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AP EUROPEAN HISTORY The Culprits The Famine of 1315-1317 By 1300 Europeans were farming almost all the land they could cultivate. A population crisis developed. Climate changes in Europe produced three years of crop failures between 1315-17 because of excessive rain. As many as 15% of the peasants in some English villages died. One consequence of starvation & poverty was susceptibility to disease. Path of the Plague 1347: Plague Reaches Constantinople! The Symptoms Bulbous Septicemia Form: almost 100% mortality rate. The Black Death • • • • The Black Death came in three forms: 1. bubonic 2. pneumonic 3. septicemic Bubonic plague • The bubonic plague was the most commonly seen form of the Black Death. The mortality rate was 30-75%. The symptoms were enlarged and inflamed lymph nodes (around arm pits, neck and groin). • Victims were subject to headaches, nausea, aching joints, fever of 101-105 degrees, vomiting, and a general feeling of illness. • Symptoms took from 1-7 days to appear. Pneumonic Plague • The pneumonic plague was the second most commonly seen form of the Black Death. The mortality rate for the pneumonic plague was 90-95% (if treated today the mortality rate would be 5-10%). • The pneumonic plague infected the lungs. Symptoms included slimy sputum tinted with blood. Sputum is saliva mixed with mucus exerted from the respiratory system. • As the disease progressed, the sputum became free flowing and bright red. Symptoms took 1-7 days to appear. The Septicemic Plague • The septicemic plague was the most rare form of all. The mortality was close to 100% (even today there is no treatment). Symptoms were a high fever and skin turning deep shades of purple. • The black death got its name from the deep purple, almost black discoloration." Victims usually died the same day symptoms appeared. In some cities, as many as 800 people died every day. Effects of the Black Death on Europe • 1/3 of the population of Europe died. • In all, 2.5 million people died from the plague. • Art, science, and literature stopped being created. • People were only worried about their survival. Effect on Children • Children suffered as well. A common nursery rhyme is: • • • • Ring a-round the rosy Pocket full of posies Ashes, ashes! We all fall down! • Ring around the rosy: rosary beads give you God's help. • A pocket full of posies: used to stop the odor of rotting bodies which was at one point thought to cause the plague, it was also used widely by doctors to protect them from the infected plague patients. • Ashes, ashes: the church burned the dead when burying them became to laborious. • We all fall down: dead. The Disease Cycle Flea drinks rat blood that carries the bacteria. Bacteria multiply in flea’s gut. Human is infected! Flea bites human and regurgitates blood into human wound. Flea’s gut clogged with bacteria. From Toggenburg Bible 1411 Lancing a Buboe Medieval Art & the Plague Medieval Art & the Plague Bring out your dead! Medieval Art & the Plague An obsession with death. Boccaccio in The Decameron “The victims ate lunch with their friends and dinner with their ancestors.” The Danse Macabre Attempts to Stop the Plague A Doctor’s Robe “Leeching” Attempts to Stop the Plague Flagellanti: Self-inflicted “penance” for our sins! Attempts to Stop the Plague Pogroms against the Jews “Jew” hat “Golden Circle” obligatory badge Death Triumphant !: A Major Artistic Theme A Little Macabre Ditty “A sickly season,” the merchant said, “The town I left was filled with dead, and everywhere these queer red flies crawled upon the corpses’ eyes, eating them away.” “Fair make you sick,” the merchant said, “They crawled upon the wine and bread. Pale priests with oil and books, bulging eyes and crazy looks, dropping like the flies.” A Little Macabre Ditty (2) “I had to laugh,” the merchant said, “The doctors purged, and dosed, and bled; “And proved through solemn disputation “The cause lay in some constellation. “Then they began to die.” “First they sneezed,” the merchant said, “And then they turned the brightest red, Begged for water, then fell back. With bulging eyes and face turned black, they waited for the flies.” A Little Macabre Ditty (3) “I came away,” the merchant said, “You can’t do business with the dead. “So I’ve come here to ply my trade. “You’ll find this to be a fine brocade…” And then he sneezed……….! The Mortality Rate 35% - 70% 25,000,000 dead !!! What were the political, economic, and social effects of the Black Death? EFFECTS • Disease is a major determinant of human history. • Socially, and politically, Europe was turned upside down… • The church and the nobility…the two powerhouses of the Middle Ages lose prestige and power as a result of the plague. • As a result the kings of Europe consolidate power…it is the beginning of the end of Feudalism • Kings use a bureaucracy to rule, raise taxes, pass laws.. • Serfs are in short supply…they can sell their labor to the highest bidder…their wages go up! • The decline in production led to higher prices which led to inflation • The plague led to an overwhelming pessimism, to religious fanaticism, to suspicion of travelers, and to intolerance of Jews.