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Pedagogical Color Chart Pedagogical Color Chart Mechanics and Thermodynamics S Linear ( p) S and angular (L) momentum vectors Displacement and position vectors Displacement and position component vectors S Linear and angular momentum component vectors S Linear (v ) and angular (v) velocity vectors Velocity component vectors S Torque vectors (t) Torque component vectors S Force vectors (F) Force component vectors Schematic linear or rotational motion directions S Acceleration vectors ( a ) Acceleration component vectors Energy transfer arrows Weng Dimensional rotational arrow Enlargement arrow Qc Qh Springs Pulleys Process arrow Electricity and Magnetism Electric fields Electric field vectors Electric field component vectors Capacitors Magnetic fields Magnetic field vectors Magnetic field component vectors Voltmeters V Ammeters A Inductors (coils) Positive charges Negative charges Resistors Batteries and other DC power supplies AC Sources Lightbulbs Ground symbol Current Switches Light and Optics Light ray Focal light ray Central light ray Mirror Curved mirror Objects Converging lens Diverging lens Images Some Physical Constants Quantity Symbol Valuea Atomic mass unit u 1.660 538 782 (83) 3 10227 kg 931.494 028 (23) MeV/c 2 Avogadro’s number NA 6.022 141 79 (30) 3 1023 particles/mol Bohr magneton mB 5 eU 2me 9.274 009 15 (23) 3 10224 J/T Bohr radius a0 5 U2 m e e 2k e 5.291 772 085 9 (36) 3 10211 m Boltzmann’s constant kB 5 Compton wavelength lC 5 h me c Coulomb constant ke 5 1 4pP0 Deuteron mass md Electron mass me 3.343 583 20 (17) 3 10227 kg 2.013 553 212 724 (78) u 9.109 382 15 (45) 3 10231 kg 5.485 799 094 3 (23) 3 1024 u 0.510 998 910 (13) MeV/c 2 Electron volt eV 1.602 176 487 (40) 3 10219 J Elementary charge e 1.602 176 487 (40) 3 10219 C Gas constant R 8.314 472 (15) J/mol ? K Gravitational constant G 6.674 28 (67) 3 10211 N ? m2/kg2 Neutron mass mn 1.674 927 211 (84) 3 10227 kg 1.008 664 915 97 (43) u 939.565 346 (23) MeV/c 2 Nuclear magneton mn 5 Permeability of free space m0 Permittivity of free space P0 5 Planck’s constant h U5 R NA eU 2m p 1.380 650 4 (24) 3 10223 J/K 2.426 310 217 5 (33) 3 10212 m 8.987 551 788 . . . 3 109 N ? m2/C 2 (exact) 5.050 783 24 (13) 3 10227 J/T 4p 3 1027 T ? m/A (exact) 1 m 0c 2 h 2p 8.854 187 817 . . . 3 10212 C2/N ? m2 (exact) 6.626 068 96 (33) 3 10234 J ? s 1.054 571 628 (53) 3 10234 J ? s Proton mass mp 1.672 621 637 (83) 3 10227 kg 1.007 276 466 77 (10) u 938.272 013 (23) MeV/c 2 Rydberg constant RH 1.097 373 156 852 7 (73) 3 107 m21 Speed of light in vacuum c 2.997 924 58 3 108 m/s (exact) Note: These constants are the values recommended in 2006 by CODATA, based on a least-squares adjustment of data from different measurements. For a more complete list, see P. J. Mohr, B. N. Taylor, and D. B. Newell, “CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006.” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80:2, 633–730, 2008. aThe numbers in parentheses for the values represent the uncertainties of the last two digits. Solar System Data Body Mean Radius (m) Mass (kg) 3.30 3 1023 4.87 3 1024 5.97 3 1024 6.42 3 1023 1.90 3 1027 5.68 3 1026 8.68 3 1025 1.02 3 1026 1.25 3 1022 7.35 3 1022 1.989 3 1030 Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Plutoa Moon Sun Period (s) 2.44 3 106 6.05 3 106 6.37 3 106 3.39 3 106 6.99 3 107 5.82 3 107 2.54 3 107 2.46 3 107 1.20 3 106 1.74 3 106 6.96 3 108 7.60 3 106 1.94 3 107 3.156 3 107 5.94 3 107 3.74 3 108 9.29 3 108 2.65 3 109 5.18 3 109 7.82 3 109 — — Mean Distance from the Sun (m) 5.79 3 1010 1.08 3 1011 1.496 3 1011 2.28 3 1011 7.78 3 1011 1.43 3 1012 2.87 3 1012 4.50 3 1012 5.91 3 1012 — — a In August 2006, the International Astronomical Union adopted a definition of a planet that separates Pluto from the other eight planets. Pluto is now defined as a “dwarf planet” (like the asteroid Ceres). Physical Data Often Used Average Earth–Moon distance 3.84 3 108 m Average Earth–Sun distance 1.496 3 1011 m Average radius of the Earth 6.37 3 106 m Density of air (208C and 1 atm) 1.20 kg/m3 Density of air (0°C and 1 atm) 1.29 kg/m3 Density of water (208C and 1 atm) 1.00 3 103 kg/m3 Free-fall acceleration 9.80 m/s2 Mass of the Earth 5.97 3 1024 kg Mass of the Moon 7.35 3 1022 kg Mass of the Sun 1.99 3 1030 kg Standard atmospheric pressure 1.013 3 105 Pa Note: These values are the ones used in the text. Some Prefixes for Powers of Ten Power Prefix Abbreviation Power Prefix Abbreviation 10224 yocto y 101 deka da 10221 zepto z 102 hecto h a 103 kilo k f 106 mega M 10218 10215 atto femto 10212 pico p 109 giga G 1029 nano n 1012 tera T m 1015 peta P m 1018 exa E zetta Z yotta Y 1026 1023 micro milli 1022 centi c 1021 1021 deci d 1024 Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics Raymond A. Serway Emeritus, James Madison University John W. Jewett, Jr. Emeritus, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona With contributions from Vahé Peroomian, University of California at Los Angeles About the Cover The cover shows a view inside the new railway departures concourse opened in March 2012 at the Kings Cross Station in London. The wall of the older structure (completed in 1852) is visible at the left. The sweeping shell-like roof is claimed by the architect to be the largest single-span station structure in Europe. Many principles of physics are required to design and construct such an open semicircular roof with a radius of 74 meters and containing over 2 000 triangular panels. Other principles of physics are necessary to develop the lighting design, optimize the acoustics, and integrate the new structure with existing infrastructure, historic buildings, and railway platforms. © Ashley Cooper/Corbis Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States Ninth Edition Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, Ninth Edition Raymond A. Serway and John W. Jewett, Jr. Publisher, Physical Sciences: Mary Finch Publisher, Physics and Astronomy: Charlie Hartford Development Editor: Ed Dodd 2014, 2010, 2008 by Raymond A. Serway NO RIGHTS RESERVED. Any part of this work may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Assistant Editor: Brandi Kirksey Editorial Assistant: Brendan Killion Media Editor: Rebecca Berardy Schwartz Brand Manager: Nicole Hamm Marketing Communications Manager: Linda Yip Senior Marketing Development Manager: Tom Ziolkowski Content Project Manager: Alison Eigel Zade Library of Congress Control Number: 2012947242 Senior Art Director: Cate Barr ISBN-13: 978-1-133-95405-7 Manufacturing Planner: Sandee Milewski ISBN-10: 1-133-95405-7 Rights Acquisition Specialist: Shalice Shah-Caldwell Production Service: Lachina Publishing Services Text and Cover Designer: Roy Neuhaus Cover Image: The new Kings Cross railway station, London, UK Cover Image Credit: © Ashley Cooper/Corbis Compositor: Lachina Publishing Services Brooks/Cole 20 Channel Center Street Boston, MA 02210 USA We dedicate this book to our wives, Elizabeth and Lisa, and all our children and grandchildren for their loving understanding when we spent time on writing instead of being with them. Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16 15 14 13 12 Brief Contents p a r t 1 p a r t Mechanics 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Physics and Measurement 2 Motion in One Dimension 21 Vectors 59 Motion in Two Dimensions 78 The Laws of Motion 111 Circular Motion and Other Applications of Newton’s Laws 150 Energy of a System 177 Conservation of Energy 211 Linear Momentum and Collisions 247 Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis 293 Angular Momentum 335 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity 363 Universal Gravitation 388 Fluid Mechanics 417 p a r t 2 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves 449 15 16 17 18 Oscillatory Motion 450 Wave Motion 483 Sound Waves 507 Superposition and Standing Waves p a r t 3 Thermodynamics 567 19 20 21 22 Electricity and Magnetism 689 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Electric Fields 690 Gauss’s Law 725 Electric Potential 746 Capacitance and Dielectrics 777 Current and Resistance 808 Direct-Current Circuits 833 Magnetic Fields 868 Sources of the Magnetic Field 904 Faraday’s Law 935 Inductance 970 Alternating-Current Circuits 998 Electromagnetic Waves 1030 p a r t Temperature 568 The First Law of Thermodynamics 590 The Kinetic Theory of Gases 626 Heat Engines, Entropy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 653 5 Light and Optics 1057 35 36 37 38 The Nature of Light and the Principles of Ray Optics 1058 Image Formation 1090 Wave Optics 1134 Diffraction Patterns and Polarization 1160 p a r t 533 4 6 Modern Physics 1191 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Relativity 1192 Introduction to Quantum Physics 1233 Quantum Mechanics 1267 Atomic Physics 1296 Molecules and Solids 1340 Nuclear Structure 1380 Applications of Nuclear Physics 1418 Particle Physics and Cosmology 1447 iii Contents 6 Circular Motion and Other Applications About the Authors viii Preface of Newton’s Laws 150 ix 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 To the Student xxx p a r t 1 7 Energy of a System Mechanics 1 1 Physics and Measurement 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 10 21 Position, Velocity, and Speed 22 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed 25 Analysis Model: Particle Under Constant Velocity 28 Acceleration 31 Motion Diagrams 35 Analysis Model: Particle Under Constant Acceleration 36 Freely Falling Objects 40 Kinematic Equations Derived from Calculus 43 3 Vectors 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 2 Standards of Length, Mass, and Time 3 Matter and Model Building 6 Dimensional Analysis 7 Conversion of Units 9 Estimates and Order-of-Magnitude Calculations Significant Figures 11 2 Motion in One Dimension 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 59 Coordinate Systems 59 Vector and Scalar Quantities 61 Some Properties of Vectors 62 Components of a Vector and Unit Vectors 4 Motion in Two Dimensions 65 78 4.1 The Position, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors 78 4.2Two-Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration 81 4.3Projectile Motion 84 4.4Analysis Model: Particle in Uniform Circular Motion 91 4.5 Tangential and Radial Acceleration 94 4.6Relative Velocity and Relative Acceleration 96 5 The Laws of Motion 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 Extending the Particle in Uniform Circular Motion Model Nonuniform Circular Motion 156 Motion in Accelerated Frames 158 Motion in the Presence of Resistive Forces 161 111 The Concept of Force 111 Newton’s First Law and Inertial Frames 113 Mass 114 Newton’s Second Law 115 The Gravitational Force and Weight 117 Newton’s Third Law 118 Analysis Models Using Newton’s Second Law Forces of Friction 130 120 177 7.1 Systems and Environments 178 7.2 Work Done by a Constant Force 178 7.3 The Scalar Product of Two Vectors 181 7.4 Work Done by a Varying Force 183 7.5Kinetic Energy and the Work–Kinetic Energy Theorem 7.6 Potential Energy of a System 191 7.7 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces 196 7.8Relationship Between Conservative Forces and Potential Energy 198 7.9 Energy Diagrams and Equilibrium of a System 199 8 Conservation of Energy 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 188 211 Analysis Model: Nonisolated System (Energy) 212 Analysis Model: Isolated System (Energy) 215 Situations Involving Kinetic Friction 222 Changes in Mechanical Energy for Nonconservative Forces 227 Power 232 9 Linear Momentum and Collisions 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 150 247 Linear Momentum 247 Analysis Model: Isolated System (Momentum) 250 Analysis Model: Nonisolated System (Momentum) 252 Collisions in One Dimension 256 Collisions in Two Dimensions 264 The Center of Mass 267 Systems of Many Particles 272 Deformable Systems 275 Rocket Propulsion 277 10 Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis 293 10.1 Angular Position, Velocity, and Acceleration 293 10.2Analysis Model: Rigid Object Under Constant Angular Acceleration 296 10.3 Angular and Translational Quantities 298 10.4 Torque 300 10.5Analysis Model: Rigid Object Under a Net Torque 302 10.6 Calculation of Moments of Inertia 307 10.7 Rotational Kinetic Energy 311 10.8 Energy Considerations in Rotational Motion 312 10.9 Rolling Motion of a Rigid Object 316 11 Angular Momentum 335 11.1 The Vector Product and Torque 335 11.2Analysis Model: Nonisolated System (Angular Momentum) 338 iv v Contents 11.3 Angular Momentum of a Rotating Rigid Object 342 11.4Analysis Model: Isolated System (Angular Momentum) 345 11.5 The Motion of Gyroscopes and Tops 350 12 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 363 Analysis Model: Rigid Object in Equilibrium 363 More on the Center of Gravity 365 Examples of Rigid Objects in Static Equilibrium 366 Elastic Properties of Solids 373 13 Universal Gravitation 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 388 417 Pressure 417 Variation of Pressure with Depth 419 Pressure Measurements 423 Buoyant Forces and Archimedes’s Principle 423 Fluid Dynamics 427 Bernoulli’s Equation 430 Other Applications of Fluid Dynamics 433 p a r t 483 507 Pressure Variations in Sound Waves 508 Speed of Sound Waves 510 Intensity of Periodic Sound Waves 512 The Doppler Effect 517 18 Superposition and Standing Waves 533 18.1 Analysis Model: Waves in Interference 534 18.2 Standing Waves 538 18.3Analysis Model: Waves Under Boundary Conditions 18.4 Resonance 546 18.5 Standing Waves in Air Columns 546 18.6 Standing Waves in Rods and Membranes 550 18.7 Beats: Interference in Time 550 18.8 Nonsinusoidal Wave Patterns 553 541 590 20.1 Heat and Internal Energy 590 20.2 Specific Heat and Calorimetry 593 20.3 Latent Heat 597 20.4 Work and Heat in Thermodynamic Processes 601 20.5 The First Law of Thermodynamics 603 20.6Some Applications of the First Law of Thermodynamics 604 20.7Energy Transfer Mechanisms in Thermal Processes 608 626 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas 627 Molar Specific Heat of an Ideal Gas 631 The Equipartition of Energy 635 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas 637 Distribution of Molecular Speeds 639 of Thermodynamics 653 450 16.1 Propagation of a Disturbance 484 16.2 Analysis Model: Traveling Wave 487 16.3 The Speed of Waves on Strings 491 16.4 Reflection and Transmission 494 16.5Rate of Energy Transfer by Sinusoidal Waves on Strings 16.6 The Linear Wave Equation 497 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 20 The First Law of Thermodynamics 22 Heat Engines, Entropy, and the Second Law 15.1 Motion of an Object Attached to a Spring 450 15.2Analysis Model: Particle in Simple Harmonic Motion 452 15.3 Energy of the Simple Harmonic Oscillator 458 15.4Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion with Uniform Circular Motion 462 15.5 The Pendulum 464 15.6 Damped Oscillations 468 15.7 Forced Oscillations 469 17 Sound Waves 568 19.1Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 568 19.2Thermometers and the Celsius Temperature Scale 570 19.3The Constant-Volume Gas Thermometer and the Absolute Temperature Scale 571 19.4 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids 573 19.5 Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas 578 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves 449 16 Wave Motion Thermodynamics 567 21 The Kinetic Theory of Gases 2 15 Oscillatory Motion 3 19 Temperature 13.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 389 13.2Free-Fall Acceleration and the Gravitational Force 391 13.3 Analysis Model: Particle in a Field (Gravitational) 392 13.4 Kepler’s Laws and the Motion of Planets 394 13.5 Gravitational Potential Energy 400 13.6Energy Considerations in Planetary and Satellite Motion 402 14 Fluid Mechanics p a r t 495 22.1Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 654 22.2 Heat Pumps and Refrigerators 656 22.3 Reversible and Irreversible Processes 659 22.4 The Carnot Engine 660 22.5 Gasoline and Diesel Engines 665 22.6 Entropy 667 22.7Changes in Entropy for Thermodynamic Systems 671 22.8 Entropy and the Second Law 676 p a r t 4 Electricity and Magnetism 689 23 Electric Fields 690 23.1 Properties of Electric Charges 690 23.2 Charging Objects by Induction 692 23.3 Coulomb’s Law 694 23.4 Analysis Model: Particle in a Field (Electric) 699 23.5Electric Field of a Continuous Charge Distribution 704 23.6 Electric Field Lines 708 23.7Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Electric Field 710 24 Gauss’s Law 725 24.1 Electric Flux 725 24.2 Gauss’s Law 728 24.3Application of Gauss’s Law to Various Charge Distributions 731 24.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium 735 25 Electric Potential 746 25.1 Electric Potential and Potential Difference 746 25.2 Potential Difference in a Uniform Electric Field 748 vi Contents 25.3Electric Potential and Potential Energy Due to Point Charges 752 25.4Obtaining the Value of the Electric Field from the Electric Potential 755 25.5Electric Potential Due to Continuous Charge Distributions 756 25.6 Electric Potential Due to a Charged Conductor 761 25.7 The Millikan Oil-Drop Experiment 764 25.8 Applications of Electrostatics 765 26 Capacitance and Dielectrics 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 26.5 26.6 26.7 27 Current and Resistance 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 27.6 29 Magnetic Fields p a r t 852 868 32 Inductance 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 32.5 32.6 935 Faraday’s Law of Induction 935 Motional emf 939 Lenz’s Law 944 Induced emf and Electric Fields 947 Generators and Motors 949 Eddy Currents 953 970 Self-Induction and Inductance 970 RL Circuits 972 Energy in a Magnetic Field 976 Mutual Inductance 978 Oscillations in an LC Circuit 980 The RLC Circuit 984 1030 5 of Ray Optics 1058 904 30.1 The Biot–Savart Law 904 30.2The Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Conductors 30.3 Ampère’s Law 911 30.4 The Magnetic Field of a Solenoid 915 30.5 Gauss’s Law in Magnetism 916 30.6 Magnetism in Matter 919 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 31.6 1015 35 The Nature of Light and the Principles 29.1 Analysis Model: Particle in a Field (Magnetic) 869 29.2Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field 874 29.3Applications Involving Charged Particles Moving in a Magnetic Field 879 29.4Magnetic Force Acting on a Current-Carrying Conductor 882 29.5Torque on a Current Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field 885 29.6 The Hall Effect 890 31 Faraday’s Law 998 Light and Optics 1057 833 30 Sources of the Magnetic Field AC Sources 998 Resistors in an AC Circuit 999 Inductors in an AC Circuit 1002 Capacitors in an AC Circuit 1004 The RLC Series Circuit 1007 Power in an AC Circuit 1011 Resonance in a Series RLC Circuit 1013 The Transformer and Power Transmission Rectifiers and Filters 1018 34.1Displacement Current and the General Form of Ampère’s Law 1031 34.2 Maxwell’s Equations and Hertz’s Discoveries 1033 34.3 Plane Electromagnetic Waves 1035 34.4 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves 1039 34.5 Momentum and Radiation Pressure 1042 34.6Production of Electromagnetic Waves by an Antenna 1044 34.7 The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Waves 1045 808 Electromotive Force 833 Resistors in Series and Parallel 836 Kirchhoff’s Rules 843 RC Circuits 846 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety 33.1 33.2 33.3 33.4 33.5 33.6 33.7 33.8 33.9 34 Electromagnetic Waves Electric Current 808 Resistance 811 A Model for Electrical Conduction 816 Resistance and Temperature 819 Superconductors 819 Electrical Power 820 28 Direct-Current Circuits 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 777 Definition of Capacitance 777 Calculating Capacitance 779 Combinations of Capacitors 782 Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor 786 Capacitors with Dielectrics 790 Electric Dipole in an Electric Field 793 An Atomic Description of Dielectrics 795 33 Alternating-Current Circuits 909 35.1 35.2 35.3 35.4 35.5 35.6 35.7 35.8 The Nature of Light 1058 Measurements of the Speed of Light 1059 The Ray Approximation in Ray Optics 1061 Analysis Model: Wave Under Reflection 1061 Analysis Model: Wave Under Refraction 1065 Huygens’s Principle 1071 Dispersion 1072 Total Internal Reflection 1074 36 Image Formation 36.1 36.2 36.3 36.4 36.5 36.6 36.7 36.8 36.9 36.10 1090 Images Formed by Flat Mirrors 1090 Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors 1093 Images Formed by Refraction 1100 Images Formed by Thin Lenses 1104 Lens Aberrations 1112 The Camera 1113 The Eye 1115 The Simple Magnifier 1118 The Compound Microscope 1119 The Telescope 1120 37 Wave Optics 1134 37.1 Young’s Double-Slit Experiment 1134 37.2 Analysis Model: Waves in Interference 1137 37.3Intensity Distribution of the Double-Slit Interference Pattern 1140 37.4 Change of Phase Due to Reflection 1143 37.5 Interference in Thin Films 1144 37.6 The Michelson Interferometer 1147 38 Diffraction Patterns and Polarization 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 38.5 38.6 Introduction to Diffraction Patterns 1160 Diffraction Patterns from Narrow Slits 1161 Resolution of Single-Slit and Circular Apertures 1166 The Diffraction Grating 1169 Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystals 1174 Polarization of Light Waves 1175 1160 vii Contents p a r t 6 Modern Physics 1191 39 Relativity 1192 39.1 The Principle of Galilean Relativity 1193 39.2 The Michelson–Morley Experiment 1196 39.3 Einstein’s Principle of Relativity 1198 39.4Consequences of the Special Theory of Relativity 1199 39.5 The Lorentz Transformation Equations 1210 39.6 The Lorentz Velocity Transformation Equations 1212 39.7 Relativistic Linear Momentum 1214 39.8 Relativistic Energy 1216 39.9 The General Theory of Relativity 1220 40 Introduction to Quantum Physics 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 40.5 40.6 40.7 40.8 Blackbody Radiation and Planck’s Hypothesis The Photoelectric Effect 1240 The Compton Effect 1246 The Nature of Electromagnetic Waves 1249 The Wave Properties of Particles 1249 A New Model: The Quantum Particle 1252 The Double-Slit Experiment Revisited 1255 The Uncertainty Principle 1256 41 Quantum Mechanics 1267 41.1 The Wave Function 1267 41.2Analysis Model: Quantum Particle Under Boundary Conditions 1271 41.3 The Schrödinger Equation 1277 41.4 A Particle in a Well of Finite Height 1279 41.5 Tunneling Through a Potential Energy Barrier 41.6 Applications of Tunneling 1282 41.7 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator 1286 42 Atomic Physics 1233 1234 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4 43.5 43.6 Molecular Bonds 1341 Energy States and Spectra of Molecules 1344 Bonding in Solids 1352 Free-Electron Theory of Metals 1355 Band Theory of Solids 1359 Electrical Conduction in Metals, Insulators, and Semiconductors 1361 43.7 Semiconductor Devices 1364 43.8 Superconductivity 1370 44 Nuclear Structure 44.1 44.2 44.3 44.4 1380 Some Properties of Nuclei 1381 Nuclear Binding Energy 1386 Nuclear Models 1387 Radioactivity 1390 1418 46 Particle Physics and Cosmology 1447 45.1 45.2 45.3 45.4 45.5 45.6 46.1 46.2 46.3 46.4 46.5 46.6 46.7 46.8 46.9 46.10 46.11 46.12 Interactions Involving Neutrons Nuclear Fission 1419 Nuclear Reactors 1421 Nuclear Fusion 1425 Radiation Damage 1432 Uses of Radiation 1434 1418 The Fundamental Forces in Nature 1448 Positrons and Other Antiparticles 1449 Mesons and the Beginning of Particle Physics Classification of Particles 1454 Conservation Laws 1455 Strange Particles and Strangeness 1459 Finding Patterns in the Particles 1460 Quarks 1462 Multicolored Quarks 1465 The Standard Model 1467 The Cosmic Connection 1469 Problems and Perspectives 1474 A Tables 1281 42.1 Atomic Spectra of Gases 1297 42.2 Early Models of the Atom 1299 42.3 Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom 1300 42.4 The Quantum Model of the Hydrogen Atom 1306 42.5 The Wave Functions for Hydrogen 1308 42.6Physical Interpretation of the Quantum Numbers 1311 42.7 The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table 1318 42.8 More on Atomic Spectra: Visible and X-Ray 1322 42.9 Spontaneous and Stimulated Transitions 1325 42.10 Lasers 1326 1340 45 Applications of Nuclear Physics 1451 Appendices 1296 43 Molecules and Solids 44.5 The Decay Processes 1394 44.6 Natural Radioactivity 1404 44.7 Nuclear Reactions 1405 44.8Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging 1406 A-1 A.1 Conversion Factors A-1 A.2 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units of Physical Quantities A-2 B Mathematics Review B.1 B.2 B.3 B.4 B.5 B.6 B.7 B.8 A-4 Scientific Notation A-4 Algebra A-5 Geometry A-10 Trigonometry A-11 Series Expansions A-13 Differential Calculus A-13 Integral Calculus A-16 Propagation of Uncertainty A-20 C Periodic Table of the Elements D SI Units A-24 D.1 SI Units A-24 D.2 Some Derived SI Units A-22 A-24 Answers to Quick Quizzes and Odd-Numbered Problems A-25 Index I-1 About the Authors Raymond A. Serway received his doctorate at Illinois Institute of Technology and is Professor Emeritus at James Madison University. In 2011, he was awarded with an honorary doctorate degree from his alma mater, Utica College. He received the 1990 Madison Scholar Award at James Madison University, where he taught for 17 years. Dr. Serway began his teaching career at Clarkson University, where he conducted research and taught from 1967 to 1980. He was the recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award at Clarkson University in 1977 and the Alumni Achievement Award from Utica College in 1985. As Guest Scientist at the IBM Research Laboratory in Zurich, Switzerland, he worked with K. Alex Müller, 1987 Nobel Prize recipient. Dr. Serway also was a visiting scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, where he collaborated with his mentor and friend, the late Dr. Sam Marshall. Dr. Serway is the coauthor of College Physics, Ninth Edition; Principles of Physics, Fifth Edition; Essentials of College Physics; Modern Physics, Third Edition; and the high school textbook Physics, published by Holt McDougal. In addition, Dr. Serway has published more than 40 research papers in the field of condensed matter physics and has given more than 60 presentations at professional meetings. Dr. Serway and his wife, Elizabeth, enjoy traveling, playing golf, fishing, gardening, singing in the church choir, and especially spending quality time with their four children, ten grandchildren, and a recent great grandson. John W. Jewett, Jr. earned his undergraduate degree in physics at Drexel University and his doctorate at Ohio State University, specializing in optical and magnetic properties of condensed matter. Dr. Jewett began his academic career at Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, where he taught from 1974 to 1984. He is currently Emeritus Professor of Physics at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Through his teaching career, Dr. Jewett has been active in promoting effective physics education. In addition to receiving four National Science Foundation grants in physics education, he helped found and direct the Southern California Area Modern Physics Institute (SCAMPI) and Science IMPACT (Institute for Modern Pedagogy and Creative Teaching). Dr. Jewett’s honors include the Stockton Merit Award at Richard Stockton College in 1980, selection as Outstanding Professor at California State Polytechnic University for 1991–1992, and the Excellence in Undergraduate Physics Teaching Award from the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) in 1998. In 2010, he received an Alumni Lifetime Achievement Award from Drexel University in recognition of his contributions in physics education. He has given more than 100 presentations both domestically and abroad, including multiple presentations at national meetings of the AAPT. He has also published 25 research papers in condensed matter physics and physics education research. Dr. Jewett is the author of The World of Physics: Mysteries, Magic, and Myth, which provides many connections between physics and everyday experiences. In addition to his work as the coauthor for Physics for Scientists and