank on the outside of this meander is steeper than the stream bank on the inside of this meander because the water on the outside of this meander is moving A) slower, causing more deposition C) faster, causing more deposition B) slower, causing more erosion D) faster, causing more erosion 28. Two streams begin at the same elevation and have equal volumes. Which statement best explains why one stream could be flowing faster than the other stream? A) B) C) D) The faster stream contains more dissolved minerals. The faster stream has a much steeper gradient. The streams are flowing in different directions. The faster stream has a temperature of 10°C, and the slower stream has a temperature of 20°C. 29. The block diagram below represents the surface features in a landscape region. Which diagram best represents the general stream drainage pattern of this entire region? A) B) C) D) Base your answers to questions 30 and 31 on your knowledge of Earth science. The diagram represents an erosional-depositional system in an arid environment, and indicates the processes occurring at various locations within the atmosphere and on the land surface. The box labeled X identifies one sand dune. Arrows represent the movement of particles. 30. The total range of particle sizes indicated in this system is A) less than 0.0004 cm C) 0.006 to 0.2 cm, only B) 0.0004 to 0.006 cm, only D) 0.0004 to 0.2 cm 31. Which agent of erosion moves the particles within this erosional-depositional system? A) waves B) wind C) running water D) moving ice 32. The photograph below shows a valley glacier altering the landscape. The result of this glacial action will be a A) B) C) D) U-shaped valley with scratched and grooved bedrock U-shaped valley with well-sorted, rounded sediment V-shaped valley with scratched and grooved bedrock V-shaped valley with well-sorted, rounded sediment 33. The map below shows a portion of the North Carolina coastline, including some of the Outer Banks. The Outer Banks is a string of narrow barrier islands consisting of well-sorted sand along the Atlantic Ocean coast. Which agent of erosion is primarily responsible for the formation of these barrier islands? A) wave action B) landslides C) streams D) glacial ice 34. Which diagram represents a side view of a sand dune most commonly formed as a result of the prevailing wind direction shown? A) B) C) D) 35. What is the name of the largest sediment that can be transported by a stream moving at a velocity of 100 centimeters per second (cm/s)? A) silt B) sand C) pebbles D) cobbles 36. The picture below shows a geological feature in the Kalahari Desert of southwestern Africa. Which process most likely produced the present appearance of this feature? A) wind erosion C) earthquake vibrations B) volcanic eruption D) plate tectonics 37. The map below shows a portion of the coast of Texas. Letter X indicates features formed by wave action. What is the name of the features indicated by letter X? A) barrier islands B) island arc C) deltas D) moraines 38. A sedimentary particle is dropped into a cylinder of water. The particle will take the longest time to settle if the particle has A) B) C) D) low density, small size, and spherical shape low density, small size, and flattened shape high density, large size, and spherical shape high density, large size, and flattened shape 39. The diagram below represents a portion of a meandering stream. Letters A, B, C, and D represent locations on the bottom of the stream. At which two locations would the stream most likely be the deepest? A) A and B B) B and C C) C and D D) D and A 40. Base your answer to the following question on the block diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The block diagram represents a landscape that was produced by a meandering stream. One landscape feature is labeled X. Letters A, B, C, and D represent locations on the stream banks. The landscape feature labeled X is best described as A) a flood plain B) a sand bar C) a delta D) an escarpment 41. When the velocity of a stream suddenly decreases, the sediment being transported undergoes an increase in A) particle density C) deposition B) erosion D) mass movement 42. The map below shows a meandering river. A–A' is the location of a cross section. The arrows show the direction of the river flow. Which cross section best represents the shape of the river bottom at A–A'? A) B) C) D) 43. The landscape diagram below shows a fan-shaped pattern of sediment deposits. The fan-shaped pattern of these sediments is most likely the result of deposition by A) glacial ice C) running water B) ocean waves D) prevailing winds 44. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which represents the landscape features associated with a meandering river. Letters W, X, Y, and Z represent locations on the floodplain. Extra Credit: On the picture below highlight the oxbow lake. The choices below represent stages in the formation of a meandering river. Which sequence best represents the usual changes over time? A) B) C) D) 45. Base your answer to the following question on the cross section and block diagram below. The cross section shows an enlarged view of the stream shown in the block diagram. The sediments in the cross section are drawn to actual size. Arrows show the movement of particles in the stream. The block diagram represents a region of Earth's surface and the bedrock beneath the region. Identify the type of rock shown in the block diagram that appears to be the most easily eroded._______________ Base your answers to questions 46 and 47 on the block diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The diagram represents a meandering stream flowing into the ocean. Points A and B represent locations along the streambanks. Letter C indicates a triangular-shaped depositional feature where the stream enters the ocean. 46. Identify the triangular-shaped depositional feature indicated by letter C. __________________________ 47. The top of the box below represents the stream surface between points A and B. In the box, draw a line from point A to point B to represent a cross-sectional view of the shape of the bottom of the stream channel. 48. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows a clear plastic tube containing water and a beaker containing a mixture of rounded quartz grains of different sizes. When the rounded quartz grains are poured all at once into the tube, the grains will settle to the bottom of the tube. On the cross section provided above,draw the approximate grain sizes and pattern of arrangement of the rounded quartz grains at the bottom of the tube.