Engineers, he is also the coauthor on Principles of Physics, Fifth Edition, as well as Global Issues, a four-volume set of instruction manuals in integrated science for high school. Dr. Jewett enjoys playing keyboard with his all-physicist band, traveling, underwater photography, learning foreign languages, and collecting antique quack medical devices that can be used as demonstration apparatus in physics lectures. Most importantly, he relishes spending time with his wife, Lisa, and their children and grandchildren. viii Preface In writing this Ninth Edition of Physics for Scientists and Engineers, we continue our ongoing efforts to improve the clarity of presentation and include new pedagogical features that help support the learning and teaching processes. Drawing on positive feedback from users of the Eighth Edition, data gathered from both professors and students who use Enhanced WebAssign, as well as reviewers’ suggestions, we have refined the text to better meet the needs of students and teachers. This textbook is intended for a course in introductory physics for students majoring in science or engineering. The entire contents of the book in its extended version could be covered in a three-semester course, but it is possible to use the material in shorter sequences with the omission of selected chapters and sections. The mathematical background of the student taking this course should ideally include one semester of calculus. If that is not possible, the student should be enrolled in a concurrent course in introductory calculus. Content The material in this book covers fundamental topics in classical physics and provides an introduction to modern physics. The book is divided into six parts. Part 1 (Chapters 1 to 14) deals with the fundamentals of Newtonian mechanics and the physics of fluids; Part 2 (Chapters 15 to 18) covers oscillations, mechanical waves, and sound; Part 3 (Chapters 19 to 22) addresses heat and thermodynamics; Part 4 (Chapters 23 to 34) treats electricity and magnetism; Part 5 (Chapters 35 to 38) covers light and optics; and Part 6 (Chapters 39 to 46) deals with relativity and modern physics. Objectives This introductory physics textbook has three main objectives: to provide the student with a clear and logical presentation of the basic concepts and principles of physics, to strengthen an understanding of the concepts and principles through a broad range of interesting real-world applications, and to develop strong problem-solving skills through an effectively organized approach. To meet these objectives, we emphasize well-organized physical arguments and a focused problem-solving strategy. At the same time, we attempt to motivate the student through practical examples that demonstrate the role of physics in other disciplines, including engineering, chemistry, and medicine. Changes in the Ninth Edition A large number of changes and improvements were made for the Ninth Edition of this text. Some of the new features are based on our experiences and on current trends in science education. Other changes were incorporated in response to comments and suggestions offered by users of the Eighth Edition and by reviewers of the manuscript. The features listed here represent the major changes in the Ninth Edition. Enhanced Integration of the Analysis Model Approach to Problem Solving. Students are faced with hundreds of problems during their physics courses. A relatively small number of fundamental principles form the basis of these problems. When faced with a new problem, a physicist forms a model of the problem that can be solved in a simple way by identifying the fundamental principle that is applicable in the problem. For example, many problems involve conservation of energy, Newton’s second law, or kinematic equations. Because the physicist has studied these principles and their applications extensively, he or she can apply this knowledge as a model for solving a new problem. Although it would be ideal for students to follow this same process, most students have difficulty becoming familiar with the entire palette of fundamental principles that are available. It is easier for students to identify a situation rather than a fundamental principle. ix x Preface The Analysis Model approach we focus on in this revision lays out a standard set of situations that appear in most physics problems. These situations are based on an entity in one of four simplification models: particle, system, rigid object, and wave. Once the simplification model is identified, the student thinks about what the entity is doing or how it interacts with its environment. This leads the student to identify a particular Analysis Model for the problem. For example, if an object is falling, the object is recognized as a particle experiencing an acceleration due to gravity that is constant. The student has learned that the Analysis Model of a particle under constant acceleration describes this situation. Furthermore, this model has a small number of equations associated with it for use in starting problems, the kinematic equations presented in Chapter 2. Therefore, an understanding of the situation has led to an Analysis Model, which then identifies a very small number of equations to start the problem, rather than the myriad equations that students see in the text. In this way, the use of Analysis Models leads the student to identify the fundamental principle. As the student gains more experience, he or she will lean less on the Analysis Model approach and begin to identify fundamental principles directly. To better integrate the Analysis Model approach for this edition, Analysis Model descriptive boxes have been added at the end of any section that introduces a new Analysis Model. This feature recaps the Analysis Model introduced in the section and provides examples of the types of problems that a student could solve using the Analysis Model. These boxes function as a “refresher” before students see the Analysis Models in use in the worked examples for a given section. Worked examples in the text that utilize Analysis Models are now designated with an AM icon for ease of reference. The solutions of these examples integrate the Analysis Model approach to problem solving. The approach is further reinforced in the end-of-chapter summary under the heading Analysis Models for Problem Solving, and through the new Analysis Model Tutorials that are based on selected end-of-chapter problems and appear in Enhanced WebAssign. Analysis Model Tutorials. John Jewett developed 165 tutorials (indicated in each chapter’s problem set with an AMT icon) that strengthen students’ problem-solving skills by guiding them through the steps in the problem-solving process. Important first steps include making predictions and focusing on physics concepts before solving the problem quantitatively. A critical component of these tutorials is the selection of an appropriate Analysis Model to describe what is going on in the problem. This step allows students to make the important link between the situation in the problem and the mathematical representation of the situation. Analysis Model tutorials include meaningful feedback at each step to help students practice the problem-solving process and improve their skills. In addition, the feedback addresses student misconceptions and helps them to catch algebraic and other mathematical errors. Solutions are carried out symbolically as long as possible, with numerical values substituted at the end. This feature helps students understand the effects of changing the values of each variable in the problem, avoids unnecessary repetitive substitution of the same numbers, and eliminates round-off errors. Feedback at the end of the tutorial encourages students to compare the final answer with their original predictions. Annotated Instructor’s Edition. New for this edition, the Annotated Instructor’s Edition provides instructors with teaching tips and other notes on how to utilize the textbook in the classroom, via cyan annotations. Additionally, the full complement of icons describing the various types of problems will be included in the questions/problems sets (the Student Edition contains only those icons needed by students). PreLecture Explorations. The Active Figure questions in WebAssign from the Eighth Edition have been completely revised. The simulations have been updated, with additional parameters to enhance investigation of a physical phenomenon. Students can make predictions, change the parameters, and then observe the results. Each new PreLecture Exploration comes with conceptual and analytical questions that guide students to a deeper understanding and help promote a robust physical intuition. New Master Its Added in Enhanced WebAssign. Approximately 50 new Master Its in Enhanced WebAssign have been added for this edition to the end-of-chapter problem sets. Chapter-by-Chapter Changes The list below highlights some of the major changes for the Ninth Edition. Preface Chapter 1 • Two new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Three new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 2 • A new introduction to the concept of Analysis Models has been included in Section 2.3. • Three Analysis Model descriptive boxes have been added, in Sections 2.3 and 2.6. • Several textual sections have been revised to make more explicit references to analysis models. • Three new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Five new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 3 • Three new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 4 • An Analysis Model descriptive box has been added, in Section 4.6. • Several textual sections have been revised to make more explicit references to analysis models. • Three new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Five new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 5 • Two Analysis Model descriptive boxes have been added, in Section 5.7. • Several examples have been modified so that numerical values are put in only at the end of the solution. • Several textual sections have been revised to make more explicit references to analysis models. • Four new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 6 • An Analysis Model descriptive box has been added, in Section 6.1. • Several examples have been modified so that numerical values are put in only at the end of the solution. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 7 • The notation for work done on a system externally and internally within a system has been clarified. • The equations and discussions in several sections have been modified to more clearly show the comparisons of similar potential energy equations among different situations. xi • One new Master It was added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 8 • Two Analysis Model descriptive boxes have been added, in Sections 8.1 and 8.2. • The problem-solving strategy in Section 8.2 has been reworded to account for a more general application to both isolated and nonisolated systems. • As a result of a suggestion from a PER team at University of Washington and Pennsylvania State University, Example 8.1 has been rewritten to demonstrate to students the effect of choosing different systems on the development of the solution. • All examples in the chapter have been rewritten to begin with Equation 8.2 directly rather than beginning with the format Ei 5 Ef . • Several examples have been modified so that numerical values are put in only at the end of the solution. • The problem-solving strategy in Section 8.4 has been deleted and the text material revised to incorporate these ideas on handling energy changes when nonconservative forces act. • Several textual sections have been revised to make more explicit references to analysis models. • One new Master It was added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 9 • Two Analysis Model descriptive boxes have been added, in Section 9.3. • Several examples have been modified so that numerical values are put in only at the end of the solution. • Five new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 10 • The order of four sections (10.4–10.7) has been modified so as to introduce moment of inertia through torque (rather than energy) and to place the two sections on energy together. The sections have been revised accordingly to account for the revised development of concepts. This revision makes the order of approach similar to the order of approach students have already seen in translational motion. • New introductory paragraphs have been added to several sections to show how the development of our analysis of rotational motion parallels that followed earlier for translational motion. • Two Analysis Model descriptive boxes have been added, in Sections 10.2 and 10.5. • Several textual sections have been revised to make more explicit references to analysis models. xii Preface • Two new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 11 • Two Analysis Model descriptive boxes have been added, in Sections 11.2 and 11.4. • Angular momentum conservation equations have been revised so as to be presented as DL 5 (0 or tdt) in order to be consistent with the approach in Chapter 8 for energy conservation and Chapter 9 for linear momentum conservation. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 12 • One Analysis Model descriptive box has been added, in Section 12.1. • Several examples have been modified so that numerical values are put in only at the end of the solution. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 13 • Sections 13.3 and 13.4 have been interchanged to provide a better flow of concepts. • A new analysis model has been introduced: Particle in a Field (Gravitational). This model is introduced because it represents a physical situation that occurs often. In addition, the model is introduced to anticipate the importance of versions of this model later in electricity and magnetism, where it is even more critical. An Analysis Model descriptive box has been added in Section 13.3. In addition, a new summary flash card has been added at the end of the chapter, and textual material has been revised to make reference to the new model. • The description of the historical goals of the Cavendish experiment in 1798 has been revised to be more consistent with Cavendish’s original intent and the knowledge available at the time of the experiment. • Newly discovered Kuiper belt objects have been added, in Section 13.4. • Textual material has been modified to make a stronger tie-in to Analysis Models, especially in the energy sections 13.5 and 13.6. • All conservation equations have been revised so as to be presented with the change in the system on the left and the transfer across the boundary of the system on the right, in order to be consistent with the approach in earlier chapters for energy conservation, linear momentum conservation, and angular momentum conservation. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 14 • Several textual sections have been revised to make more explicit references to Analysis Models. • Several examples have been modified so that numerical values are put in only at the end of the solution. • One new Master It was added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 15 • An Analysis Model descriptive box has been added, in Section 15.2. • Several textual sections have been revised to make more explicit references to Analysis Models. • Four new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 16 • A new Analysis Model descriptive box has been added, in Section 16.2. • Section 16.3, on the derivation of the speed of a wave on a string, has been completely rewritten to improve the logical development. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 17 • One new Master It was added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 18 • Two Analysis Model descriptive boxes have been added, in Sections 18.1 and 18.3. • Two new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 19 • Several examples have been modified so that numerical values are put in only at the end of the solution. • One new Master It was added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 20 • Section 20.3 was revised to emphasize the focus on systems. • Five new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 21 • A new introduction to Section 21.1 sets up the notion of structural models to be used in this chapter and future chapters for describing systems that are too large or too small to observe directly. • Fifteen new equations have been numbered, and all equations in the chapter have been renumbered. This Preface xiii new program of equation numbers allows easier and more efficient referencing to equations in the development of kinetic theory. • The order of Sections 21.3 and 21.4 has been reversed to provide a more continuous discussion of specific heats of gases. • One new Master It was added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 22 • In Section 22.4, the discussion of Carnot’s theorem has been rewritten and expanded, with a new figure added that is connected to the proof of the theorem. • The material in Sections 22.6, 22.7, and 22.8 has been completely reorganized, reordered, and rewritten. The notion of entropy as a measure of disorder has been removed in favor of more contemporary ideas from the physics education literature on entropy and its relationship to notions such as uncertainty, missing information, and energy spreading. • Two new Pitfall Preventions have been added in Section 22.6 to help students with their understanding of entropy. • There is a newly added argument for the equivalence of the entropy statement of the second law and the Clausius and Kelvin–Planck statements in Section 22.8. • Two new summary flashcards have been added relating to the revised entropy discussion. • Three new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 23 • A new analysis model has been introduced: Particle in a Field (Electrical). This model follows on the introduction of the Particle in a Field (Gravitational) model introduced in Chapter 13. An Analysis Model descriptive box has been added, in Section 23.4. In addition, a new summary flash card has been added at the end of the chapter, and textual material has been revised to make reference to the new model. • A new What If? has been added to Example 23.9 in order to make a connection to infinite planes of charge, to be further studied in later chapters. • Several textual sections and worked examples have been revised to make more explicit references to analysis models. • One new Master It was added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 24 • Section 24.1 has been significantly revised to clarify the geometry of area elements through which electric field lines pass to generate an electric flux. • Two new figures have been added to Example 24.5 to further explore the electric fields due to single and paired infinite planes of charge. • Two new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 25 • Sections 25.1 and 25.2 have been significantly revised to make connections to the new particle in a field analysis models introduced in Chapters 13 and 23. • Example 25.4 has been moved so as to appear after the Problem-Solving Strategy in Section 25.5, allowing students to compare electric fields due to a small number of charges and a continuous charge distribution. • Two new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 26 • The discussion of series and parallel capacitors in Section 26.3 has been revised for clarity. • The discussion of potential energy associated with an electric dipole in an electric field in Section 26.6 has been revised for clarity. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 27 • The discussion of the Drude model for electrical conduction in Section 27.3 has been revised to follow the outline of structural models introduced in Chapter 21. • Several textual sections have been revised to make more explicit references to analysis models. • Five new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 28 • The discussion of series and parallel resistors in Section 28.2 has been revised for clarity. • Time-varying charge, current, and voltage have been represented with lowercase letters for clarity in distinguishing them from constant values. • Five new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Two new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 29 • A new analysis model has been introduced: Particle in a Field (Magnetic). This model follows on the introduction of the Particle in a Field (Gravitational) model introduced in Chapter 13 and the Particle in a Field (Electrical) model in Chapter 23. An Analysis Model descriptive box has been added, in Section 29.1. In addition, a new summary flash card has been added at the end of the chapter, and textual material has been revised to make reference to the new model. xiv Preface • One new Master It was added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Six new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 30 • Several textual sections have been revised to make more explicit references to analysis models. • One new Master It was added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 31 • Several textual sections have been revised to make more explicit references to analysis models. • One new Master It was added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 32 • Several textual sections have been revised to make more explicit references to analysis models. • Time-varying charge, current, and voltage have been represented with lowercase letters for clarity in distinguishing them from constant values. • Two new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Three new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 33 • Phasor colors have been revised in many figures to improve clarity of presentation. • Three new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 34 • Several textual sections have been revised to make more explicit references to analysis models. • The status of spacecraft related to solar sailing has been updated in Section 34.5. • Six new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 35 • Two new Analysis Model descriptive boxes have been added, in Sections 35.4 and 35.5. • Several textual sections and worked examples have been revised to make more explicit references to analysis models. • Five new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 36 • The discussion of the Keck Telescope in Section 36.10 has been updated, and a new figure from the Keck has been included, representing the first-ever direct optical image of a solar system beyond ours. • Five new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Three new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 37 • An Analysis Model descriptive box has been added, in Section 37.2. • The discussion of the Laser Interferometer GravitationalWave Observatory (LIGO) in Section 37.6 has been updated. • Three new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 38 • Four new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Three new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 39 • Several textual sections have been revised to make more explicit references to analysis models. • Sections 39.8 and 39.9 from the Eighth Edition have been combined into one section. • Five new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Four new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 40 • The discussion of the Planck model for blackbody radiation in Section 40.1 has been revised to follow the outline of structural models introduced in Chapter 21. • The discussion of the Einstein model for the photoelectric effect in Section 40.2 has been revised to follow the outline of structural models introduced in Chapter 21. • Several textual sections have been revised to make more explicit references to analysis models. • Two new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Two new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 41 • An Analysis Model descriptive box has been added, in Section 41.2. • One new Analysis Model Tutorial was added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 42 • The discussion of the Bohr model for the hydrogen atom in Section 42.3 has been revised to follow the outline of structural models introduced in Chapter 21. • In Section 42.7, the tendency for atomic systems to drop to their lowest energy levels is related to the new discus- Preface xv • • • • sion of the second law of thermodynamics appearing in Chapter 22. The discussion of the applications of lasers in Section 42.10 has been updated to include laser diodes, carbon dioxide lasers, and excimer lasers. Several textual sections have been revised to make more explicit references to analysis models. Five new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. Three new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 45 • Discussion of the March 2011 nuclear disaster after the earthquake and tsunami in Japan was added to Section 45.3. • The discussion of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in Section 45.4 has been updated. • The discussion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in Section 45.4 has been updated. • The discussion of radiation dosage in Section 45.5 has been cast in terms of SI units grays and sieverts. • Section 45.6 from the Eighth Edition has been deleted. • Four new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • One new Analysis Model Tutorial was added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 43 • A new discussion of the contribution of carbon dioxide molecules in the atmosphere to global warming has been added to Section 43.2. A new figure has been added, showing the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the past decades. • A new discussion of graphene (Nobel Prize in Physics, 2010) and its properties has been added to Section 43.4. • The discussion of worldwide photovoltaic power plants in Section 43.7 has been updated. • The discussion of transistor density on microchips in Section 43.7 has been updated. • Several textual sections and worked examples have been revised to make more explicit references to analysis models. • One new Analysis Model Tutorial was added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Chapter 46 Chapter 44 • Data for the helium-4 atom were added to Table 44.1. • Several textual sections have been revised to make more explicit references to analysis models. • Three new Master Its were added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • Two new Analysis Model Tutorials were added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. • A discussion of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) project searching for a quark–gluon plasma at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been added to Section 46.9. • A discussion of the July 2012 announcement of the discovery of a Higgs-like particle from the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) and CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) projects at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been added to Section 46.10. • A discussion of closures of colliders due to the beginning of operations at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been added to Section 46.10. • A discussion of recent missions and the new Planck mission to study the cosmic background radiation has been added to Section 46.11. • Several textual sections have been revised to make more explicit references to analysis models. • One new Master It was added to the end-of-chapter problems set. • One new Analysis Model Tutorial was added for this chapter in Enhanced WebAssign. Text Features Most instructors believe that the textbook selected for a course should be the student’s primary guide for understanding and learning the subject matter. Furthermore, the textbook should be easily accessible and should be styled and written to facilitate instruction and learning. With these points in mind, we have included many pedagogical features, listed below, that are intended to enhance its usefulness to both students and instructors. Problem Solving and Conceptual Understanding General Problem-Solving Strategy. A general strategy outlined at the end of Chapter 2 (pages 45–47) provides students with a structured process for solving problems. In all remaining chapters, the strategy is employed explicitly in every example so that students learn how it is applied. Students are encouraged to follow this strategy when working end-of-chapter problems. Worked Examples. All in-text worked examples are presented in a two-column format to better reinforce physical concepts. The left column shows textual information xvi Preface that describes the steps for solving the problem. The right column shows the mathematical manipulations and results of taking these steps. This layout facilitates matching the concept with its mathematical execution and helps students organize their work. The examples closely follow the General Problem-Solving Strategy introduced in Chapter 2 to reinforce effective problem-solving habits. All worked examples in the text may be assigned for homework in Enhanced WebAssign. A sample of a worked example can be found on the next page. Examples consist of two types. The first (and most common) example type presents a problem and numerical answer. The second type of example is conceptual in nature. To accommodate increased emphasis on understanding physical concepts, the many conceptual examples are labeled as such and are designed to help students focus on the physical situation in the problem. Worked examples in the text that utilize Analysis Models are now designated with an AM icon for ease of reference, and the solutions of these examples now more thoroughly integrate the Analysis Model approach to problem solving. Based on reviewer feedback from the Eighth Edition, we have made careful revisions to the worked examples so that the solutions are presented symbolically as far as possible, with numerical values substituted at the end. This approach will help students think symbolically when they solve problems instead of unnecessarily inserting numbers into intermediate equations. What If? Approximately one-third of the worked examples in the text contain a What If? feature. At the completion of the example solution, a What If? question offers a variation on the situation posed in the text of the example. This feature encourages students to think about the results of the example, and it also assists in conceptual understanding of the principles. What If? questions also prepare students to encounter novel problems that may be included on exams. Some of the end-of-chapter problems also include this feature. Quick Quizzes. Students are provided an opportunity to test their understanding of the physical concepts presented through Quick Quizzes. The questions require students to make decisions on the basis of sound reasoning, and some of the questions have been written to help students overcome common misconceptions. Quick Quizzes have been cast in an objective format, including multiple-choice, true–false, and ranking. Answers to all Quick Quiz questions are found at the end of the text. Many instructors choose to use such questions in a “peer instruction” teaching style or with the use of personal response system “clickers,” but they can be used in standard quiz format as well. An example of a Quick Quiz follows below. Q uick Quiz 7.5 A dart is inserted into a spring-loaded dart gun by pushing the spring in by a distance x. For the next loading, the spring is compressed a distance 2x. How much faster does the second dart leave the gun compared with the first? (a) four times as fast (b) two times as fast (c) the same (d) half as fast (e) one-fourth as fast Pitfall Prevention 16.2 Two Kinds of Speed/Velocity Do not confuse v, the speed of the wave as it propagates along the string, with vy , the transverse velocity of a point on the string. The speed v is constant for a uniform medium, whereas vy varies sinusoidally. Pitfall Preventions. More than two hundred Pitfall Preventions (such as the one to the left) are provided to help students avoid common mistakes and misunderstandings. These features, which are placed in the margins of the text, address both common student misconceptions and situations in which students often follow unproductive paths. Summaries. Each chapter contains a summary that reviews the important concepts and equations discussed in that chapter. The summary is divided into three sections: Definitions, Concepts and Principles, and Analysis Models for Problem Solving. In each section, flash card–type boxes focus on each separate definition, concept, principle, or analysis model. Preface xvii All worked examples are also available to be assigned as interactive examples in the Enhanced 1.1 First-Levelsystem. Head WebAssign homework management Example 3.2 A Vacation Trip A car travels 20.0 km due north and then 35.0 km in a direction 60.0° west of north as shown in Figure 3.11a. Find the magnitude and direction of the car’s resultant displacement. Each solution has been written to closely follow the General ProblemSolving Strategy as outlined on pages 45–47 in Chapter 2, so as to reinforce good problemsolving habits. Each step of the solution is detailed in a two-column format. The left column provides an explanation for each mathematical step in the right column, to better reinforce the physi cal concepts. Solution Conceptualize The vectors and drawn in Figure 3.11a help us conceptualize the problem. The resultant vector has also been drawn. We expect its magnitude to be a few tens of kilometers. The angle that the resultant vector makes with the axis is expected to be less than 60°, the angle that vector makes with the axis. Figure 3.11 (Example 3.2) (a) Graphical method for finding the resul tant displacement vector (b) Adding the vectors in reverse order gives the same result for Categorize We can categorize this example as a simple analysis problem in vector addition. The displacement is the resultant when the two individual displacements and are added. We can further categorize it as a problem about the analysis of triangles, so we appeal to our expertise in geometry and trigonometry. Analyze In this example, we show two ways to analyze the problem of finding the resultant of two vectors. The first way is to solve the problem geometrically, using graph paper and a protractor to measure the magnitude of and its direction in Figure 3.11a. (In fact, even when you know you are going to be carrying out a calculation, you should sketch the vectors to check your results.) With an ordinary ruler and protractor, a large diagram typically gives answers to two-digit but not to three-digit precision. Try using these tools on in Figure 3.11a and compare to the trigonometric analysis below! The second way to solve the problem is to analyze it using algebra and trigonometry. The magnitude of can be obtained from the law of cosines as applied to the triangle in Figure 3.11a (see Appendix B.4). Use find cos cos from the law of cosines to Substitute numerical values, noting that 180° 60° 120°: 20.0 km 35.0 km 48.2 km Use the law of sines (Appendix B.4) to find the direction measured from the northerly direction: sin 20.0 km 2 1 35.0 km cos 120 sin sin b 5 sin u 5 35.0 km sin 1208 5 0.629 48.2 km 38.9° The resultant displacement of the car is 48.2 km in a direction 38.9° west of north. Finalize Does the angle that we calculated agree with an estimate made by looking at Figure 3.11a or with an actual angle measured from the diagram using the graphical method? Is it reasonable that the magnitude of is larger than that of both and ? Are the units of correct? Although the head to tail method of adding vectors works well, it suffers from two disadvantages. First, some people find using the laws of cosines and sines to be awkward. Second, a triangle only results if you are adding two vectors. If you are adding three or more vectors, the resulting geometric shape is usually not a triangle. In Section 3.4, we explore a new method of adding vectors that will address both of these disadvantages. W h at Suppose the trip were taken with the two vectors in reverse order: 35.0 km at 60.0° west of north first and then 20.0 km due north. How would the magnitude and the direction of the resultant vector change? Answer They would not change. The commutative law for vector addition tells us that the order of vectors in an addition is irrelevant. Graphically, Figure 3.11b shows that the vectors added in the reverse order give us the same resultant vector. What If? statements appear in about one-third of the worked examples and offer a variation on the situation posed in the text of the example. For instance, this feature might explore the effects of changing the conditions of the situation, determine what happens when a quantity is taken to a particular limiting value, or question whether additional information can be determined about the problem situation. This feature encourages students to think about the results of the example and assists in conceptual understanding of the principles. xviii Preface Questions and Problems Sets. For the Ninth Edition, the authors reviewed each ques tion and problem and incorporated revisions designed to improve both readability and assignability. More than 10% of the problems are new to this edition. Questions. The Questions section is divided into two sections: Objective Questions and Conceptual Questions. The instructor may select items to assign as homework or use in the classroom, possibly with “peer instruction” methods and possibly with personal response systems. More than 900 Objective and Conceptual Questions are included in this edition. Answers for selected questions are included in the Student Solutions Manual/Study Guide, and answers for all questions are found in the Instruc tor’s Solutions Manual. Objective Questions are multiple-choice, 242 true–false, ranking, or other multiple Chapter Conservation of Energy guess–type questions. Some require calculations designed to facilitate students’ familiarity with the equations, the variables(a)used, concepts the variables After the the spring is compressed and therep popgun fired, to what height the conceptual projectile risein above resent, and the relationships between the concepts. Others aredoes more point ? (b) Draw four Objective energy bar charts for this situa nature and are designed to encourage conceptual thinking. Questions tion, analogous to those in Figures 8.6c–d. are also written with the personal response system user in mind, and most of the 57. As the driver steps on the gas pedal, a car of mass questions could easily be used in these systems. 1 160 kg accelerates from rest. During the first few seconds of motion, the car’s acceleration increases with time according to the expression and essay-type questions Conceptual Questions are more traditional short-answer 1.16 0.210 0.240 that require students to think conceptually about a physical situation. 242 Chapter Conservation of Energy where is in seconds and is in m/s . (a) What is the change in kinetic energy of the car during the interval load a distance (4) /2 will move given time interv (a) Show that Arist the equation constant. (b) Show this part of Aristot particular, describe derive the equatio tions, and determin 61. A child’s pogo stick stores energy in a sp Problems. An extensive set of problems is included the each chapter; in from 0 toatload 2.50aend s? (b)of What is the minimum aver /2, then (a) After the spring is compressed and the popgun distance /2 in time interval force constant of age power output of the engine over this time interval? all, fired, this edition contains more than 3 700 problems. Answers for odd-numbered to what height does the projectile rise above (4) /2 will move /2 the given distance in the N/m. At positio (c) Why is the value in part (b) described as the mini problems at thebar end of for thethis book. forinterval approximately 20% point are ? (b)provided Draw four energy charts situa Full solutions given time 0.100 m), the sp mum value? tion, analogous to those in Figuresin8.6c–d. is a maximu of the problems are included the Student Solutions(a)Manual/Study Guide, and soluare included pression Show that Aristotle’s proportions in 58. Review. Why is the following situation impossible? A new child is momentaril 57. As the driver steps on the gas pedal, a car of mass the equation bwd, where is a proportionality tions for all problems are found in the Instructor’s Solutions Manual. high-speed roller coaster is claimed be so of safe that includes position 0) 1 160 kg accelerates from rest. During the first few secconstant. (b) Show that ourtotheory motion the passengers do not need to wear seat belts or any case. is The end-of-chapter problems are organized by the sections in each chapter onds of motion, the car’s acceleration increases with this part of Aristotle’s theory as one special Inrelaxed and the ch other restraining device. The coaster is designed withit is true, ing upward. At posi timetwo-thirds according to the particular, describe situation in which (about of expression the problems are keyed to specific sections ofa the chapter). a vertical derive circularthe section over which the coaster trav- propor child is again mom equation representing Aristotle’s Within each section, the problems now “platform” to higher-order 1.16 0.210 0.240 els on thestudents inside of determine the circle the so that thethink passengers tions, and proportionality constant. rest at the top of the are upside down for asection short time interval. The radius ing where by presenting straightforward in the first, followed combined mass of is in secondsall andthe is in m/s . (a) What is problems the A child’ssection pogo stick (Fig. m, P8.61) of the61.circular is 12.0 and the coaster pogo stick is 25.0 kg change in kinetic energy of the car during interval by the intermediate problems. (Thethe problem numbers for straightforward prob stores energy in a spring with a the boy must lean from 0 to 2.50 s? (b) What is the minimum averenters the bottom of the circular section at a speed of constant of The 2.50 Additional lemsage are printed black; intermediate-level problems are in blue.) 22.0 m/s. force Assume the coaster moves without friction remain balanced, th power outputin of the engine over this time interval? N/m. At position on thekeyed track and the coaster as a particle. pogo stick is vertic Problems section contains problems not tomodel specific sections. At the (c) Why is the value in part (b) describedthat as theare mini 0.100 m), the spring com bend his legs during value?chapter is the Challenge Problems 59. Asection, horizontal springis attached tothe aand wall has adiffi force conend mum of each which most pression agathers maximum the energy of the child stant of child 850 isN/m. A block of mass 1.00 kg 58. Review. Why is the following situation impossible? A new momentarily athave rest. Atproblem cult problems for a given chapter in one place. (Challenge Problems gravitational and el is attached to the spring and rests on a frictionless, high-speed roller coaster is claimed to be so safe that position 0), the spring 0. (b) Determin numbers markeddoinnotred. horizontalis surface Figure the passengers need to wear seat belts or any andinthe child P8.59. is mov (a) The block relaxed as 0. (d) D child at 6.00 cm from is pulled to position There are several kinds problems featured in this text: At position other restraining device. Theof coaster is designed with inga upward. , the equilibrium The problem is identified in the Annotated Instructor’s Edition with a icon. Parts (a)–(c) of the problem ask for quantitative calculations. the kinetic energy o the elastic potential and released. a vertical circular section over which the coaster travchildFind is again momentarily at energy stored culate the child’s m in the spring when the block is 6.00 cm from equilibels on the inside of the circle so that the passengers rest Annotated at the top of theInstructor’s jump. The Quantitative/Conceptual problems (indicated in the Edi rium and when the block passes through equilibrium. 62. A 1.00-kg object sli are upside down for a short time interval. The radius combined mass of child and Figure (b) Find the speed block asconceptually. it passes through theP8.61 to the right on a s tion)of contain parts that isask students both quantitatively and the circular section 12.0 m, and to thethink coaster pogo stickofisthe 25.0 kg. Although equilibrium point. (c) What the speed face having a coe enters the bottom of the circular section at a speed of the boy must lean is forward to of the block An example of a Quantitative/Conceptual problem appears here: /2 3.00 cm? Why when it is remain at a position cient of kinetic frict 22.0 m/s. Assume the coaster moves without friction balanced, the angle is (d) small, so isn’t let’s assume the the answerpogo to part (c)ishalf the answer part (b)? 0.250 (Fig. P8.62 on the track and model the coaster as a particle. stick vertical. Also to assume the boy does not The object has a spe bend his legs during the motion. (a) Calculate the total 59. A horizontal spring attached to a wall has a force con3.00 m/s wh of energy of the child–stick–Earth system, taking both stant of 850 N/m. A block of mass 1.00 kg it makes contact w gravitational and elastic potential energies as zero for is attached to the spring and rests on a frictionless, a light spring ( 0. (b) Determine . (c) Calculate the speed of the horizontal surface as in Figure P8.59. (a) The block P8.62b) that has a fo 0. (d) Determine the value of for which child at 6.00 cm from equilibrium is pulled to a position constant of 50.0 N/ the kinetic energy of the system is a maximum. (e) Cal and released. Find the elastic potential energy stored The object comes culate the child’s maximum upward speed. in the spring when the block is 6.00 cm from equilibrest after the spr rium and when the block passes through equilibrium. 62. A 1.00-kgFigure objectP8.59 slides has been compres (b) Find the speed of the block as it passes through the to the right on a sur a distance ( equilibrium point. (c) What is the speed of the60. block having coeffi More thanface 2 300 years aago, the Greek teacher AristoP8.62c). The objec when it is at a position /2 3.00 cm? (d) Why isn’ttle wrote cient of kinetic frictionPhysics. Put into more the first book called then forced toward the answer to part (c) half the answer to part (b)? precise terminology, 0.250 (Fig.thisP8.62a). passage is from the end of its left by the spring ( Part (d) asks a conceptual The object has a speed Section Eta: P8.62d) and contin 3.00 m/sabout when of question situation. to move in that dir Let be the power of an agentthe causing motion; it makes contact with tion beyond the spr the load moved; , the distance covered; and a light spring (Fig. the object comes to , the time interval required. Then (1) a power P8.62b) that has a force unstretched spring ( equal to will in an interval of time equal to constant of 50.0 N/m. compression , (b) t move /2 a distance 2 or (2) it will move /2 The object comes to tion when the objec the given distance in the time interval /2. rest after the spring and (c) the distance Also, if (3) the given power moves the given has been compressed Figure P8.59 a distance (Fig. 60. More than 2 300 years ago, the Greek teacher AristoP8.62c). The object is tle wrote the first book called Physics. Put into more then forced toward the precise terminology, this passage is from the end of its ing force necessary to (a) shear a steel bolt 1.00 cm in thenumerical beam begins to tip. separation thea line of best fit. Express inwoman’s part (d)position dependwhen on the values given in diameter and (b) from punch 1.00-cm-diameter hole this in ascatter find the the appropriate analysis model for the beam as a 0.500 percentage. (e) In a short paragraph, state what (a) What thisisproblem, or is it true in general? Explain. steel plate cm thick. before it begins to tip? (b) Sketch a force diagram for the graph demonstrates and compare it with the the54. A puck of mass is tied 32. When water freezes, it expands by about 9.00%. What labeling the gravitational and normal forces oretical prediction. You will need to make reference the beam, to string andand allowed pressure increase would occur inside your automobile onathe beam placing the woman a distance to the quantities plotted on the axes, to the shape of acting to revolve in a circle of engine block if the water in it froze? (The bulk moduright of the first pivot, which is the origin. the graph line, to the data points, and to the results of to the radius a friction lus of ice is 2.00 10 N/m (c) Where is the on woman when the normal force is the parts (c) and (d). less,(d)horizontal What is table. when the beam is about to greatest? 33. A 200-kg load is hung on a wire of length 4.00 m, cross50. A basin surrounding a drain has the shape of a circular tip? (e)The end12.1 of the Use other Equation to find the value of when sectional area 0.200 10 , and Young’s modulus Preface cone opening upward, having everywhere an angle of the beam string through is passes about to tip. (f)a Using the result of part N/m . What is its increase in length? 8.00 10 35.0° with the horizontal. A 25.0-g ice cube is set slid (d) and small hole in the cen Equation 12.2, with torques computed around hotel lobby is supported at 34. A walkway ing suspended around theacross coneawithout friction in a horizontal ter of the find table, the second pivot, the and woman’s position when the Symbolic problems (indicated numerous in the Annotated Instructor’s Edition) ask students points along its edges by a vertical cable above is the answer to part (e) by circle of radius . (a) Find the speed the ice cube must beam isanabout object to of tip.mass (g) Check each point and vertical column steel to it (Fig. P6.54). tied torques havemanipulation. as a afunction of .Reviewers (b)underneath. Is any piece of data unnec Edi to solve a problem using only symbolic ofThe the Eighth computing around the first pivot Figure point. P6.54 cable isessary 1.27 cm in and is 5.75 m islong before for to thediameter solution? Suppose made two times for The suspended object tion (as well as the majority of respondents a large survey) asked specifically loading. The (c) aluminum a hollow cylinder remains in equilibrium while the puck on the tabletop larger. Will the column requiredisspeed increase, decrease, an increase in the number of symbolic problems in the text better revolves. Find symbolic expressions for (a) the tension in with anorinside diameter found of cm, anby outside diameter stay constant? If 16.14 it changes, what because factor? (d) it Will of their 16.24 cm, and an unloaded 3.25 m. When the time required forlength eachof solving revolution increase,prob the string, (b) the radial force acting on the puck, and reflects the way instructors want students to think when physics the walkway exerts astay load force of If 8 500 N on one thefactor? (c) the speed of the puck. (d) Qualitatively describe what decrease, or constant? it changes, by of what lems. An example of a Symbolicsupport problem appears here: points, how much to does the(c) point down? will happen in the motion of the puck if the value of (e) Do the answers parts andmove (d) seem contradic is increased by placing a small additional load on the tory? 35. Review. A Explain. 2.00-m-long cylindrical puck. (e) Qualitatively describe what will happen in the steel with ais cross-sectional 51.wire A truck moving with diam The problem is identified motion of the puck if the value of is instead decreased eter ofconstant 4.00 mm isacceleration placed over a light, in the Annotated by removing a part of the hanging load. frictionless Anmakes object of mass up apulley. hill that Instructor’s Edition with a 5.00 is hung with from the one end of 55. Because theFigure EarthP12.38 rotates about its axis, a point on ankgangle icon. and an object of mass the wire the equator experiences a centripetal acceleration of horizontal as in Figure 39. In exercise physiology studies, it only is sometimes impor from A thesmall othersphere end as shown 3.00 kgP6.51. The,figure shows 0.0337 m/s whereas a point at the poles experiences tant to determine the location of a person’s center in Figure P12.35. The objects are acceleration. no centripetal of mass is suspended symbolic quantities.If a person at the equator of mass. This determination can be done with the released andthe allowed has a mass of 75.0 kg, calculate (a) the gravitational from ceilingtoofmove the freely. arrangement shown in Figure P12.39. A light plank Compared length the Figure P12.35 force (true weight) on the person and (b) the normal truckwith by a its light cord.before If No numbers appear in Figure P6.51 rests on two scales, which read 380 N and objectsthe were attached, by how force (apparent weight) on the person. (c) Which force pendulum makes a much the problem statement. 320 N. A distance of 1.65 m separates the scales. How has theconstant wire stretched whilethe theperpendicular objects are in to motion? is greater? Assume the Earth is a uniform sphere and angle with the ceiling, far The fromanswer the woman’s is her center of mass? tom/s thefeet problem take 9.800 what is 36. Review. A 30.0-kg hammer, moving with speed 20.0 m/s, is purely symbolic. AMT strikes a steel spike in diameter. Thea hammer Galileo thought about whether acceleration should be 52. 51. The pilot an cm airplane executes loop-the-loop (cos tanof2.30 sin rebounds with speed 10.0 m/scircle. after The 0.110speed s. What is the defined as the rate of change of velocity over time or as maneuver in a vertical of the airplane averageis strain in the during impact? the rate of change in velocity over distance. He chose 300 mi/h at spike the top of thethe loop and 450 mi/h at the the former, so let’s use the name “vroomosity” for the bottom, and the radius of the circle is 1 200 ft. (a) What Guided Problems help students problems into steps. physics problem Additionalbreak Problems rate of change of velocity over distance. For motion of is the pilot’s apparent weight at theA lowest point if his typically asks for one physical a given context. Often, however, several a particle on a straight line with constant acceleration, trueofin weight is50.0 160 m lb?and (b) mass What is his10 apparent kg isweight 37. quantity A bridge length 8.00 gives its velocity as a function at the point? What If? as Describe how the that the equation onhighest a smooth pier (c) atare each end shown in supported concepts must be used and a number of calculations required to obtain of time. Similarly, for a particle’s linear motion with pilot could experience weightlessness if both the Figure P12.37. A truck of mass 3.00 10 kg is located final answer. Many students are notradius accustomed tocan this level of complexity Figure P12.39 , the equation gives andend. the What speed be forces varied. apparent and constant vroomosity are the onNote: the His bridge 15.0 m from one weight of isProblem equal to the magnitude of the force exerted into the velocity as a function of the position if the parti often don’t know where to start.atAthe Guided breaks a standard problem points support? 40. The lintel of prestressed reinforced concrete in Figcle’s speed is at 0. (a) Find the law describing the by the seat his concepts body. smaller steps, enabling students to grasp allon the and strategies required ure P12.40 is 1.50 m long. The concrete encloses total force acting on this object of mass . (b) Describe 53. Review. While learning to drive, you are in a 1 200-kg one steel reinforcing rod with cross-sectional area to arrive at a correct solution. Unlike standard physics problems, guidance is often an example such a motion or explain why it is unre car moving at 20.0 m/s across a large, vacant, level 1.50 cm . The rodofjoins two strong end plates. The alistic. Consider (c) the possibility of positive and built into the problem statement. Guided of heading how a crossstu sectional parking Problems lot. Suddenlyare youreminiscent realize you are area of the concrete perpendicular to (d) the possibility of toward the brick sidewall of a large (there supermardent might interact with a professor straight in an office visit. These problems is the onerod is 50.0 cm . Young’snegative. modulus for the concrete 57. Figure P6.57. After shows ket and are in danger of running into it. The pavement is 30.0 10 N/m the concrete cures and the in every chapter of the text) help train students to break down complex problems can exert a maximum horizontal force of 7 000 N on original AMT a photo tensionof ainswing the rod is released, the con into a series of simpler problems, anthe essential problem-solving of isride amusement car. (a) Explain why you shouldskill. expectAn theexample force to crete to at bean under comprespark.8.00 The 10 structure have a well-defined maximum value. (b) Suppose you sive stress a Guided Problem appears here: N/m . of a horizon apply the brakes do not turn the steering wheel. (a) Byconsists what distance will the Figureand P12.37 tal, rotating, Find the minimum distance you must be from the wall rod compress thecircular concrete Problems 383 of diameter to avoid a collision. If pivots you dohas nota brake 38. A uniform beam resting on(c) two lengthbut instead when platform the original tension in which(b) seats andpivot turnunder the steering 6.00 mmaintain and massconstant 90.0speed kg. The the left wheel, the rod isfrom released? What Figure P12.40 of mass are sus whataisnormal the minimum distance you and mustthe besec from the end exerts force on the beam, Evaluate Young’s modulus for the material whose pended at the end walllocated to avoid a collision? (d) twothe methods in ond pivot a distance 4.00Ofmthe from left stress–strain curve is shown in Figure 12.12. of massless chains partsa(b) and (c), which better for avoiding a colliend exerts normal force . Ais woman of mass Assume if the shear stress in steel exceeds about 4.00 The goal of the problem of length . When should youend use of both brakes the steerstepsOr onto the left thethe beam andand begins 55.0 kgsion? N/m , the steel ruptures. Determine the shearis identified. Figure P6.57 the system rotates at ing wheel, or neither? Explain. (e) Does the conclusion walking to the right as in Figure P12.38. The goal is to a steel 1.00 cm in ing force necessary to (a) Theshear problem is bolt identified find the woman’s position when the beam begins to tip. diameter and (b) punch a 1.00-cm-diameter hole in a (a) What is the appropriate analysis model for the beam with a icon. steel plate 0.500 cm thick. Analysis begins by identifying before it begins to tip? (b) Sketch a force diagram for When water freezes, it expands by about 9.00%. What the appropriate analysis model. the beam, labeling the gravitational and normal forces pressure increase would occur inside your automobile acting on the beam and placing the woman a distance engine block if the water in it froze? (The bulk moduto the right of the first pivot, which is the origin. lus of ice is 2.00 10 N/m (c) Where is the woman when the normal force is the Students are provided when the beam is about to greatest? (d) What is A 200-kg load is hung on a wire of length 4.00 m, crosswith suggestions for steps tip? (e) Use Equation 12.1 to find the value of when sectional area 0.200 10 , and Young’s modulus the beam is about to tip. (f) Using the result of part N/m . What is its increase in length? 8.00 10 to solve the problem. (d) and Equation 12.2, with torques computed around A walkway suspended across a hotel lobby is supported at the second pivot, find the woman’s position when the numerous points along its edges by a vertical cable above The calculation beam is about to tip. (g) Check the answer to part (e) by each point and a vertical column underneath. The steel associated with the computing torques around the first pivot point. cable is 1.27 cm in diameter and is 5.75 m long before goal is requested. loading. The aluminum column is a hollow cylinder 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. Stuart Gregory/Getty Images xix with an inside diameter of 16.14 cm, an outside diameter of 16.24 cm, and an unloaded length of 3.25 m. When the walkway exerts a load force of 8 500 N on one of the support points, how much does the point move down? 35. Review. A 2.00-m-long cylindrical steel wire with a cross-sectional diam eter of 4.00 mm is placed over a light, frictionless pulley. An object of mass 5.00 kg is hung from one end of the wire and an object of mass 3.00 kg from the other end as shown in Figure P12.35. The objects are released and allowed to move freely. Compared with its length before the Figure P12.35 objects were attached, by how much has the wire stretched while the objects are in motion? 36. Review. A 30.0-kg hammer, moving with speed 20.0 m/s, AMT strikes a steel spike 2.30 cm in diameter. The hammer Figure P12.38 39. In exercise physiology studies, it is sometimes impor tant to determine the location of a person’s center of mass. This determination can be done with the arrangement shown in Figure P12.39. A light plank rests on two scales, which read 380 N and 320 N. A distance of 1.65 m separates the scales. How far from the woman’s feet is her center of mass? Problems it enters a parabolic path with a velocity of 143 m/s nose high at 45.0° and exits with velocity 143 m/s at 45.0° nose low. During this portion of the flight, the aircraft and objects inside its padded cabin are in free fall; astronauts and equipment floatPreface freely as if there were no gravity. What are the aircraft’s (a) speed and (b) altitude at the top of the maneuver? (c) What is the time interval spent in microgravity? 60. A basketball player is standing on the floor 10.0 m from the basket as in Figure P4.60. The height of the basket is 3.05 m, and he shoots the ball at a 40.0 angle with the horizontal from a height of 2.00 m. (a) What is the acceleration of the basketball at the highest point in its trajectory? (b) At what speed must the player throw the basketball so that the ball goes through the hoop without striking the backboard? Figure P4.60 61. Lisa in her Lamborghini accelerates at the rate of 3.00 2.00 m/s , while Jill in her Jaguar acceler ates at 1.00 3.00 m/s . They both start from rest at the origin of an coordinate system. After 5.00 s, (a) what is Lisa’s speed with respect to Jill, (b) how far apart are they, and (c) what is Lisa’s acceleration relative to Jill? 62. A boy throws a stone horizontally from the top of a cliff of height toward the ocean below. The stone strikes the ocean at distance from the base of the cliff. In terms of h, d, and , find expressions for (a) the time at which the stone lands in the ocean, (b) the initial speed of the stone, (c) the speed of the stone immediately before it reaches the ocean, and (d) the direction of the stone’s velocity immediately before it reaches the ocean. 63. A flea is at point on a horizontal turntable, 10.0 cm from the center. The turntable is rotating at 33.3 rev/min in the clockwise direction. The flea jumps straight up to a height of 5.00 cm. At takeoff, it gives itself no horizontal velocity relative to the turntable. The flea lands on the turntable at point . Choose the origin of coor dinates to be at the center of the turntable and the posi tive axis passing through at the moment of takeoff. Then the original position of the flea is 10.0 cm. when the flea lands. (a) Find the position of point (b) Find the position of point when the flea lands. 64. Towns A and B in Figure P4.64 are 80.0 km apart. A couple arranges to drive from town A and meet a couple driving from town B at the lake, L. The two couples 107 leave simultaneously and drive for 2.50 h in the directions shown. Car 1 has a speed of 90.0 km/h. If the cars arrive simultaneously at the lake, what is the speed of car 2? Impossibility problems. Physics education research has focused heavily on the problem-solving skills of students. Although most problems in this text are struc tured in the form of providing data and asking for a result of computation, two problems in each chapter, on average, are structured as impossibility problems. They begin with the phrase Why is the following situation impossible? That is followed by the description of a situation. The striking aspect of these problems is that no question is asked of the students, other than that in the initial italics. The student must determine what questions need to be asked and what calculations need to be performed. Based on the results of these calculations, the student must determine why the situation described is not possible. This determination may require infor Figureexperience, P4.64 mation from personal common sense, Internet or print research, mea surement, mathematical skills, knowledge of human norms, or scientific thinking. 65. A catapult launches a rocket at an angle of 53.0° above the horizontal with an of 100to m/s. The critical thinking skills in students. These problems caninitial be speed assigned build rocket engine immediately starts a burn, and for 3.00 s They are also fun, having the aspect of physics “mysteries” to be solved by students the rocket moves along its initial line of motion with individually or inof groups. example anand impossibility problem appears here: an acceleration 30.0 m/s .An Then its engineof fails, the rocket proceeds to move in free fall. Find (a) the maximum altitude reached by the rocket, (b) its total timeThe of flight, (c) itsinhorizontal range. initialand phrase italics signals 66. A cannon with a muzzle speed of 1 000 m/s is used to an impossibility problem. start an avalanche on a mountain slope. The target is 2 000 m from the cannon horizontally and 800 m above the cannon. At what angle, above the horizontal, should the cannon be fired? 67. Why is the following situation impossible? Albert Pujols hits a home run so that the baseball just clears the top row of bleachers, 24.0 m high, located 130 m from home plate. The ball is hit at 41.7 m/s at an angle of 35.0° to the horizontal, and air resistance is negligible. 68. As some molten metal splashes, one droplet flies off to the east with initial velocity at angle above the hor izontal, and another droplet flies off to the west with the same speed at the same angle above the horizontal as shown in Figure P4.68. In terms of and , find the distance between the two droplets as a function of time. Paired problems. These problems are otherwise A situation is described. No question is asked. The student must determine what needs to be calculated and why the situation is impossible. identical, one asking for a numeri cal solution and one asking for a symbolic derivation. There are now three pairs of these problems in most chapters, indicated in the Annotated Instructor’s Edition by cyan shading in the end-of-chapter problems set. Biomedical problems.Figure These problems (indicated in the Annotated Instructor’s Edi P4.68 tion with a icon) highlight the relevance of physics principles to those students 69. An astronaut on the surface of the Moon fires a cantaking course are majoring in one of the life sciences. non this to launch an who experiment package, which leaves the barrel moving horizontally. Assume the free-fall acceleration on the Moon is one-sixth of that on the Review problems. Many chapters include review problems requiring the student to combine concepts covered in the chapter with those discussed in previous chapters. These problems (marked Review) reflect the cohesive nature of the principles in the text and verify that physics is not a scattered set of ideas. When facing a realworld issue such as global warming or nuclear weapons, it may be necessary to call on ideas in physics from several parts of a textbook such as this one. “Fermi problems.” One or more problems in most chapters ask the student to reason in order-of-magnitude terms. Design problems. Several chapters contain problems that ask the student to deter mine design parameters for a practical device so that it can function as required. Calculus-based problems. Every chapter contains at least one problem applying ideas and methods from differential calculus and one problem using integral calculus. Preface Integration with Enhanced WebAssign. The textbook’s tight integration with Enhanced WebAssign content facilitates an online learning environment that helps students improve their problem-solving skills and gives them a variety of tools to meet their individual learning styles. Extensive user data gathered by WebAssign were used to ensure that the problems most often assigned were retained for this new edition. In each chapter’s problems set, the top quartile of problems assigned in Enhanced WebAssign have cyan-shaded problem numbers in the Annotated Instructor’s Edi tion for easy identification, allowing professors to quickly and easily find the most popular problems assigned in Enhanced WebAssign. New Analysis Model tutorials added for this edition have already been discussed (see page x). Master It tutorials help students solve problems by having them work through a stepped-out solution. Problems with Master It tutorials are indicated in each chapter’s problem set with a icon. In addition, Watch It solution videos are indicated in each chapter’s prob lem set with a icon and explain fundamental problem-solving strategies to help students step through the problem. Artwork. Every piece of artwork in the Ninth Edition is in a modern style that helps express the physics principles at work in a clear and precise fashion. Focus pointers are included with many figures in the text; these either point out important aspects of a figure or guide students through a process illustrated by the artwork or photo. This format helps those students who are more visual learners. An example of a figure with a focus pointer appears below. line tangent to the curve at Direction of . at Figure 4.2 As a particle moves between two points, its average velocity is in the direction of the displacement vector . By definition, the instantaneous velocity at is directed along the line tangent to the curve at corresponding time intervals become smaller and smaller. Math Appendix. The math appendix (Appendix B), a valuable tool for students, shows the math tools in a physics context. This resource is ideal for students who need a quick review on topics such as algebra, trigonometry, and calculus. Helpful Features Style. To facilitate rapid comprehension, we have written the book in a clear, logi cal, and engaging style. We have chosen a writing style that is somewhat informal and relaxed so that students will find the text appealing and enjoyable to read. New terms are carefully defined, and we have avoided the use of jargon. xxi xxii Preface Important Definitions and Equations. Most important definitions are set in boldface or are highlighted with a background screen for added emphasis and ease of review. Similarly, important equations are also highlighted with a background screen to facilitate location. Marginal Notes. Comments and notes appearing in the margin with a icon can be used to locate important statements, equations, and concepts in the text. Pedagogical Use of Color. Readers should consult the pedagogical color chart (inside the front cover) for a listing of the color-coded symbols used in the text diagrams. This system is followed consistently throughout the text. Mathematical Level. We have introduced calculus gradually, keeping in mind that students often take introductory courses in calculus and physics concurrently. Most steps are shown when basic equations are developed, and reference is often made to mathematical appendices near the end of the textbook. Although vectors are discussed in detail in Chapter 3, vector products are introduced later in the text, where they are needed in physical applications. The dot product is introduced in Chapter 7, which addresses energy of a system; the cross product is introduced in Chapter 11, which deals with angular momentum. Significant Figures. In both worked examples and end-of-chapter problems, significant figures have been handled with care. Most numerical examples are worked to either two or three significant figures, depending on the precision of the data provided. End-of-chapter problems regularly state data and answers to three-digit precision. When carrying out estimation calculations, we shall typically work with a single significant figure. (More discussion of significant figures can be found in Chapter 1, pages 11–13.) Units. The international system of units (SI) is used throughout the text. The U.S. customary system of units is used only to a limited extent in the chapters on mechanics and thermodynamics. Appendices and Endpapers. Several appendices are provided near the end of the textbook. Most of the appendix material represents a review of mathematical concepts and techniques used in the text, including scientific notation, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, differential calculus, and integral calculus. Reference to these appendices is made throughout the text. Most mathematical review sections in the appendices include worked examples and exercises with answers. In addition to the mathematical reviews, the appendices contain tables of physical data, conversion factors, and the SI units of physical quantities as well as a periodic table of the elements. Other useful information—fundamental constants and physical data, planetary data, a list of standard prefixes, mathematical symbols, the Greek alphabet, and standard abbreviations of units of measure—appears on the endpapers. engageCompose Options for Physics for C Scientists and Engineers Would you like to easily create your own personalized text, selecting the elements that meet your specific learning objectives? CengageCompose puts the power of the vast Cengage Learning library of learning content at your fingertips to create exactly the text you need. The all-new, Webbased CengageCompose site lets you quickly scan content and review materials to pick what you need for your text. Site tools let you easily assemble the modular learning units into the order you want and immediately provide you with an online copy for review. Add enrichment content like case studies, exercises, and lab materials to Preface further build your ideal learning materials. Even choose from hundreds of vivid, artrich, customizable, full-color covers. Cengage Learning offers the fastest and easiest way to create unique customized learning materials delivered the way you want. For more information about custom publishing options, visit www.cengage.com/custom or contact your local Cengage Learning representative. Course Solutions That Fit Your Teaching Goals and Your Students’ Learning Needs Recent advances in educational technology have made homework management sys tems and audience response systems powerful and affordable tools to enhance the way you teach your course. Whether you offer a more traditional text-based course, are interested in using or are currently using an online homework management sys tem such as Enhanced WebAssign, or are ready to turn your lecture into an interac tive learning environment with JoinIn, you can be confident that the text’s proven content provides the foundation for each and every component of our technology and ancillary package. Homework Management Systems Enhanced WebAssign for Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Ninth Edition. Exclu sively from Cengage Learning, Enhanced WebAssign offers an extensive online program for physics to encourage the practice that’s so critical for concept mastery. The meticulously crafted pedagogy and exercises in our proven texts become even more effective in Enhanced WebAssign. Enhanced WebAssign includes the Cen gage YouBook, a highly customizable, interactive eBook. WebAssign includes: All of the quantitative end-of-chapter problems Selected problems enhanced with targeted feedback. An example of targeted feedback appears below: Selected problems include feedback to address common mistakes that students make. This feedback was developed by professors with years of classroom experience. Master It tutorials (indicated in the text by a icon), to help students work through the problem one step at a time. An example of a Master It tutorial appears on page xxiv: xxiii xxiv Preface Master It tutorials help students organize what they need to solve a problem with Conceptualize and Categorize sections before they work through each step. Master It tutorials help students work through each step of the problem. Watch It solution videos (indicated in the text by a icon) that explain fundamental problem-solving strategies, to help students step through the problem. In addition, instructors can choose to include video hints of problemsolving strategies. A screen shot from a Watch It solution video appears below: Watch It solution videos help students visualize the steps needed to solve a problem. Concept Checks PhET simulations Most worked examples, enhanced with hints and feedback, to help strengthen students’ problem-solving skills Every Quick Quiz, giving your students ample opportunity to test their conceptual understanding PreLecture Explorations. The Active Figure questions in WebAssign have been completely revised. The simulations have been updated, with additional parameters to enhance investigation of a physical phenomenon. Students can make predictions, change the parameters, and then observe the results. Each new PreLecture Exploration comes with conceptual and analytical questions, which guide students to a deeper understanding and help promote a robust physical intuition. Analysis Model tutorials. John Jewett developed 165 tutorials (indicated in each chapter’s problem set with an AMT icon) that strengthen students’ problemsolving skills by guiding them through the steps in the problem-solving process. Preface xxv Important first steps include making predictions and focusing strategy on physics concepts before starting to solve the problem quantitatively. A critical component of these tutorials is the selection of an appropriate Analysis Model to describe what is going on in the problem. This step allows students to make the important link between the situation in the problem and the mathematical representation of the situation. Analysis Model tutorials include meaningful feedback at each step to help students practice the problem-solving process and improve their skills. In addition, the feedback addresses student misconceptions and helps them to catch algebraic and other mathematical errors. Solutions are carried out symbolically as long as possible, with numerical values substituted at the end. This feature helps students to understand the effects of changing the values of each variable in the problem, avoids unnecessary repetitive substitution of the same numbers, and eliminates round-off errors. Feedback at the end of the tutorial encourages students to think about how the final answer compares to their original predictions. • Personalized Study Plan. The Personal Study Plan in Enhanced WebAssign provides chapter and section assessments that show students what material they know and what areas require more work. For items that they answer incorrectly, students can click on links to related study resources such as videos, tutorials, or reading materials. Color-coded progress indicators let them see how well they are doing on different topics. You decide what chapters and sections to include—and whether to include the plan as part of the final grade or as a study guide with no scoring involved. • The Cengage YouBook. WebAssign has a customizable and interactive eBook, the Cengage YouBook, that lets you tailor the textbook to fit your course and connect with your students. You can remove and rearrange chapters in the table of contents and tailor assigned readings that match your syllabus exactly. Powerful editing tools let you change as much as you’d like—or leave it just like it is. You can highlight key passages or add sticky notes to pages to comment on a concept in the reading, and then share any of these individual notes and highlights with your students, or keep them personal. You can also edit narrative content in the textbook by adding a text box or striking out text. With a handy link tool, you can drop in an icon at any point in the eBook that lets you link to your own lecture notes, audio summaries, video lectures, or other files on a personal Web site or anywhere on the Web. A simple YouTube widget lets you easily find and embed videos from YouTube directly into eBook pages. The Cengage YouBook helps students go beyond just reading the textbook. Students can also highlight the text, add their own notes, and bookmark the text. Animations play right on the page at the point of learning so that they’re not speed bumps to reading but true enhancements. Please visit www.webassign.net/brookscole to view an interactive demonstration of Enhanced WebAssign. • Offered exclusively in WebAssign, Quick Prep for physics is algebra and trigonometry math remediation within the context of physics applications and principles. Quick Prep helps students succeed by using narratives illustrated throughout with video examples. The Master It tutorial problems allow students to assess and retune their understanding of the material. The Practice Problems that go along with each tutorial allow both the student and the instructor to test the student’s understanding of the material. Quick Prep includes the following features: • • • • 67 interactive tutorials 67 additional practice problems A thorough overview of each topic, including video examples Can be taken before the semester begins or during the first few weeks of the course • Can also be assigned alongside each chapter for “ just in time” remediation xxvi Preface Topics include units, scientific notation, and significant figures; the motion of objects along a line; functions; approximation and graphing; probability and error; vectors, displacement, and velocity; spheres; force and vector projections. MindTap™: The Personal Learning Experience MindTap for Serway and Jewett Physics for Scientists and Engineers is a personalized, fully online digital learning platform of authoritative textbook content, assignments, and services that engages your students with interactivity while also offering you choice in the configuration of coursework and enhancement of the curriculum via complimentary Web-apps known as MindApps. MindApps range from ReadSpeaker (which reads the text out loud to students), to Kaltura (allowing you to insert inline video and audio into your curriculum), to ConnectYard (allowing you to create digital “yards” through social media—all without “friending” your students). MindTap is well beyond an eBook, a homework solution or digital supplement, a resource center Web site, a course delivery platform, or a Learning Management System. It is the first in a new category—the Personal Learning Experience. CengageBrain.com On CengageBrain.com students will be able to save up to 60% on their course materials through our full spectrum of options. Students will have the option to rent their textbooks, purchase print textbooks, e-textbooks, or individual e-chapters and audio books all for substantial savings over average retail prices. CengageBrain.com also includes access to Cengage Learning’s broad range of homework and study tools and features a selection of free content. Lecture Presentation Resources PowerLecture with ExamView® and JoinIn for Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Ninth Edition. Bringing physics principles and concepts to life in your lectures has never been easier! The full-featured, two-volume PowerLecture Instructor’s Resource DVD-ROM (Volume 1: Chapters 1–22; Volume 2: Chapters 23–46) provides everything you need for Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Ninth Edition. Key content includes the Instructor’s Solutions Manual, art and images from the text, premade chapter-specific PowerPoint lectures, ExamView test generator software with pre-loaded test questions, JoinIn response-system “clickers,” Active Figures animations, and a physics movie library. JoinIn. Assessing to Learn in the Classroom questions developed at the University of assachusetts Amherst. This collection of 250 advanced conceptual questions has M been tested in the classroom for more than ten years and takes peer learning to a new level. JoinIn helps you turn your lectures into an interactive learning environment that promotes conceptual understanding. Available exclusively for higher education from our partnership with Turning Technologies, JoinIn™ is the easiest way to turn your lecture hall into a personal, fully interactive experience for your students! Assessment and Course Preparation Resources A number of resources listed below will assist with your assessment and preparation processes. Instructor’s Solutions Manual by Vahé Peroomian (University of California at Los ngeles). Thoroughly revised for this edition, the Instructor’s Solutions Manual contains A complete worked solutions to all end-of-chapter problems in the textbook as well as answers to the even-numbered problems and all the questions. The solutions to problems new to the Ninth Edition are marked for easy identification. Volume 1 contains Chapters 1 through 22; Volume 2 contains Chapters 23 through 46. Electronic files of the Instructor’s Solutions Manual are available on the PowerLecture™ DVD-ROM. Preface xxvii Test Bank by Ed Oberhofer (University of North Carolina at Charlotte and Lake Sumter Community College). The test bank is available on the two-volume PowerLecture™ DVD-ROM via the ExamView® test software. This two-volume test bank contains approximately 2 000 multiple-choice questions. Instructors may print and duplicate pages for distribution to students. Volume 1 contains Chapters 1 through 22, and Volume 2 contains Chapters 23 through 46. WebCT and Blackboard versions of the test bank are available on the instructor’s companion site at www.CengageBrain.com. Instructor’s Companion Web Site. Consult the instructor’s site by pointing your browser to www.CengageBrain.com for a problem correlation guide, PowerPoint lectures, and JoinIn audience response content. Instructors adopting the Ninth Edition of Physics for Scientists and Engineers may download these materials after securing the appropriate password from their local sales representative. Supporting Materials for the Instructor Supporting instructor materials are available to qualified adopters. Please consult your local Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole representative for details. Visit www.CengageBrain.com to • request a desk copy • locate your local representative • download electronic files of select support materials Student Resources Visit the Physics for Scientists and Engineers Web site at www.cengagebrain.com/ shop/ISBN/9781133954156 to see samples of select student supplements. Go to CengageBrain.com to purchase and access this product at Cengage Learning’s preferred online store. Student Solutions Manual/Study Guide by John R. Gordon, Vahé Peroomian, R aymond A. Serway, and John W. Jewett, Jr. This two-volume manual features detailed solutions to 20% of the end-of-chapter problems from the text. The manual also features a list of important equations, concepts, and notes from key sections of the text in addition to answers to selected end-of-chapter questions. Volume 1 contains Chapters 1 through 22; and Volume 2 contains Chapters 23 through 46. Physics Laboratory Manual, Third Edition by David Loyd (Angelo State University) supplements the learning of basic physical principles while introducing laboratory procedures and equipment. Each chapter includes a prelaboratory assignment, objectives, an equipment list, the theory behind the experiment, experimental procedures, graphing exercises, and questions. A laboratory report form is included with each experiment so that the student can record data, calculations, and experimental results. Students are encouraged to apply statistical analysis to their data. A complete Instructor’s Manual is also available to facilitate use of this lab manual. Physics Laboratory Experiments, Seventh Edition by Jerry D. Wilson (Lander College) and Cecilia A. Hernández (American River College). This market-leading manual for the first-year physics laboratory course offers a wide range of class-tested experiments designed specifically for use in small to midsize lab programs. A series of integrated experiments emphasizes the use of computerized instrumentation and includes a set of “computer-assisted experiments” to allow students and instructors to gain experience with modern equipment. This option also enables instructors to determine the appropriate balance between traditional and computer-based experiments for their courses. By analyzing data through two different methods, students gain a greater understanding of the concepts behind the experiments. The Seventh Edition is updated with the latest information and techniques involving state-of-the-art equipment and a new Guided Learning feature addresses xxviii Preface the growing interest in guided-inquiry pedagogy. Fourteen additional experiments are also available through custom printing. Teaching Options The topics in this textbook are presented in the following sequence: classical mechanics, oscillations and mechanical waves, and heat and thermodynamics, followed by electricity and magnetism, electromagnetic waves, optics, relativity, and modern physics. This presentation represents a traditional sequence, with the subject of mechanical waves being presented before electricity and magnetism. Some instructors may prefer to discuss both mechanical and electromagnetic waves together after completing electricity and magnetism. In this case, Chapters 16 through 18 could be covered along with Chapter 34. The chapter on relativity is placed near the end of the text because this topic often is treated as an introduction to the era of “modern physics.” If time permits, instructors may choose to cover Chapter 39 after completing Chapter 13 as a conclusion to the material on Newtonian mechanics. For those instructors teaching a two-semester sequence, some sections and chapters could be deleted without any loss of continuity. The following sections can be considered optional for this purpose: 2.8 Kinematic Equations Derived from Calculus 4.6 Relative Velocity and Relative Acceleration 6.3 Motion in Accelerated Frames 6.4 Motion in the Presence of Resistive Forces 7.9 Energy Diagrams and Equilibrium of a System 9.9 Rocket Propulsion 11.5 The Motion of Gyroscopes and Tops 14.7 Other Applications of Fluid Dynamics 15.6 Damped Oscillations 15.7 Forced Oscillations 18.6 Standing Waves in Rods and Membranes 18.8 Nonsinusoidal Wave Patterns 25.7 The Millikan Oil-Drop Experiment 25.8 Applications of Electrostatics 26.7 An Atomic Description of Dielectrics 27.5 Superconductors 28.5 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety 29.3Applications Involving Charged Particles Moving in a Magnetic Field 29.6 The Hall Effect 30.6 Magnetism in Matter 31.6 Eddy Currents 33.9 Rectifiers and Filters 34.6 Production of Electromagnetic Waves by an Antenna 36.5 Lens Aberrations 36.6 The Camera 36.7 The Eye 36.8 The Simple Magnifier 36.9 The Compound Microscope 36.10 The Telescope 38.5 Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystals 39.9 The General Theory of Relativity 41.6 Applications of Tunneling 42.9 Spontaneous and Stimulated Transitions 42.10 Lasers 43.7 Semiconductor Devices 43.8 Superconductivity 44.8 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging 45.5 Radiation Damage 45.6 Uses of Radiation Acknowledgments This Ninth Edition of Physics for Scientists and Engineers was prepared with the guidance and assistance of many professors who reviewed selections of the manuscript, the prerevision text, or both. We wish to acknowledge the following scholars and express our sincere appreciation for their suggestions, criticisms, and encouragement: Benjamin C. Bromley, University of Utah; Elena Flitsiyan, University of Central Florida; Yuankun Lin, University of North Texas; Allen Mincer, New York University; Yibin Pan, University of Wisconsin–Madison; N. M. Ravindra, New Jersey Institute of Technology; Masao Sako, University of Pennsylvania; Charles Stone, Colorado School of Mines; Robert Weidman, Michigan Technological University; Michael Winokur, University of Wisconsin–Madison Prior to our work on this revision, we conducted a survey of professors; their feedback and suggestions helped shape this revision, and so we would like to thank the survey participants: Preface xxix Elise Adamson, Wayland Baptist University; Saul Adelman, The Citadel; Yiyan Bai, Houston Community College; Philip Blanco, Grossmont College; Ken Bolland, Ohio State University; Michael Butros, Victor Valley College; Brian Carter, Grossmont College; Jennifer Cash, South Carolina State University; Soumitra Chattopadhyay, Georgia Highlands College; John Cooper, Brazosport College; Gregory Dolise, Harrisburg Area Community College; Mike Durren, Lake Michigan College; Tim Farris, Volunteer State Community College; Mirela Fetea, University of Richmond; Susan Foreman, Danville Area Community College; Richard Gottfried, Frederick Community College; Christopher Gould, University of Southern California; Benjamin Grinstein, University of California, San Diego; Wayne Guinn, Lon Morris College; Joshua Guttman, Bergen Community College; Carlos Handy, Texas Southern University; David Heskett, University of Rhode Island; Ed Hungerford, University of Houston; Matthew Hyre, Northwestern College; Charles Johnson, South Georgia College; Lynne Lawson, Providence College; Byron Leles, Northeast Alabama Community College; Rizwan Mahmood, Slippery Rock University; Virginia Makepeace, Kankakee Community College; David Marasco, Foothill College; Richard McCorkle, University of Rhode Island; Brian Moudry, Davis & Elkins College; Charles Nickles, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth; Terrence O’Neill, Riverside Community College; Grant O’Rielly, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth; Michael Ottinger, Missouri Western State University; Michael Panunto, Butte College; Eugenia Peterson, Richard J. Daley College; Robert Pompi, Binghamton University, State University of New York; Ralph Popp, Mercer County Community College; Craig Rabatin, West Virginia University at Parkersburg; Marilyn Rands, Lawrence Technological University; Christina Reeves-Shull, Cedar Valley College; John Rollino, Rutgers University, Newark; Rich Schelp, Erskine College; Mark Semon, Bates College; Walther Spjeldvik, Weber State University; Mark Spraker, North Georgia College and State University; Julie Talbot, University of West Georgia; James Tressel, Massasoit Community College; Bruce Unger, Wenatchee Valley College; Joan Vogtman, Potomac State College This title was carefully checked for accuracy by Grant Hart, Brigham Young University; James E. Rutledge, University of California at Irvine; and Som Tyagi, Drexel University. We thank them for their diligent efforts under schedule pressure. Belal Abas, Zinoviy Akkerman, Eric Boyd, Hal Falk, Melanie Martin, Steve McCauley, and Glenn Stracher made corrections to problems taken from previous editions. Harvey Leff provided invaluable guidance on the restructuring of the discussion of entropy in Chapter 22. We are grateful to authors John R. Gordon and Vahé Peroomian for preparing the Student Solutions Manual/Study Guide and to Vahé Peroomian for preparing an excellent Instructor’s Solutions Manual. Susan English carefully edited and improved the test bank. Linnea Cookson provided an excellent accuracy check of the Analysis Model tutorials. Special thanks and recognition go to the professional staff at the Brooks/Cole Publishing Company—in particular, Charles Hartford, Ed Dodd, Stephanie VanCamp, Rebecca Berardy Schwartz, Tom Ziolkowski, Alison Eigel Zade, Cate Barr, and Brendan Killion (who managed the ancillary program)—for their fine work during the development, production, and promotion of this textbook. We recognize the skilled production service and excellent artwork provided by the staff at Lachina Publishing Services and the dedicated photo research efforts of Christopher Arena at the Bill Smith Group. Finally, we are deeply indebted to our wives, children, and grandchildren for their love, support, and long-term sacrifices. Raymond A. Serway St. Petersburg, Florida John W. Jewett, Jr. Anaheim, California To the Student It is appropriate to offer some words of advice that should be of benefit to you, the student. Before doing so, we assume you have read the Preface, which describes the various features of the text and support materials that will help you through the course. How to Study Instructors are often asked, “How should I study physics and prepare for examinations?” There is no simple answer to this question, but we can offer some suggestions based on our own experiences in learning and teaching over the years. First and foremost, maintain a positive attitude toward the subject matter, keeping in mind that physics is the most fundamental of all natural sciences. Other science courses that follow will use the same physical principles, so it is important that you understand and are able to apply the various concepts and theories discussed in the text. Concepts and Principles It is essential that you understand the basic concepts and principles before attempting to solve assigned problems. You can best accomplish this goal by carefully reading the textbook before you attend your lecture on the covered material. When reading the text, you should jot down those points that are not clear to you. Also be sure to make a diligent attempt at answering the questions in the Quick Quizzes as you come to them in your reading. We have worked hard to prepare questions that help you judge for yourself how well you understand the material. Study the What If? features that appear in many of the worked examples carefully. They will help you extend your understanding beyond the simple act of arriving at a numerical result. The Pitfall Preventions will also help guide you away from common misunderstandings about physics. During class, take careful notes and ask questions about those ideas that are unclear to you. Keep in mind that few people are able to absorb the full meaning of scientific material after only one reading; several readings of the text and your notes may be necessary. Your lectures and laboratory work supplement the textbook and should clarify some of the more difficult material. You should minimize your memorization of material. Successful memorization of passages from the text, equations, and derivations does not necessarily indicate that you understand the material. Your understanding of the material will be enhanced through a combination of efficient study habits, discussions with other students and with instructors, and your ability to solve the problems presented in the textbook. Ask questions whenever you believe that clarification of a concept is necessary. Study Schedule It is important that you set up a regular study schedule, preferably a daily one. Make sure that you read the syllabus for the course and adhere to the schedule set by your instructor. The lectures will make much more sense if you read the corresponding text material before attending them. As a general rule, you should devote about two hours of study time for each hour you are in class. If you are having trouble with the xxx To the Student xxxi course, seek the advice of the instructor or other students who have taken the course. You may find it necessary to seek further instruction from experienced students. Very often, instructors offer review sessions in addition to regular class periods. Avoid the practice of delaying study until a day or two before an exam. More often than not, this approach has disastrous results. Rather than undertake an all-night study session before a test, briefly review the basic concepts and equations, and then get a good night’s rest. If you believe that you need additional help in understanding the concepts, in preparing for exams, or in problem solving, we suggest that you acquire a copy of the Student Solutions Manual/Study Guide that accompanies this textbook. Visit the Physics for Scientists and Engineers Web site at www.cengagebrain.com/ shop/ISBN/9781133954156 to see samples of select student supplements. You can purchase any Cengage Learning product at your local college store or at our preferred online store CengageBrain.com. Use the Features You should make full use of the various features of the text discussed in the Preface. For example, marginal notes are useful for locating and describing important equations and concepts, and boldface indicates important definitions. Many useful tables are contained in the appendices, but most are incorporated in the text where they are most often referenced. Appendix B is a convenient review of mathematical tools used in the text. Answers to Quick Quizzes and odd-numbered problems are given at the end of the textbook, and solutions to selected end-of-chapter questions and problems are provided in the Student Solutions Manual/Study Guide. The table of contents provides an overview of the entire text, and the index enables you to locate specific material quickly. Footnotes are sometimes used to supplement the text or to cite other references on the subject discussed. After reading a chapter, you should be able to define any new quantities introduced in that chapter and discuss the principles and assumptions that were used to arrive at certain key relations. The chapter summaries and the review sections of the Student Solutions Manual/Study Guide should help you in this regard. In some cases, you may find it necessary to refer to the textbook’s index to locate certain topics. You should be able to associate with each physical quantity the correct symbol used to represent that quantity and the unit in which the quantity is specified. Furthermore, you should be able to express each important equation in concise and accurate prose. Problem Solving R. P. Feynman, Nobel laureate in physics, once said, “You do not know anything until you have practiced.” In keeping with this statement, we strongly advise you to develop the skills necessary to solve a wide range of problems. Your ability to solve problems will be one of the main tests of your knowledge of physics; therefore, you should try to solve as many problems as possible. It is essential that you understand basic concepts and principles before attempting to solve problems. It is good practice to try to find alternate solutions to the same problem. For example, you can solve problems in mechanics using Newton’s laws, but very often an alternative method that draws on energy considerations is more direct. You should not deceive yourself into thinking that you understand a problem merely because you have seen it solved in class. You must be able to solve the problem and similar problems on your own. The approach to solving problems should be carefully planned. A systematic plan is especially important when a problem involves several concepts. First, read the problem several times until you are confident you understand what is being asked. Look for any key words that will help you interpret the problem and perhaps allow you to make certain assumptions. Your ability to interpret a question properly is xxxii To the Student an integral part of problem solving. Second, you should acquire the habit of writing down the information given in a problem and those quantities that need to be found; for example, you might construct a table listing both the quantities given and the quantities to be found. This procedure is sometimes used in the worked examples of the textbook. Finally, after you have decided on the method you believe is appropriate for a given problem, proceed with your solution. The General ProblemSolving Strategy will guide you through complex problems. If you follow the steps of this procedure (Conceptualize, Categorize, Analyze, Finalize), you will find it easier to come up with a solution and gain more from your efforts. This strategy, located at the end of Chapter 2 (pages 45–47), is used in all worked examples in the remaining chapters so that you can learn how to apply it. Specific problem-solving strategies for certain types of situations are included in the text and appear with a special heading. These specific strategies follow the outline of the General Problem-Solving Strategy. Often, students fail to recognize the limitations of certain equations or physical laws in a particular situation. It is very important that you understand and remember the assumptions that underlie a particular theory or formalism. For example, certain equations in kinematics apply only to a particle moving with constant acceleration. These equations are not valid for describing motion whose acceleration is not constant, such as the motion of an object connected to a spring or the motion of an object through a fluid. Study the Analysis Models for Problem Solving in the chapter summaries carefully so that you know how each model can be applied to a specific situation. The analysis models provide you with a logical structure for solving problems and help you develop your thinking skills to become more like those of a physicist. Use the analysis model approach to save you hours of looking for the correct equation and to make you a faster and more efficient problem solver. Experiments Physics is a science based on experimental observations. Therefore, we recommend that you try to supplement the text by performing various types of “hands-on” experiments either at home or in the laboratory. These experiments can be used to test ideas and models discussed in class or in the textbook. For example, the common Slinky toy is excellent for studying traveling waves, a ball swinging on the end of a long string can be used to investigate pendulum motion, various masses attached to the end of a vertical spring or rubber band can be used to determine its elastic nature, an old pair of polarized sunglasses and some discarded lenses and a magnifying glass are the components of various experiments in optics, and an approximate measure of the free-fall acceleration can be determined simply by measuring with a stopwatch the time interval required for a ball to drop from a known height. The list of such experiments is endless. When physical models are not available, be imaginative and try to develop models of your own. New Media If available, we strongly encourage you to use the Enhanced WebAssign product that is available with this textbook. It is far easier to understand physics if you see it in action, and the materials available in Enhanced WebAssign will enable you to become a part of that action. It is our sincere hope that you will find physics an exciting and enjoyable experience and that you will benefit from this experience, regardless of your chosen profession. Welcome to the exciting world of physics! The scientist does not study nature because it is useful; he studies it because he delights in it, and he delights in it because it is beautiful. If nature were not beautiful, it would not be worth knowing, and if nature were not worth knowing, life would not be worth living. —Henri Poincaré Mechanics p a r t 1 The Honda FCX Clarity, a fuel-cellpowered automobile available to the public, albeit in limited quantities. A fuel cell converts hydrogen fuel into electricity to drive the motor attached to the wheels of the car. Automobiles, whether powered by fuel cells, gasoline engines, or batteries, use many of the concepts and principles of mechanics that we will study in this first part of the book. Quantities that we can use to describe the operation of vehicles include position, velocity, acceleration, force, energy, and momentum. (PRNewsFoto/American Honda) Physics, the most fundamental physical science, is concerned with the fundamental principles of the Universe. It is the foundation upon which the other sciences—astronomy, biology, chemistry, and geology—are based. It is also the basis of a large number of engineering applications. The beauty of physics lies in the simplicity of its fundamental principles and in the manner in which just a small number of concepts and models can alter and expand our view of the world around us. The study of physics can be divided into six main areas: 1. c lassical mechanics, concerning the motion of objects that are large relative to atoms and move at speeds much slower than the speed of light 2. relativity, a theory describing objects moving at any speed, even speeds approaching the speed of light 3. thermodynamics, dealing with heat, work, temperature, and the statistical behavior of systems with large numbers of particles 4. electromagnetism, concerning electricity, magnetism, and electromagnetic fields 5. optics, the study of the behavior of light and its interaction with materials 6. quantum mechanics, a collection of theories connecting the behavior of matter at the submicroscopic level to macroscopic observations The disciplines of mechanics and electromagnetism are basic to all other branches of classical physics (developed before 1900) and modern physics (c. 1900–present). The first part of this textbook deals with classical mechanics, sometimes referred to as Newtonian mechanics or simply mechanics. Many principles and models used to understand mechanical systems retain their importance in the theories of other areas of physics and can later be used to describe many natural phenomena. Therefore, classical mechanics is of vital importance to students from all disciplines. ■ 1 c h a p t e r 1 Physics and Measurement 1.1 Standards of Length, Mass, and Time 1.2 Matter and Model Building 1.3 Dimensional Analysis 1.4 Conversion of Units 1.5 Estimates and Order-ofMagnitude Calculations 1.6 Significant Figures Stonehenge, in southern England, was built thousands of years ago. Various theories have been proposed about its function, including a burial ground, a healing site, and a place for ancestor worship. One of the more intriguing theories suggests that Stonehenge was an observatory, allowing measurements of some of the quantities discussed in this chapter, such as position of objects in space and time intervals between repeating celestial events. (Stephen Inglis/Shutterstock.com) Interactive content from this and other chapters may be assigned online in Enhanced WebAssign. 2 Like all other sciences, physics is based on experimental observations and quantitative measurements. The main objectives of physics are to identify a limited number of fundamental laws that govern natural phenomena and use them to develop theories that can predict the results of future experiments. The fundamental laws used in developing theories are expressed in the language of mathematics, the tool that provides a bridge between theory and experiment. When there is a discrepancy between the prediction of a theory and experimental results, new or modified theories must be formulated to remove the discrepancy. Many times a theory is satisfactory only under limited conditions; a more general theory might be satisfactory without such limitations. For example, the laws of motion discovered by Isaac Newton (1642–1727) accurately describe the motion of objects moving at normal speeds but do not apply to objects moving at speeds comparable to the speed of light. In contrast, the special theory of relativity developed later by Albert Einstein (1879–1955) gives the same results as Newton’s laws at low speeds but also correctly describes the motion of objects at speeds approaching the speed of light. Hence, Einstein’s special theory of relativity is a more general theory of motion than that formed from Newton’s laws. Classical physics includes the principles of classical mechanics, thermodynamics, optics, and electromagnetism developed before 1900. Important contributions to classical physics 1.1 Standards of Length, Mass, and Time were provided by Newton, who was also one of the originators of calculus as a mathematical tool. Major developments in mechanics continued in the 18th century, but the fields of thermodynamics and electromagnetism were not developed until the latter part of the 19th century, principally because before that time the apparatus for controlled experiments in these disciplines was either too crude or unavailable. A major revolution in physics, usually referred to as modern physics, began near the end of the 19th century. Modern physics developed mainly because many physical phenomena could not be explained by classical physics. The two most important developments in this modern era were the theories of relativity and quantum mechanics. Einstein’s special theory of relativity not only correctly describes the motion of objects moving at speeds comparable to the speed of light; it also completely modifies the traditional concepts of space, time, and energy. The theory also shows that the speed of light is the upper limit of the speed of an object and that mass and energy are related. Quantum mechanics was formulated by a number of distinguished scientists to provide descriptions of physical phenomena at the atomic level. Many practical devices have been developed using the principles of quantum mechanics. Scientists continually work at improving our understanding of fundamental laws. Numerous technological advances in recent times are the result of the efforts of many scientists, engineers, and technicians, such as unmanned planetary explorations, a variety of developments and potential applications in nanotechnology, microcircuitry and high-speed computers, sophisticated imaging techniques used in scientific research and medicine, and several remarkable results in genetic engineering. The effects of such developments and discoveries on our society have indeed been great, and it is very likely that future discoveries and developments will be exciting, challenging, and of great benefit to humanity. 1.1 Standards of Length, Mass, and Time To describe natural phenomena, we must make measurements of various aspects of nature. Each measurement is associated with a physical quantity, such as the length of an object. The laws of physics are expressed as mathematical relationships among physical quantities that we will introduce and discuss throughout the book. In mechanics, the three fundamental quantities are length, mass, and time. All other quantities in mechanics can be expressed in terms of these three. If we are to report the results of a measurement to someone who wishes to reproduce this measurement, a standard must be defined. It would be meaningless if a visitor from another planet were to talk to us about a length of 8 “glitches” if we do not know the meaning of the unit glitch. On the other hand, if someone familiar with our system of measurement reports that a wall is 2 meters high and our unit of length is defined to be 1 meter, we know that the height of the wall is twice our basic length unit. Whatever is chosen as a standard must be readily accessible and must possess some property that can be measured reliably. Measurement standards used by different people in different places—throughout the Universe—must yield the same result. In addition, standards used for measurements must not change with time. In 1960, an international committee established a set of standards for the fundamental quantities of science. It is called the SI (Système International), and its fundamental units of length, mass, and time are the meter, kilogram, and second, respectively. Other standards for SI fundamental units established by the committee are those for temperature (the kelvin), electric current (the ampere), luminous intensity (the candela), and the amount of substance (the mole). 3 4Chapter 1 Physics and Measurement Length Pitfall Prevention 1.1 Reasonable Values Generating intuition about typical values of quantities when solving problems is important because you must think about your end result and determine if it seems reasonable. For example, if you are calculating the mass of a housefly and arrive at a value of 100 kg, this answer is unreasonable and there is an error somewhere. We can identify length as the distance between two points in space. In 1120, the king of England decreed that the standard of length in his country would be named the yard and would be precisely equal to the distance from the tip of his nose to the end of his outstretched arm. Similarly, the original standard for the foot adopted by the French was the length of the royal foot of King Louis XIV. Neither of these standards is constant in time; when a new king took the throne, length measurements changed! The French standard prevailed until 1799, when the legal standard of length in France became the meter (m), defined as one ten-millionth of the distance from the equator to the North Pole along one particular longitudinal line that passes through Paris. Notice that this value is an Earth-based standard that does not satisfy the requirement that it can be used throughout the Universe. As recently as 1960, the length of the meter was defined as the distance between two lines on a specific platinum–iridium bar stored under controlled conditions in France. Current requirements of science and technology, however, necessitate more accuracy than that with which the separation between the lines on the bar can be determined. In the 1960s and 1970s, the meter was defined as 1 650 763.73 wavelengths1 of orange-red light emitted from a krypton-86 lamp. In October 1983, however, the meter was redefined as the distance traveled by light in vacuum during a time of 1/299 792 458 second. In effect, this latest definition establishes that the speed of light in vacuum is precisely 299 792 458 meters per second. This definition of the meter is valid throughout the Universe based on our assumption that light is the same everywhere. Table 1.1 lists approximate values of some measured lengths. You should study this table as well as the next two tables and begin to generate an intuition for what is meant by, for example, a length of 20 centimeters, a mass of 100 kilograms, or a time interval of 3.2 3 107 seconds. Mass The SI fundamental unit of mass, the kilogram (kg), is defined as the mass of a specific platinum–iridium alloy cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Sèvres, France. This mass standard was established in 1887 and Table 1.1 Approximate Values of Some Measured Lengths Length (m) Distance from the Earth to the most remote known quasar Distance from the Earth to the most remote normal galaxies Distance from the Earth to the nearest large galaxy (Andromeda) Distance from the Sun to the nearest star (Proxima Centauri) One light-year Mean orbit radius of the Earth about the Sun Mean distance from the Earth to the Moon Distance from the equator to the North Pole Mean radius of the Earth Typical altitude (above the surface) of a satellite orbiting the Earth Length of a football field Length of a housefly Size of smallest dust particles Size of cells of most living organisms Diameter of a hydrogen atom Diameter of an atomic nucleus Diameter of a proton 1.4 3 1026 9 3 1025 2 3 1022 4 3 1016 9.46 3 1015 1.50 3 1011 3.84 3 108 1.00 3 107 6.37 3 106 2 3 105 9.1 3 101 5 3 1023 , 1024 , 1025 , 10210 , 10214 , 10215 1We will use the standard international notation for numbers with more than three digits, in which groups of three digits are separated by spaces rather than commas. Therefore, 10 000 is the same as the common American notation of 10,000. Similarly, p 5 3.14159265 is written as 3.141 592 65. Table 1.2 Approximate Masses of Various Objects Mass (kg) Observable Universe Milky Way galaxy Sun Earth Moon Shark Human Frog Mosquito Bacterium Hydrogen atom Electron , 1052 , 1042 1.99 3 1030 5.98 3 1024 7.36 3 1022 , 103 , 102 , 1021 , 1025 , 1 3 10215 1.67 3 10227 9.11 3 10231 Table 1.3 Approximate Values of Some Time Intervals Time Interval (s) Age of the Universe Age of the Earth Average age of a college student One year One day One class period Time interval between normal heartbeats Period of audible sound waves Period of typical radio waves Period of vibration of an atom in a solid Period of visible light waves Duration of a nuclear collision Time interval for light to cross a proton 4 3 1017 1.3 3 1017 6.3 3 108 3.2 3 107 8.6 3 104 3.0 3 103 8 3 1021 , 1023 , 1026 5 Reproduced with permission of the BIPM, which retains full internationally protected copyright. 1.1 Standards of Length, Mass, and Time a , 10213 , 10215 , 10222 , 10224 has not been changed since that time because platinum–iridium is an unusually stable alloy. A duplicate of the Sèvres cylinder is kept at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland (Fig. 1.1a). Table 1.2 lists approximate values of the masses of various objects. Before 1967, the standard of time was defined in terms of the mean solar day. (A solar day is the time interval between successive appearances of the Sun at the highest point it reaches in the sky each day.) The fundamental unit of a second (s) was defined as 1 1 1 1 60 2 1 60 2 1 24 2 of a mean solar day. This definition is based on the rotation of one planet, the Earth. Therefore, this motion does not provide a time standard that is universal. In 1967, the second was redefined to take advantage of the high precision attainable in a device known as an atomic clock (Fig. 1.1b), which measures vibrations of cesium atoms. One second is now defined as 9 192 631 770 times the period of vibration of radiation from the cesium-133 atom.2 Approximate values of time intervals are presented in Table 1.3. In addition to SI, another system of units, the U.S. customary system, is still used in the United States despite acceptance of SI by the rest of the world. In this system, the units of length, mass, and time are the foot (ft), slug, and second, respectively. In this book, we shall use SI units because they are almost universally accepted in science and industry. We shall make some limited use of U.S. customary units in the study of classical mechanics. In addition to the fundamental SI units of meter, kilogram, and second, we can also use other units, such as millimeters and nanoseconds, where the prefixes milliand nano- denote multipliers of the basic units based on various powers of ten. Prefixes for the various powers of ten and their abbreviations are listed in Table 1.4 (page 6). For example, 1023 m is equivalent to 1 millimeter (mm), and 103 m corresponds to 1 kilometer (km). Likewise, 1 kilogram (kg) is 103 grams (g), and 1 mega volt (MV) is 106 volts (V). The variables length, time, and mass are examples of fundamental quantities. Most other variables are derived quantities, those that can be expressed as a mathematical combination of fundamental quantities. Common examples are area (a product of two lengths) and speed (a ratio of a length to a time interval). 2Period is defined as the time interval needed for one complete vibration. AP Photo/Focke Strangmann Time b Figure 1.1 (a) The National Standard Kilogram No. 20, an accurate copy of the International Standard Kilogram kept at Sèvres, France, is housed under a double bell jar in a vault at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. (b) A cesium fountain atomic clock. The clock will neither gain nor lose a second in 20 million years. 6Chapter 1 Physics and Measurement Table 1.4 Don Farrall/Photodisc/ Getty Images A table of the letters in the Greek alphabet is provided on the back endpaper of this book. Inside the nucleus are protons (orange) and neutrons (gray). in matter. Prefix Abbreviation Power Prefix Abbreviation 10224 10221 10218 10215 10212 1029 1026 1023 1022 1021 yocto zepto atto femto pico nano micro milli centi deci y z a f p n m m c d 103 106 109 1012 1015 1018 1021 1024 kilo mega giga tera peta exa zetta yotta k M G T P E Z Y Another example of a derived quantity is density. The density r (Greek letter rho) of any substance is defined as its mass per unit volume: m (1.1) V In terms of fundamental quantities, density is a ratio of a mass to a product of three lengths. Aluminum, for example, has a density of 2.70 3 103 kg/m3, and iron has a density of 7.86 3 103 kg/m3. An extreme difference in density can be imagined by thinking about holding a 10-centimeter (cm) cube of Styrofoam in one hand and a 10-cm cube of lead in the other. See Table 14.1 in Chapter 14 for densities of several materials. r; 1.2 Matter and Model Building At the center of each atom is a nucleus. Figure 1.2 Power Q uick Quiz 1.1 In a machine shop, two cams are produced, one of aluminum and one of iron. Both cams have the same mass. Which cam is larger? (a) The aluminum cam is larger. (b) The iron cam is larger. (c) Both cams have the same size. A piece of gold consists of gold atoms. Protons and neutrons are composed of quarks. The quark composition of a proton is shown here. Prefixes for Powers of Ten p u u d Levels of organization If physicists cannot interact with some phenomenon directly, they often imagine a model for a physical system that is related to the phenomenon. For example, we cannot interact directly with atoms because they are too small. Therefore, we build a mental model of an atom based on a system of a nucleus and one or more electrons outside the nucleus. Once we have identified the physical components of the model, we make predictions about its behavior based on the interactions among the components of the system or the interaction between the system and the environment outside the system. As an example, consider the behavior of matter. A sample of solid gold is shown at the top of Figure 1.2. Is this sample nothing but wall-to-wall gold, with no empty space? If the sample is cut in half, the two pieces still retain their chemical identity as solid gold. What if the pieces are cut again and again, indefinitely? Will the smaller and smaller pieces always be gold? Such questions can be traced to early Greek philosophers. Two of them—Leucippus and his student Democritus—could not accept the idea that such cuttings could go on forever. They developed a model for matter by speculating that the process ultimately must end when it produces a particle that can no longer be cut. In Greek, atomos means “not sliceable.” From this Greek term comes our English word atom. The Greek model of the structure of matter was that all ordinary matter consists of atoms, as suggested in the middle of Figure 1.2. Beyond that, no additional structure was specified in the model; atoms acted as small particles that interacted with one another, but internal structure of the atom was not a part of the model. 1.3 Dimensional Analysis In 1897, J. J. Thomson identified the electron as a charged particle and as a constituent of the atom. This led to the first atomic model that contained internal structure. We shall discuss this model in Chapter 42. Following the discovery of the nucleus in 1911, an atomic model was developed in which each atom is made up of electrons surrounding a central nucleus. A nucleus of gold is shown in Figure 1.2. This model leads, however, to a new question: Does the nucleus have structure? That is, is the nucleus a single particle or a collection of particles? By the early 1930s, a model evolved that described two basic entities in the nucleus: protons and neutrons. The proton carries a positive electric charge, and a specific chemical element is identified by the number of protons in its nucleus. This number is called the atomic number of the element. For instance, the nucleus of a hydrogen atom contains one proton (so the atomic number of hydrogen is 1), the nucleus of a helium atom contains two protons (atomic number 2), and the nucleus of a uranium atom contains 92 protons (atomic number 92). In addition to atomic number, a second number—mass number, defined as the number of protons plus neutrons in a nucleus—characterizes atoms. The atomic number of a specific element never varies (i.e., the number of protons does not vary), but the mass number can vary (i.e., the number of neutrons varies). Is that, however, where the process of breaking down stops? Protons, neutrons, and a host of other exotic particles are now known to be composed of six different varieties of particles called quarks, which have been given the names of up, down, strange, charmed, bottom, and top. The up, charmed, and top quarks have electric charges of 123 that of the proton, whereas the down, strange, and bottom quarks have charges of 213 that of the proton. The proton consists of two up quarks and one down quark as shown at the bottom of Figure 1.2 and labeled u and d. This structure predicts the correct charge for the proton. Likewise, the neutron consists of two down quarks and one up quark, giving a net charge of zero. You should develop a process of building models as you study physics. In this study, you will be challenged with many mathematical problems to solve. One of the most important problem-solving techniques is to build a model for the problem: identify a system of physical components for the problem and make predictions of the behavior of the system based on the interactions among its components or the interaction between the system and its surrounding environment. 1.3 Dimensional Analysis In physics, the word dimension denotes the physical nature of a quantity. The distance between two points, for example, can be measured in feet, meters, or furlongs, which are all different ways of expressing the dimension of length. The symbols we use in this book to specify the dimensions of length, mass, and time are L, M, and T, respectively.3 We shall often use brackets [ ] to denote the dimensions of a physical quantity. For example, the symbol we use for speed in this book is v, and in our notation, the dimensions of speed are written [v] 5 L/T. As another example, the dimensions of area A are [A] 5 L2. The dimensions and units of area, volume, speed, and acceleration are listed in Table 1.5. The dimensions of other quantities, such as force and energy, will be described as they are introduced in the text. Table 1.5 Dimensions and Units of Four Derived Quantities Quantity Dimensions SI units U.S. customary units 3The Area (A) Volume (V ) Speed (v) Acceleration (a) L2 L3 m2 ft 2 m3 ft 3 L/T m/s ft/s L/T2 m/s2 ft/s2 dimensions of a quantity will be symbolized by a capitalized, nonitalic letter such as L or T. The algebraic symbol for the quantity itself will be an italicized letter such as L for the length of an object or t for time. 7 8Chapter 1 Physics and Measurement Pitfall Prevention 1.2 Symbols for Quantities Some quantities have a small number of symbols that represent them. For example, the symbol for time is almost always t. Other quantities might have various symbols depending on the usage. Length may be described with symbols such as x, y, and z (for position); r (for radius); a, b, and c (for the legs of a right triangle); , (for the length of an object); d (for a distance); h (for a height); and so forth. In many situations, you may have to check a specific equation to see if it matches your expectations. A useful procedure for doing that, called dimensional analysis, can be used because dimensions can be treated as algebraic quantities. For example, quantities can be added or subtracted only if they have the same dimensions. Furthermore, the terms on both sides of an equation must have the same dimensions. By following these simple rules, you can use dimensional analysis to determine whether an expression has the correct form. Any relationship can be correct only if the dimensions on both sides of the equation are the same. To illustrate this procedure, suppose you are interested in an equation for the position x of a car at a time t if the car starts from rest at x 5 0 and moves with constant acceleration a. The correct expression for this situation is x 5 12 at 2 as we show in Chapter 2. The quantity x on the left side has the dimension of length. For the equation to be dimensionally correct, the quantity on the right side must also have the dimension of length. We can perform a dimensional check by substituting the dimensions for acceleration, L/T2 (Table 1.5), and time, T, into the equation. That is, the dimensional form of the equation x 5 12 at 2 is L5 L # 2 T 5L T2 The dimensions of time cancel as shown, leaving the dimension of length on the right-hand side to match that on the left. A more general procedure using dimensional analysis is to set up an expression of the form x ~ an t m where n and m are exponents that must be determined and the symbol ~ indicates a proportionality. This relationship is correct only if the dimensions of both sides are the same. Because the dimension of the left side is length, the dimension of the right side must also be length. That is, 3 ant m 4 5 L 5 L1T0 Because the dimensions of acceleration are L/T2 and the dimension of time is T, we have 1 L/T2 2 n Tm 5 L1T0 S 1 Ln Tm22n 2 5 L1T0 The exponents of L and T must be the same on both sides of the equation. From the exponents of L, we see immediately that n 5 1. From the exponents of T, we see that m 2 2n 5 0, which, once we substitute for n, gives us m 5 2. Returning to our original expression x ~ ant m , we conclude that x ~ at 2 . Q uick Quiz 1.2 True or False: Dimensional analysis can give you the numerical value of constants of proportionality that may appear in an algebraic expression. Example 1.1 Analysis of an Equation Show that the expression v 5 at, where v represents speed, a acceleration, and t an instant of time, is dimensionally correct. Solution Identify the dimensions of v from Table 1.5: 3v 4 5 L T 1.4 Conversion of Units 9 ▸ 1.1 c o n t i n u e d Identify the dimensions of a from Table 1.5 and multiply by the dimensions of t : 3 at 4 5 L L T 5 T T2 Therefore, v 5 at is dimensionally correct because we have the same dimensions on both sides. (If the expression were given as v 5 at 2, it would be dimensionally incorrect. Try it and see!) Example 1.2 Analysis of a Power Law Suppose we are told that the acceleration a of a particle moving with uniform speed v in a circle of radius r is proportional to some power of r, say r n , and some power of v, say v m . Determine the values of n and m and write the simplest form of an equation for the acceleration. Solution Write an expression for a with a dimensionless constant of proportionality k: Substitute the dimensions of a, r, and v: a 5 kr n v m L L m Ln1m 5 Ln a b 5 m 2 T T T Equate the exponents of L and T so that the dimensional equation is balanced: n 1 m 5 1 and m 5 2 Solve the two equations for n: n 5 21 Write the acceleration expression: a 5 kr21 v 2 5 k v2 r In Section 4.4 on uniform circular motion, we show that k 5 1 if a consistent set of units is used. The constant k would not equal 1 if, for example, v were in km/h and you wanted a in m/s2 . Pitfall Prevention 1.3 1.4 Conversion of Units Always Include Units When per- Sometimes it is necessary to convert units from one measurement system to another or convert within a system (for example, from kilometers to meters). Conversion factors between SI and U.S. customary units of length are as follows: 1 mile 5 1 609 m 5 1.609 km 1 m 5 39.37 in. 5 3.281 ft 1 ft 5 0.304 8 m 5 30.48 cm 1 in. 5 0.025 4 m 5 2.54 cm (exactly) A more complete list of conversion factors can be found in Appendix A. Like dimensions, units can be treated as algebraic quantities that can cancel each other. For example, suppose we wish to convert 15.0 in. to centimeters. Because 1 in. is defined as exactly 2.54 cm, we find that 15.0 in. 5 1 15.0 in. 2 a 2.54 cm b 5 38.1 cm 1 in. where the ratio in parentheses is equal to 1. We express 1 as 2.54 cm/1 in. (rather than 1 in./2.54 cm) so that the unit “inch” in the denominator cancels with the unit in the original quantity. The remaining unit is the centimeter, our desired result. forming calculations with numerical values, include the units for every quantity and carry the units through the entire calculation. Avoid the temptation to drop the units early and then attach the expected units once you have an answer. By including the units in every step, you can detect errors if the units for the answer turn out to be incorrect. 10Chapter 1 Physics and Measurement Q uick Quiz 1.3 The distance between two cities is 100 mi. What is the number of kilometers between the two cities? (a) smaller than 100 (b) larger than 100 (c) equal to 100 Example 1.3 Is He Speeding? On an interstate highway in a rural region of Wyoming, a car is traveling at a speed of 38.0 m/s. Is the driver exceeding the speed limit of 75.0 mi/h? Solution 1 38.0 m/s 2 a Convert meters in the speed to miles: 1 mi b 5 2.36 3 1022 mi/s 1 609 m 1 2.36 3 1022 mi/s 2 a Convert seconds to hours: 60 s 60 min b a b 5 85.0 mi/h 1 min 1h The driver is indeed exceeding the speed limit and should slow down. W h at If ? What if the driver were from outside the United States and is familiar with speeds measured in kilometers per hour? What is the speed of the car in km/h? Answer We can convert our final answer to the appropriate units: 1.609 km b 5 137 km/h 1 mi © Cengage Learning/Ed Dodd 1 85.0 mi/h 2 a Figure 1.3 shows an automobile speedometer displaying speeds in both mi/h and km/h. Can you check the conversion we just performed using this photograph? Figure 1.3 The speedometer of a vehicle that shows speeds in both miles per hour and kilometers per hour. 1.5 Estimates and Order-of-Magnitude Calculations Suppose someone asks you the number of bits of data on a typical musical compact disc. In response, it is not generally expected that you would provide the exact number but rather an estimate, which may be expressed in scientific notation. The estimate may be made even more approximate by expressing it as an order of magnitude, which is a power of ten determined as follows: 1. Express the number in scientific notation, with the multiplier of the power of ten between 1 and 10 and a unit. 2. If the multiplier is less than 3.162 (the square root of 10), the order of magnitude of the number is the power of 10 in the scientific notation. If the multiplier is greater than 3.162, the order of magnitude is one larger than the power of 10 in the scientific notation. We use the symbol , for “is on the order of.” Use the procedure above to verify the orders of magnitude for the following lengths: 0.008 6 m , 1022 m 0.002 1 m , 1023 m 720 m , 103 m 1.6 Significant Figures 11 Usually, when an order-of-magnitude estimate is made, the results are reliable to within about a factor of 10. If a quantity increases in value by three orders of magnitude, its value increases by a factor of about 103 5 1 000. Inaccuracies caused by guessing too low for one number are often canceled by other guesses that are too high. You will find that with practice your guesstimates become better and better. Estimation problems can be fun to work because you freely drop digits, venture reasonable approximations for unknown numbers, make simplifying assumptions, and turn the question around into something you can answer in your head or with minimal mathematical manipulation on paper. Because of the simplicity of these types of calculations, they can be performed on a small scrap of paper and are often called “back-of-the-envelope calculations.” Example 1.4 Breaths in a Lifetime Estimate the number of breaths taken during an average human lifetime. Solution We start by guessing that the typical human lifetime is about 70 years. Think about the average number of breaths that a person takes in 1 min. This number varies depending on whether the person is exercising, sleeping, angry, serene, and so forth. To the nearest order of magnitude, we shall choose 10 breaths per minute as our estimate. (This estimate is certainly closer to the true average value than an estimate of 1 breath per minute or 100 breaths per minute.) Find the approximate number of minutes in a year: Find the approximate number of minutes in a 70-year lifetime: Find the approximate number of breaths in a lifetime: 1 yr a 400 days 1 yr b a 25 h 60 min b a b 5 6 3 105 min 1 day 1h number of minutes 5 (70 yr)(6 3 105 min/yr) 5 4 3 107 min number of breaths 5 (10 breaths/min)(4 3 107 min) 5 4 3 108 breaths Therefore, a person takes on the order of 109 breaths in a lifetime. Notice how much simpler it is in the first calculation above to multiply 400 3 25 than it is to work with the more accurate 365 3 24. W h at If ? What if the average lifetime were estimated as 80 years instead of 70? Would that change our final estimate? Answer We could claim that (80 yr)(6 3 105 min/yr) 5 5 3 107 min, so our final estimate should be 5 3 108 breaths. This answer is still on the order of 109 breaths, so an order-of-magnitude estimate would be unchanged. 1.6 Significant Figures When certain quantities are measured, the measured values are known only to within the limits of the experimental uncertainty. The value of this uncertainty can depend on various factors, such as the quality of the apparatus, the skill of the experimenter, and the number of measurements performed. The number of significant figures in a measurement can be used to express something about the uncertainty. The number of significant figures is related to the number of numerical digits used to express the measurement, as we discuss below. As an example of significant figures, suppose we are asked to measure the radius of a compact disc using a meterstick as a measuring instrument. Let us assume the accuracy to which we can measure the radius of the disc is 60.1 cm. Because of the uncertainty of 60.1 cm, if the radius is measured to be 6.0 cm, we can claim only that its radius lies somewhere between 5.9 cm and 6.1 cm. In this case, we say that the measured value of 6.0 cm has two significant figures. Note that the 12Chapter 1 Physics and Measurement significant figures include the first estimated digit. Therefore, we could write the radius as (6.0 6 0.1) cm. Zeros may or may not be significant figures. Those used to position the decimal point in such numbers as 0.03 and 0.007 5 are not significant. Therefore, there are one and two significant figures, respectively, in these two values. When the zeros come after other digits, however, there is the possibility of misinterpretation. For example, suppose the mass of an object is given as 1 500 g. This value is ambiguous because we do not know whether the last two zeros are being used to locate the decimal point or whether they represent significant figures in the measurement. To remove this ambiguity, it is common to use scientific notation to indicate the number of significant figures. In this case, we would express the mass as 1.5 3 103 g if there are two significant figures in the measured value, 1.50 3 103 g if there are three significant figures, and 1.500 3 103 g if there are four. The same rule holds for numbers less than 1, so 2.3 3 1024 has two significant figures (and therefore could be written 0.000 23) and 2.30 3 1024 has three significant figures (also written as 0.000 230). In problem solving, we often combine quantities mathematically through multiplication, division, addition, subtraction, and so forth. When doing so, you must make sure that the result has the appropriate number of significant figures. A good rule of thumb to use in determining the number of significant figures that can be claimed in a multiplication or a division is as follows: When multiplying several quantities, the number of significant figures in the final answer is the same as the number of significant figures in the quantity having the smallest number of significant figures. The same rule applies to division. Let’s apply this rule to find the area of the compact disc whose radius we measured above. Using the equation for the area of a circle, A 5 pr 2 5 p 1 6.0 cm 2 2 5 1.1 3 102 cm2 Pitfall Prevention 1.4 Read Carefully Notice that the rule for addition and subtraction is different from that for multiplication and division. For addition and subtraction, the important consideration is the number of decimal places, not the number of significant figures. If you perform this calculation on your calculator, you will likely see 113.097 335 5. It should be clear that you don’t want to keep all of these digits, but you might be tempted to report the result as 113 cm2. This result is not justified because it has three significant figures, whereas the radius only has two. Therefore, we must report the result with only two significant figures as shown above. For addition and subtraction, you must consider the number of decimal places when you are determining how many significant figures to report: When numbers are added or subtracted, the number of decimal places in the result should equal the smallest number of decimal places of any term in the sum or difference. As an example of this rule, consider the sum 23.2 1 5.174 5 28.4 Notice that we do not report the answer as 28.374 because the lowest number of decimal places is one, for 23.2. Therefore, our answer must have only one decimal place. The rule for addition and subtraction can often result in answers that have a different number of significant figures than the quantities with which you start. For example, consider these operations that satisfy the rule: 1.000 1 1 0.000 3 5 1.000 4 1.002 2 0.998 5 0.004 In the first example, the result has five significant figures even though one of the terms, 0.000 3, has only one significant figure. Similarly, in the second calculation, the result has only one significant figure even though the numbers being subtracted have four and three, respectively. 13 Summary In this book, most of the numerical examples and end-of-chapter problems will yield answers having three significant figures. When carrying out estimation calculations, we shall typically work with a single significant figure. If the number of significant figures in the result of a calculation must be reduced, there is a general rule for rounding numbers: the last digit retained is increased by 1 if the last digit dropped is greater than 5. (For example, 1.346 becomes 1.35.) If the last digit dropped is less than 5, the last digit retained remains as it is. (For example, 1.343 becomes 1.34.) If the last digit dropped is equal to 5, the remaining digit should be rounded to the nearest even number. (This rule helps avoid accumulation of errors in long arithmetic processes.) A technique for avoiding error accumulation is to delay the rounding of numbers in a long calculation until you have the final result. Wait until you are ready to copy the final answer from your calculator before rounding to the correct number of significant figures. In this book, we display numerical values rounded off to two or three significant figures. This occasionally makes some mathematical manipulations look odd or incorrect. For instance, looking ahead to Example 3.5 on page 69, you will see the operation 217.7 km 1 34.6 km 5 17.0 km. This looks like an incorrect subtraction, but that is only because we have rounded the numbers 17.7 km and 34.6 km for display. If all digits in these two intermediate numbers are retained and the rounding is only performed on the final number, the correct three-digit result of 17.0 km is obtained. Example 1.5 WW Significant figure guidelines used in this book Pitfall Prevention 1.5 Symbolic Solutions When solving problems, it is very useful to perform the solution completely in algebraic form and wait until the very end to enter numerical values into the final symbolic expression. This method will save many calculator keystrokes, especially if some quantities cancel so that you never have to enter their values into your calculator! In addition, you will only need to round once, on the final result. Installing a Carpet A carpet is to be installed in a rectangular room whose length is measured to be 12.71 m and whose width is measured to be 3.46 m. Find the area of the room. Solution If you multiply 12.71 m by 3.46 m on your calculator, you will see an answer of 43.976 6 m2. How many of these numbers should you claim? Our rule of thumb for multiplication tells us that you can claim only the number of significant figures in your answer as are present in the measured quantity having the lowest number of significant figures. In this example, the lowest number of significant figures is three in 3.46 m, so we should express our final answer as 44.0 m2. Summary Definitions The three fundamental physical quantities of mechanics are length, mass, and time, which in the SI system have the units meter (m), kilogram (kg), and second (s), respectively. These fundamental quantities cannot be defined in terms of more basic quantities. The density of a substance is defined as its mass per unit volume: m (1.1) r; V continued 14Chapter 1 Physics and Measurement Concepts and Principles The method of dimensional analysis is very powerful in solving physics problems. Dimensions can be treated as algebraic quantities. By making estimates and performing order-of-magnitude calculations, you should be able to approximate the answer to a problem when there is not enough information available to specify an exact solution completely. When you compute a result from several measured numbers, each of which has a certain accuracy, you should give the result with the correct number of significant figures. When multiplying several quantities, the number of significant f igures in the final answer is the same as the number of significant figures in the quantity having the smallest number of significant figures. The same rule applies to division. When numbers are added or subtracted, the number of decimal places in the result should equal the smallest number of decimal places of any term in the sum or difference. Objective Questions 1. denotes answer available in Student Solutions Manual/Study Guide 1. One student uses a meterstick to measure the thickness of a textbook and obtains 4.3 cm 6 0.1 cm. Other students measure the thickness with vernier calipers and obtain four different measurements: (a) 4.32 cm 6 0.01 cm, (b) 4.31 cm 6 0.01 cm, (c) 4.24 cm 6 0.01 cm, and (d) 4.43 cm 6 0.01 cm. Which of these four measurements, if any, agree with that obtained by the first student? 2. A house is advertised as having 1 420 square feet under its roof. What is its area in square meters? (a) 4 660 m2 (b) 432 m2 (c) 158 m2 (d) 132 m2 (e) 40.2 m2 3. Answer each question yes or no. Must two quantities have the same dimensions (a) if you are adding them? (b) If you are multiplying them? (c) If you are subtracting them? (d) If you are dividing them? (e) If you are equating them? 4. The price of gasoline at a particular station is 1.5 euros per liter. An American student can use 33 euros to buy gasoline. Knowing that 4 quarts make a gallon and that 1 liter is close to 1 quart, she quickly reasons that she can buy how many gallons of gasoline? (a) less than 1 gallon (b) about 5 gallons (c) about 8 gallons (d) more than 10 gallons 5. Rank the following five quantities in order from the largest to the smallest. If two of the quantities are equal, Conceptual Questions give them equal rank in your list. (a) 0.032 kg (b) 15 g (c) 2.7 3 105 mg (d) 4.1 3 1028 Gg (e) 2.7 3 108 mg 6. What is the sum of the measured values 21.4 s 1 15 s 1 17.17 s 1 4.00 3 s? (a) 57.573 s (b) 57.57 s (c) 57.6 s (d) 58 s (e) 60 s 7. Which of the following is the best estimate for the mass of all the people living on the Earth? (a) 2 3 108 kg (b) 1 3 109 kg (c) 2 3 1010 kg (d) 3 3 1011 kg (e) 4 3 1012 kg 8. (a) If an equation is dimensionally correct, does that mean that the equation must be true? (b) If an equation is not dimensionally correct, does that mean that the equation cannot be true? 9. Newton’s second law of motion (Chapter 5) says that the mass of an object times its acceleration is equal to the net force on the object. Which of the following gives the correct units for force? (a) kg ? m/s2 (b) kg ? m2/s2 (c) kg/m ? s2 (d) kg ? m2/s (e) none of those answers 10. A calculator displays a result as 1.365 248 0 3 107 kg. The estimated uncertainty in the result is 62%. How many digits should be included as significant when the result is written down? (a) zero (b) one (c) two (d) three (e) four 1. denotes answer available in Student Solutions Manual/Study Guide 1. Suppose the three fundamental standards of the metric system were length, density, and time rather than length, mass, and time. The standard of density in this system is to be defined as that of water. What considerations about water would you need to address to make sure that the standard of density is as accurate as possible? 2. Why is the metric system of units considered superior to most other systems of units? 3. What natural phenomena could serve as alternative time standards? 4. Express the following quantities using the prefixes given in Table 1.4. (a) 3 3 1024 m (b) 5 3 1025 s (c) 72 3 102 g 15 Problems Problems The problems found in this chapter may be assigned online in Enhanced WebAssign AMT Analysis Model tutorial available in Enhanced WebAssign GP Guided Problem 1. straightforward; 2. intermediate; 3. challenging M Master It tutorial available in Enhanced 1. full solution available in the Student W Watch It video solution available in Solutions Manual/Study Guide WebAssign BIO Q/C Enhanced WebAssign S Section 1.1 Standards of Length, Mass, and Time Note: Consult the endpapers, appendices, and tables in the text whenever necessary in solving problems. For this chapter, Table 14.1 and Appendix B.3 may be particularly useful. Answers to odd-numbered problems appear in the back of the book. L d a 1. (a) Use information on the endpapers of this book to Q/C calculate the average density of the Earth. (b) Where does the value fit among those listed in Table 14.1 in Chapter 14? Look up the density of a typical surface rock like granite in another source and compare it with the density of the Earth. 2. The standard kilogram (Fig. 1.1a) is a platinum–iridium W cylinder 39.0 mm in height and 39.0 mm in diameter. What is the density of the material? 3. An automobile company displays a die-cast model of its first car, made from 9.35 kg of iron. To celebrate its hundredth year in business, a worker will recast the model in solid gold from the original dies. What mass of gold is needed to make the new model? 4. A proton, which is the nucleus of a hydrogen atom, can Q/C be modeled as a sphere with a diameter of 2.4 fm and a mass of 1.67 3 10227 kg. (a) Determine the density of the proton. (b) State how your answer to part (a) compares with the density of osmium, given in Table 14.1 in Chapter 14. 5. Two spheres are cut from a certain uniform rock. One W has radius 4.50 cm. The mass of the other is five times greater. Find its radius. 6. What mass of a material with density r is required to S make a hollow spherical shell having inner radius r 1 and outer radius r 2? Section 1.2 Matter and Model Building 7. A crystalline solid consists of atoms stacked up in a repeating lattice structure. Consider a crystal as shown in Figure P1.7a. The atoms reside at the corners of cubes of side L 5 0.200 nm. One piece of evidence for the regular arrangement of atoms comes from the flat surfaces along which a crystal separates, or cleaves, when it is broken. Suppose this crystal cleaves along a face diagonal as shown in Figure P1.7b. Calculate the spacing d between two adjacent atomic planes that separate when the crystal cleaves. b Figure P1.7 8. The mass of a copper atom is 1.06 3 10225 kg, and the density of copper is 8 920 kg/m3 . (a) Determine the number of atoms in 1 cm3 of copper. (b) Visualize the one cubic centimeter as formed by stacking up identical cubes, with one copper atom at the center of each. Determine the volume of each cube. (c) Find the edge dimension of each cube, which represents an estimate for the spacing between atoms. Section 1.3 Dimensional Analysis 9. Which of the following equations are dimensionally correct? (a) vf 5 vi 1 ax (b) y 5 (2 m) cos (kx), where k 5 2 m21 10. Figure P1.10 shows a frustum r1 W of a cone. Match each of the expressions (a) p(r 1 1 r 2)[h 2 1 (r 2 2 r 1)2]1/2, (b) 2p(r 1 1 r 2), and (c) ph(r 12 1 r 1r 2 1 r 22)/3 h r2 with the quantity it describes: (d) the total circumference of Figure P1.10 the flat circular faces, (e) the volume, or (f) the area of the curved surface. 11. Kinetic energy K (Chapter 7) has dimensions kg ? m2/s2. It can be written in terms of the momentum p (Chapter 9) and mass m as K5 p2 2m (a) Determine the proper units for momentum using dimensional analysis. (b) The unit of force is the newton N, where 1 N 5 1 kg ? m/s2 . What are the units of momentum p in terms of a newton and another fundamental SI unit? 12. Newton’s law of universal gravitation is represented by W F5 GMm r2 where F is the magnitude of the gravitational force exerted by one small object on another, M and m are the masses of the objects, and r is a distance. Force has the SI units kg ? m/s2. What are the SI units of the proportionality constant G? 13. The position of a particle moving under uniform acceleration is some function of time and the acceleration. Suppose we write this position as x 5 kamtn , where k is a dimensionless constant. Show by dimensional analysis that this expression is satisfied if m 5 1 and n 5 2. Can this analysis give the value of k? 14. (a) Assume the equation x 5 At 3 1 Bt describes the motion of a particular object, with x having the dimension of length and t having the dimension of time. Determine the dimensions of the constants A and B. (b) Determine the dimensions of the derivative dx/dt 5 3At 2 1 B. Section 1.4 Conversion of Units 15. A solid piece of lead has a mass of 23.94 g and a volume W of 2.10 cm3. From these data, calculate the density of lead in SI units (kilograms per cubic meter). 16. An ore loader moves 1 200 tons/h from a mine to the surface. Convert this rate to pounds per second, using 1 ton 5 2 000 lb. 17. A rectangular building lot has a width of 75.0 ft and a length of 125 ft. Determine the area of this lot in square meters. 18. Suppose your hair grows at the rate 1/32 in. per day. W Find the rate at which it grows in nanometers per second. Because the distance between atoms in a molecule is on the order of 0.1 nm, your answer suggests how rapidly layers of atoms are assembled in this protein synthesis. 19. Why is the following situation impossible? A student’s dormitory room measures 3.8 m by 3.6 m, and its ceiling is 2.5 m high. After the student completes his physics course, he displays his dedication by completely wallpapering the walls of the room with the pages from his copy of volume 1 (Chapters 1–22) of this textbook. He even covers the door and window. 20. A pyramid has a height of 481 ft, and its base covers an W area of 13.0 acres (Fig. P1.20). The volume of a pyramid is given by the expression V 5 13 Bh, where B is the area of the base and h is the height. Find the volume of this pyramid in cubic meters. (1 acre 5 43 560 ft2) 21. The pyramid described in Problem 20 contains approximately 2 million stone blocks that average 2.50 tons each. Find the weight of this pyramid in pounds. Adam Sylvester/Photo Researchers, Inc. 16Chapter 1 Physics and Measurement Figure P1.20 Problems 20 and 21. 22. Assume it takes 7.00 min to fill a 30.0-gal gasoline tank. W (a) Calculate the rate at which the tank is filled in gallons per second. (b) Calculate the rate at which the tank is filled in cubic meters per second. (c) Determine the time interval, in hours, required to fill a 1.00-m3 volume at the same rate. (1 U.S. gal 5 231 in.3) 23. A section of land has an area of 1 square mile and contains 640 acres. Determine the number of square meters in 1 acre. 24. A house is 50.0 ft long and 26 ft wide and has 8.0-ftM high ceilings. What is the volume of the interior of the house in cubic meters and in cubic centimeters? 25. One cubic meter (1.00 m3) of aluminum has a mass of 3 M 2.70 3 10 kg, and the same volume of iron has a mass of 7.86 3 103 kg. Find the radius of a solid aluminum sphere that will balance a solid iron sphere of radius 2.00 cm on an equal-arm balance. 26. Let rAl represent the density of aluminum and rFe that S of iron. Find the radius of a solid aluminum sphere that balances a solid iron sphere of radius r Fe on an equal-arm balance. 27. One gallon of paint (volume 5 3.78 3 10 –3 m3) covers 2 M an area of 25.0 m . What is the thickness of the fresh paint on the wall? 28. An auditorium measures 40.0 m 3 20.0 m 3 12.0 m. 3 W The density of air is 1.20 kg/m . What are (a) the volume of the room in cubic feet and (b) the weight of air in the room in pounds? 29. (a) At the time of this book’s printing, the U.S. M national debt is about $16 trillion. If payments were made at the rate of $1 000 per second, how many years would it take to pay off the debt, assuming no interest were charged? (b) A dollar bill is about 15.5 cm long. How many dollar bills attached end to end would it take to reach the Moon? The front endpapers give the Earth–Moon distance. Note: Before doing these calculations, try to guess at the answers. You may be very surprised. 30. A hydrogen atom has a diameter of 1.06 3 10210 m. The nucleus of the hydrogen atom has a diameter of approximately 2.40 3 10215 m. (a) For a scale model, represent the diameter of the hydrogen atom by the playing length of an American football field (100 yards 5 300 ft) and determine the diameter of the nucleus in millimeters. (b) Find the ratio of the volume of the hydrogen atom to the volume of its nucleus. 17 Problems Section 1.5 Estimates and Order-of-Magnitude Calculations Note: In your solutions to Problems 31 through 34, state the quantities you measure or estimate and the values you take for them. 31. Find the order of magnitude of the number of tabletennis balls that would fit into a typical-size room (without being crushed). 32. (a) Compute the order of magnitude of the mass of a bathtub half full of water. (b) Compute the order of magnitude of the mass of a bathtub half full of copper coins. 33. To an order of magnitude, how many piano tuners reside in New York City? The physicist Enrico Fermi was famous for asking questions like this one on oral Ph.D. qualifying examinations. 34. An automobile tire is rated to last for 50 000 miles. To an order of magnitude, through how many revolutions will it turn over its lifetime? Section 1.6 Significant Figures Note: Appendix B.8 on propagation of uncertainty may be useful in solving some problems in this section. 35. A rectangular plate has a length of (21.3 6 0.2) cm and a width of (9.8 6 0.1) cm. Calculate the area of the plate, including its uncertainty. 36. How many significant figures are in the following num9 26 W bers? (a) 78.9 6 0.2 (b) 3.788 3 10 (c) 2.46 3 10 (d) 0.005 3 37. The tropical year, the time interval from one vernal equinox to the next vernal equinox, is the basis for our calendar. It contains 365.242 199 days. Find the number of seconds in a tropical year. that of Uranus is 1.19. The ratio of the radius of Neptune to that of Uranus is 0.969. Find the average density of Neptune. 43. Review. The ratio of the number of sparrows visiting a bird feeder to the number of more interesting birds is 2.25. On a morning when altogether 91 birds visit the feeder, what is the number of sparrows? 44. Review. Find every angle u between 0 and 360° for which the ratio of sin u to cos u is 23.00. 45. Review. For the right triM angle shown in Figure P1.45, what are (a) the length of the unknown side, (b) the tangent of u, and (c) the sine of f? 41. Review. A child is surprised that because of sales tax she must pay $1.36 for a toy marked $1.25. What is the effective tax rate on this purchase, expressed as a percentage? 42. Review. The average density of the planet Uranus is 1.27 3 103 kg/m3. The ratio of the mass of Neptune to 6.00 m φ Figure P1.45 2.00x 4 2 3.00x 3 1 5.00x 5 70.0 is x 5 22.22. 47. Review. A pet lamb grows rapidly, with its mass proM portional to the cube of its length. When the lamb’s length changes by 15.8%, its mass increases by 17.3 kg. Find the lamb’s mass at the end of this process. 48. Review. A highway curve forms a section of a circle. A car goes around the curve as shown in the helicopter view of Figure P1.48. Its dashboard compass shows that the car is initially heading due east. After it travels d 5 840 m, it is heading u 5 35.0° south of east. Find the radius of curvature of its path. Suggestion: You may find it useful to learn a geometric theorem stated in Appendix B.3. d N W Note: The next 13 problems call on mathematical skills from your prior education that will be useful throughout this course. 40. Review. While you are on a trip to Europe, you must purchase hazelnut chocolate bars for your grandmother. Eating just one square each day, she makes each large bar last for one and one-third months. How many bars will constitute a year’s supply for her? 9.00 m 46. Review. Prove that one solution of the equation 38. Carry out the arithmetic operations (a) the sum of the W measured values 756, 37.2, 0.83, and 2; (b) the product 0.003 2 3 356.3; and (c) the product 5.620 3 p. 39. Review. In a community college parking lot, the number of ordinary cars is larger than the number of sport utility vehicles by 94.7%. The difference between the number of cars and the number of SUVs is 18. Find the number of SUVs in the lot. θ E u S Figure P1.48 49. Review. From the set of equations S p 5 3q pr 5 qs 1 2 2 pr 1 1 2 2 qs 5 12 qt 2 involving the unknowns p, q, r, s, and t, find the value of the ratio of t to r. 50. Review. Figure P1.50 on page 18 shows students study- Q/C ing the thermal conduction of energy into cylindrical S blocks of ice. As we will see in Chapter 20, this process is described by the equation Q Dt 5 k pd 2 1 Th 2 Tc 2 4L For experimental control, in one set of trials all quantities except d and Dt are constant. (a) If d is made three 18Chapter 1 Physics and Measurement Alexandra Héder times larger, does the equation predict that Dt will get larger or get smaller? By what factor? (b) What pattern of proportionality of Dt to d does the equation predict? (c) To display this proportionality as a straight line on a graph, what quantities should you plot on the horizontal and vertical axes? (d) What expression represents the theoretical slope of this graph? Figure P1.50 51. Review. A student is supplied with a stack of copy Q/C paper, ruler, compass, scissors, and a sensitive bal- ance. He cuts out various shapes in various sizes, calculates their areas, measures their masses, and prepares the graph of Figure P1.51. (a) Consider the fourth experimental point from the top. How far is it from the best-fit straight line? Express your answer as a difference in vertical-axis coordinate. (b) Express your answer as a percentage. (c) Calculate the slope of the line. (d) State what the graph demonstrates, referring to the shape of the graph and the results of parts (b) and (c). (e) Describe whether this result should be expected theoretically. (f) Describe the physical meaning of the slope. Dependence of mass on area for paper shapes Mass (g) Additional Problems 54. Collectible coins are sometimes plated with gold to Q/C enhance their beauty and value. Consider a commemo- rative quarter-dollar advertised for sale at $4.98. It has a diameter of 24.1 mm and a thickness of 1.78 mm, and it is completely covered with a layer of pure gold 0.180 mm thick. The volume of the plating is equal to the thickness of the layer multiplied by the area to which it is applied. The patterns on the faces of the coin and the grooves on its edge have a negligible effect on its area. Assume the price of gold is $25.0 per gram. (a) Find the cost of the gold added to the coin. (b) Does the cost of the gold significantly enhance the value of the coin? Explain your answer. 55. In a situation in which data are known to three significant digits, we write 6.379 m 5 6.38 m and 6.374 m 5 6.37 m. When a number ends in 5, we arbitrarily choose to write 6.375 m 5 6.38 m. We could equally well write 6.375 m 5 6.37 m, “rounding down” instead of “rounding up,” because we would change the number 6.375 by equal increments in both cases. Now consider an orderof-magnitude estimate, in which factors of change rather than increments are important. We write 500 m , 103 m because 500 differs from 100 by a factor of 5 while it differs from 1 000 by only a factor of 2. We write 437 m , 103 m and 305 m , 102 m. What distance differs from 100 m and from 1 000 m by equal factors so that we could equally well choose to represent its order of magnitude as , 102 m or as , 103 m? 56. (a) What is the order of magnitude of the number of BIO microorganisms in the human intestinal tract? A typiQ/C cal bacterial length scale is 1026 m. Estimate the intes- tinal volume and assume 1% of it is occupied by bacteria. (b) Does the number of bacteria suggest whether the bacteria are beneficial, dangerous, or neutral for the human body? What functions could they serve? 0.3 57. The diameter of our disk-shaped galaxy, the Milky Way, is about 1.0 3 105 light-years (ly). The distance to the Andromeda galaxy (Fig. P1.57), which is the spiral galaxy nearest to the Milky Way, is about 2.0 million ly. If a scale model represents the Milky Way and Andromeda 0.2 0.1 0 If the sidewalk is to measure (1.00 6 0.01) m wide by (9.0 6 0.1) cm thick, what volume of concrete is needed and what is the approximate uncertainty of this volume? 200 400 Area (cm2) Rectangles Squares Circles 600 Triangles Best fit 52. The radius of a uniform solid sphere is measured to be (6.50 6 0.20) cm, and its mass is measured to be (1.85 6 0.02) kg. Determine the density of the sphere in kilograms per cubic meter and the uncertainty in the density. 53. A sidewalk is to be constructed around a swimming pool that measures (10.0 6 0.1) m by (17.0 6 0.1) m. Robert Gendler/NASA Figure P1.51 Figure P1.57 The Andromeda galaxy. Problems galaxies as dinner plates 25 cm in diameter, determine the distance between the centers of the two plates. 58. Why is the following situation impossible? In an effort to boost interest in a television game show, each weekly winner is offered an additional $1 million bonus prize if he or she can personally count out that exact amount from a supply of one-dollar bills. The winner must do this task under supervision by television show executives and within one 40-hour work week. To the dismay of the show’s producers, most contestants succeed at the challenge. 19 a disk of diameter , 1021 m and thickness , 1019 m. Find the order of magnitude of the number of stars in the Milky Way. Assume the distance between the Sun and our nearest neighbor is typical. 63. Assume there are 100 million passenger cars in the AMT United States and the average fuel efficiency is 20 mi/gal M of gasoline. If the average distance traveled by each car is 10 000 mi/yr, how much gasoline would be saved per year if the average fuel efficiency could be increased to 25 mi/gal? 64. A spherical shell has an outside radius of 2.60 cm and 59. A high fountain of water AMT is located at the center M of a circular pool as shown in Figure P1.59. A student walks around f the pool and measures its circumference to be 15.0 m. Next, the student stands at the edge Figure P1.59 of the pool and uses a Problems 59 and 60. protractor to gauge the angle of elevation of the top of the fountain to be f 5 55.0°. How high is the fountain? Q/C an inside radius of a. The shell wall has uniform thick- 60. A water fountain is at the center of a circular pool S as shown in Figure P1.59. A student walks around the pool and measures its circumference C. Next, he stands at the edge of the pool and uses a protractor to measure the angle of elevation f of his sightline to the top of the water jet. How high is the fountain? BIO ground, in water, and in the air. One micron (1026 m) 61. The data in the following table represent measurements Q/C of the masses and dimensions of solid cylinders of alu- minum, copper, brass, tin, and iron. (a) Use these data to calculate the densities of these substances. (b) State how your results compare with those given in Table 14.1. Substance Mass (g) Aluminum 51.5 Copper 56.3 Brass 94.4 Tin 69.1 Iron 216.1 Diameter (cm) Length (cm) 2.52 1.23 1.54 1.75 1.89 3.75 5.06 5.69 3.74 9.77 ness and is made of a material with density 4.70 g/cm3. The space inside the shell is filled with a liquid having a density of 1.23 g/cm3. (a) Find the mass m of the sphere, including its contents, as a function of a. (b) For what value of the variable a does m have its maximum possible value? (c) What is this maximum mass? (d) Explain whether the value from part (c) agrees with the result of a direct calculation of the mass of a solid sphere of uniform density made of the same material as the shell. (e) What If? Would the answer to part (a) change if the inner wall were not concentric with the outer wall? 65. Bacteria and other prokaryotes are found deep underis a typical length scale associated with these microbes. (a) Estimate the total number of bacteria and other prokaryotes on the Earth. (b) Estimate the total mass of all such microbes. 66. Air is blown into a spherical balloon so that, when its Q/C radius is 6.50 cm, its radius is increasing at the rate 0.900 cm/s. (a) Find the rate at which the volume of the balloon is increasing. (b) If this volume flow rate of air entering the balloon is constant, at what rate will the radius be increasing when the radius is 13.0 cm? (c) Explain physically why the answer to part (b) is larger or smaller than 0.9 cm/s, if it is different. 67. A rod extending between x 5 0 and x 5 14.0 cm has uniform cross-sectional area A 5 9.00 cm2. Its density increases steadily between its ends from 2.70 g/cm3 to 19.3 g/cm3. (a) Identify the constants B and C required in the expression r 5 B 1 Cx to describe the variable density. (b) The mass of the rod is given by 2 3 r dV 5 3 rA dx 5 3 1 B 1 Cx 2 1 9.00 cm 2 dx 14.0 cm 62. The distance from the Sun to the nearest star is about 4 3 1016 m. The Milky Way galaxy (Fig. P1.62) is roughly m5 all material all x 0 Carry out the integration to find the mass of the rod. 68. In physics, it is important to use mathematical approximations. (a) Demonstrate that for small angles (, 20°) Richard Payne/NASA tan a < sin a < a 5 par 1808 where a is in radians and a9 is in degrees. (b) Use a calculator to find the largest angle for which tan a may be approximated by a with an error less than 10.0%. Figure P1.62 The Milky Way galaxy. 69. The consumption of natural gas by a company satisfies 2 M the empirical equation V 5 1.50t 1 0.008 00t , where V 20Chapter 1 Physics and Measurement is the volume of gas in millions of cubic feet and t is the time in months. Express this equation in units of cubic feet and seconds. Assume a month is 30.0 days. 70. A woman wishing to know the height of a mountain GP measures the angle of elevation of the mountaintop as 12.0°. After walking 1.00 km closer to the mountain on level ground, she finds the angle to be 14.0°. (a) Draw a picture of the problem, neglecting the height of the woman’s eyes above the ground. Hint: Use two triangles. (b) Using the symbol y to represent the mountain height and the symbol x to represent the woman’s original distance from the mountain, label the picture. (c) Using the labeled picture, write two trigonometric equations relating the two selected variables. (d) Find the height y. 71. A child loves to watch as you fill a transparent plastic AMT bottle with shampoo (Fig P1.71). Every horizontal cross section of the bottle is circular, but the diameters of the circles have different values. You pour the brightly colored shampoo into the bottle at a constant rate of 16.5 cm3/s. At what rate is its level in the bottle rising (a) at a point where the diameter of the bottle is 6.30 cm and (b) at a point where the diameter is 1.35 cm? Challenge Problems 72. A woman stands at a horizontal distance x from a S mountain and measures the angle of elevation of the mountaintop above the horizontal as u. After walking a distance d closer to the mountain on level ground, she finds the angle to be f. Find a general equation for the height y of the mountain in terms of d, f, and u, neglecting the height of her eyes above the ground. 73. You stand in a flat meadow and observe two cows (Fig. P1.73). Cow A is due north of you and 15.0 m from your position. Cow B is 25.0 m from your position. From your point of view, the angle between cow A and cow B is 20.0°, with cow B appearing to the right of cow A. (a) How far apart are cow A and cow B? (b) Consider the view seen by cow A. According to this cow, what is the angle between you and cow B? (c) Consider the view seen by cow B. According to this cow, what is the angle between you and cow A? Hint: What does the situation look like to a hummingbird hovering above the meadow? (d) Two stars in the sky appear to be 20.0° apart. Star A is 15.0 ly from the Earth, and star B, appearing to the right of star A, is 25.0 ly from the Earth. To an inhabitant of a planet orbiting star A, what is the angle in the sky between star B and our Sun? Cow A 1.35 cm Cow B 6.30 cm Figure P1.73 Figure P1.71 Your view of two cows in a meadow. Cow A is due north of you. You must rotate your eyes through an angle of 20.0° to look from cow A to cow B. Motion in One Dimension c h a p t e r 2 2.1 Position, Velocity, and Speed 2.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed 2.3 Analysis Model: Particle Under Constant Velocity 2.4 Acceleration 2.5 Motion Diagrams 2.6 Analysis Model: Particle Under Constant Acceleration 2.7 Freely Falling Objects 2.8 Kinematic Equations Derived from Calculus General Problem-Solving Strategy As a first step in studying classical mechanics, we describe the motion of an object while ignoring the interactions with external agents that might be affecting or modifying that motion. This portion of classical mechanics is called kinematics. (The word kinematics has the same root as cinema.) In this chapter, we consider only motion in one dimension, that is, motion of an object along a straight line. From everyday experience, we recognize that motion of an object represents a continuous change in the object’s position. In physics, we can categorize motion into three types: translational, rotational, and vibrational. A car traveling on a highway is an example of translational motion, the Earth’s spin on its axis is an example of rotational motion, and the back-and-forth movement of a pendulum is an example of vibrational motion. In this and the next few chapters, we are concerned only with translational motion. (Later in the book we shall discuss rotational and vibrational motions.) In our study of translational motion, we use what is called the particle model and describe the moving object as a particle regardless of its size. Remember our discussion of making models for physical situations in Section 1.2. In general, a particle is a point-like object, that is, an object that has mass but is of infinitesimal size. For example, if we wish to describe the motion of the Earth around the Sun, we can treat the Earth as a particle and In drag racing, a driver wants as large an acceleration as possible. In a distance of one-quarter mile, a vehicle reaches speeds of more than 320 mi/h, covering the entire distance in under 5 s. (George Lepp/ Stone/Getty Images) 21 22Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension obtain reasonably accurate data about its orbit. This approximation is justified because the radius of the Earth’s orbit is large compared with the dimensions of the Earth and the Sun. As an example on a much smaller scale, it is possible to explain the pressure exerted by a gas on the walls of a container by treating the gas molecules as particles, without regard for the internal structure of the molecules. 2.1 Position, Velocity, and Speed Position Table 2.1 Position of the Car at Various Times Position t (s) x (m) A 0 B 10 C 20 D 30 E 40 F 50 30 52 38 0 237 253 A particle’s position x is the location of the particle with respect to a chosen reference point that we can consider to be the origin of a coordinate system. The motion of a particle is completely known if the particle’s position in space is known at all times. Consider a car moving back and forth along the x axis as in Figure 2.1a. When we begin collecting position data, the car is 30 m to the right of the reference position x 5 0. We will use the particle model by identifying some point on the car, perhaps the front door handle, as a particle representing the entire car. We start our clock, and once every 10 s we note the car’s position. As you can see from Table 2.1, the car moves to the right (which we have defined as the positive direction) during the first 10 s of motion, from position A to position B. After B, the position values begin to decrease, suggesting the car is backing up from position B through position F. In fact, at D, 30 s after we start measuring, the car is at the origin of coordinates (see Fig. 2.1a). It continues moving to the left and is more than 50 m to the left of x 5 0 when we stop recording information after our sixth data point. A graphical representation of this information is presented in Figure 2.1b. Such a plot is called a position–time graph. Notice the alternative representations of information that we have used for the motion of the car. Figure 2.1a is a pictorial representation, whereas Figure 2.1b is a graphical representation. Table 2.1 is a tabular representation of the same information. Using an alternative representation is often an excellent strategy for understanding the situation in a given problem. The ultimate goal in many problems is a math- The car moves to the right between positions A and B. A 60 50 40 30 20 10 F E 0 10 20 30 D 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 x (m) 60 B 40 50 60 x (m) 10 20 The car moves to the left between positions C and F. 30 40 x 40 A 50 60 x (m) C t 20 C B D 0 20 E 40 60 F 0 10 20 30 40 50 t (s) b a Figure 2.1 A car moves back and forth along a straight line. Because we are interested only in the car’s translational motion, we can model it as a particle. Several representations of the information about the motion of the car can be used. Table 2.1 is a tabular representation of the information. (a) A pictorial representation of the motion of the car. (b) A graphical representation (position–time graph) of the motion of the car. 2.1 Position, Velocity, and Speed 23 ematical representation, which can be analyzed to solve for some requested piece of information. Given the data in Table 2.1, we can easily determine the change in position of the car for various time intervals. The displacement Dx of a particle is defined as its change in position in some time interval. As the particle moves from an initial position xi to a final position xf , its displacement is given by (2.1) We use the capital Greek letter delta (D) to denote the change in a quantity. From this definition, we see that Dx is positive if xf is greater than xi and negative if xf is less than xi . It is very important to recognize the difference between displacement and distance traveled. Distance is the length of a path followed by a particle. Consider, for example, the basketball players in Figure 2.2. If a player runs from his own team’s basket down the court to the other team’s basket and then returns to his own basket, the displacement of the player during this time interval is zero because he ended up at the same point as he started: xf 5 xi , so Dx 5 0. During this time interval, however, he moved through a distance of twice the length of the basketball court. Distance is always represented as a positive number, whereas displacement can be either positive or negative. Displacement is an example of a vector quantity. Many other physical quantities, including position, velocity, and acceleration, also are vectors. In general, a vector quantity requires the specification of both direction and magnitude. By contrast, a scalar quantity has a numerical value and no direction. In this chapter, we use positive (1) and negative (2) signs to indicate vector direction. For example, for horizontal motion let us arbitrarily specify to the right as being the positive direction. It follows that any object always moving to the right undergoes a positive displacement Dx . 0, and any object moving to the left undergoes a negative displacement so that Dx , 0. We shall treat vector quantities in greater detail in Chapter 3. One very important point has not yet been mentioned. Notice that the data in Table 2.1 result only in the six data points in the graph in Figure 2.1b. Therefore, the motion of the particle is not completely known because we don’t know its position at all times. The smooth curve drawn through the six points in the graph is only a possibility of the actual motion of the car. We only have information about six instants of time; we have no idea what happened between the data points. The smooth curve is a guess as to what happened, but keep in mind that it is only a guess. If the smooth curve does represent the actual motion of the car, the graph contains complete information about the entire 50-s interval during which we watch the car move. It is much easier to see changes in position from the graph than from a verbal description or even a table of numbers. For example, it is clear that the car covers more ground during the middle of the 50-s interval than at the end. Between positions C and D, the car travels almost 40 m, but during the last 10 s, between positions E and F, it moves less than half that far. A common way of comparing these different motions is to divide the displacement Dx that occurs between two clock readings by the value of that particular time interval Dt. The result turns out to be a very useful ratio, one that we shall use many times. This ratio has been given a special name: the average velocity. The average velocity vx,avg of a particle is defined as the particle’s displacement Dx divided by the time interval Dt during which that displacement occurs: v x,avg ; Dx Dt (2.2) where the subscript x indicates motion along the x axis. From this definition we see that average velocity has dimensions of length divided by time (L/T), or meters per second in SI units. WW Displacement Brian Drake/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images Dx ; xf 2 xi Figure 2.2 On this basketball court, players run back and forth for the entire game. The distance that the players run over the duration of the game is nonzero. The displacement of the players over the duration of the game is approximately zero because they keep returning to the same point over and over again. WW Average velocity 24Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension The average velocity of a particle moving in one dimension can be positive or negative, depending on the sign of the displacement. (The time interval Dt is always positive.) If the coordinate of the particle increases in time (that is, if xf . xi ), Dx is positive and vx,avg 5 Dx/Dt is positive. This case corresponds to a particle moving in the positive x direction, that is, toward larger values of x. If the coordinate decreases in time (that is, if xf , xi ), Dx is negative and hence vx,avg is negative. This case corresponds to a particle moving in the negative x direction. We can interpret average velocity geometrically by drawing a straight line between any two points on the position–time graph in Figure 2.1b. This line forms the hypotenuse of a right triangle of height Dx and base Dt. The slope of this line is the ratio Dx/Dt, which is what we have defined as average velocity in Equation 2.2. For example, the line between positions A and B in Figure 2.1b has a slope equal to the average velocity of the car between those two times, (52 m 2 30 m)/(10 s 2 0) 5 2.2 m/s. In everyday usage, the terms speed and velocity are interchangeable. In physics, however, there is a clear distinction between these two quantities. Consider a marathon runner who runs a distance d of more than 40 km and yet ends up at her starting point. Her total displacement is zero, so her average velocity is zero! Nonetheless, we need to be able to quantify how fast she was running. A slightly different ratio accomplishes that for us. The average speed vavg of a particle, a scalar quantity, is defined as the total distance d traveled divided by the total time interval required to travel that distance: Average speed Pitfall Prevention 2.1 Average Speed and Average Velocity The magnitude of the average velocity is not the average speed. For example, consider the marathon runner discussed before Equation 2.3. The magnitude of her average velocity is zero, but her average speed is clearly not zero. v avg ; d Dt (2.3) The SI unit of average speed is the same as the unit of average velocity: meters per second. Unlike average velocity, however, average speed has no direction and is always expressed as a positive number. Notice the clear distinction between the definitions of average velocity and average speed: average velocity (Eq. 2.2) is the displacement divided by the time interval, whereas average speed (Eq. 2.3) is the distance divided by the time interval. Knowledge of the average velocity or average speed of a particle does not provide information about the details of the trip. For example, suppose it takes you 45.0 s to travel 100 m down a long, straight hallway toward your departure gate at an airport. At the 100-m mark, you realize you missed the restroom, and you return back 25.0 m along the same hallway, taking 10.0 s to make the return trip. The magnitude of your average velocity is 175.0 m/55.0 s 5 11.36 m/s. The average speed for your trip is 125 m/55.0 s 5 2.27 m/s. You may have traveled at various speeds during the walk and, of course, you changed direction. Neither average velocity nor average speed provides information about these details. Q uick Quiz 2.1 Under which of the following conditions is the magnitude of the average velocity of a particle moving in one dimension smaller than the average speed over some time interval? (a) A particle moves in the 1x direction without reversing. (b) A particle moves in the 2x direction without reversing. (c) A particle moves in the 1x direction and then reverses the direction of its motion. (d) There are no conditions for which this is true. Example 2.1 Calculating the Average Velocity and Speed Find the displacement, average velocity, and average speed of the car in Figure 2.1a between positions A and F. 2.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed 25 ▸ 2.1 c o n t i n u e d Solution Consult Figure 2.1 to form a mental image of the car and its motion. We model the car as a particle. From the position– time graph given in Figure 2.1b, notice that x A 5 30 m at t A 5 0 s and that x F 5 253 m at t F 5 50 s. Use Equation 2.1 to find the displacement of the car: Dx 5 x F 2 x A 5 253 m 2 30 m 5 283 m This result means that the car ends up 83 m in the negative direction (to the left, in this case) from where it started. This number has the correct units and is of the same order of magnitude as the supplied data. A quick look at Figure 2.1a indicates that it is the correct answer. Use Equation 2.2 to find the car’s average velocity: v x,avg 5 5 xF 2 xA tF 2 tA 253 m 2 30 m 283 m 5 5 21.7 m/s 50 s 2 0 s 50 s We cannot unambiguously find the average speed of the car from the data in Table 2.1 because we do not have information about the positions of the car between the data points. If we adopt the assumption that the details of the car’s position are described by the curve in Figure 2.1b, the distance traveled is 22 m (from A to B) plus 105 m (from B to F), for a total of 127 m. Use Equation 2.3 to find the car’s average speed: v avg 5 127 m 5 2.5 m/s 50 s Notice that the average speed is positive, as it must be. Suppose the red-brown curve in Figure 2.1b were different so that between 0 s and 10 s it went from A up to 100 m and then came back down to B. The average speed of the car would change because the distance is different, but the average velocity would not change. 2.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed Often we need to know the velocity of a particle at a particular instant in time t rather than the average velocity over a finite time interval Dt. In other words, you would like to be able to specify your velocity just as precisely as you can specify your position by noting what is happening at a specific clock reading, that is, at some specific instant. What does it mean to talk about how quickly something is moving if we “freeze time” and talk only about an individual instant? In the late 1600s, with the invention of calculus, scientists began to understand how to describe an object’s motion at any moment in time. To see how that is done, consider Figure 2.3a (page 26), which is a reproduction of the graph in Figure 2.1b. What is the particle’s velocity at t 5 0? We have already discussed the average velocity for the interval during which the car moved from position A to position B (given by the slope of the blue line) and for the interval during which it moved from A to F (represented by the slope of the longer blue line and calculated in Example 2.1). The car starts out by moving to the right, which we defined to be the positive direction. Therefore, being positive, the value of the average velocity during the interval from A to B is more representative of the initial velocity than is the value of the average velocity during the interval from A to F, which we determined to be negative in Example 2.1. Now let us focus on the short blue line and slide point B to the left along the curve, toward point A, as in Figure 2.3b. The line between the points becomes steeper and steeper, and as the two points become extremely close together, the line becomes a tangent line to the curve, indicated by the green line in Figure 2.3b. The slope of this tangent line 26Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension x (m) 60 60 B C 40 A B 20 D 0 E 40 F 0 10 a Pitfall Prevention 2.2 Slopes of Graphs In any graph of physical data, the slope represents the ratio of the change in the quantity represented on the vertical axis to the change in the quantity represented on the horizontal axis. Remember that a slope has units (unless both axes have the same units). The units of slope in Figures 2.1b and 2.3 are meters per second, the units of velocity. Instantaneous velocity Pitfall Prevention 2.3 Instantaneous Speed and Instantaneous Velocity In Pitfall Prevention 2.1, we argued that the magnitude of the average velocity is not the average speed. The magnitude of the instantaneous velocity, however, is the instantaneous speed. In an infinitesimal time interval, the magnitude of the displacement is equal to the distance traveled by the particle. The blue line between positions A and B approaches the green tangent line as point B is 40 20 60 B B B 20 30 40 t (s) 50 A moved closer to point A. b Figure 2.3 (a) Graph representing the motion of the car in Figure 2.1. (b) An enlargement of the upper-left-hand corner of the graph. represents the velocity of the car at point A. What we have done is determine the instantaneous velocity at that moment. In other words, the instantaneous velocity vx equals the limiting value of the ratio Dx/Dt as Dt approaches zero:1 v x ; lim S Dt 0 Dx Dt (2.4) In calculus notation, this limit is called the derivative of x with respect to t, written dx/dt: Dx dx v x ; lim 5 (2.5) S Dt 0 Dt dt The instantaneous velocity can be positive, negative, or zero. When the slope of the position–time graph is positive, such as at any time during the first 10 s in Figure 2.3, vx is positive and the car is moving toward larger values of x. After point B, vx is negative because the slope is negative and the car is moving toward smaller values of x. At point B, the slope and the instantaneous velocity are zero and the car is momentarily at rest. From here on, we use the word velocity to designate instantaneous velocity. When we are interested in average velocity, we shall always use the adjective average. The instantaneous speed of a particle is defined as the magnitude of its instantaneous velocity. As with average speed, instantaneous speed has no direction associated with it. For example, if one particle has an instantaneous velocity of 125 m/s along a given line and another particle has an instantaneous velocity of 225 m/s along the same line, both have a speed2 of 25 m/s. Q uick Quiz 2.2 Are members of the highway patrol more interested in (a) your average speed or (b) your instantaneous speed as you drive? Conceptual Example 2.2 The Velocity of Different Objects Consider the following one-dimensional motions: (A) a ball thrown directly upward rises to a highest point and falls back into the thrower’s hand; (B) a race car starts from rest and speeds up to 100 m/s; and (C) a spacecraft drifts through space at constant velocity. Are there any points in the motion of these objects at which the instantaneous velocity has the same value as the average velocity over the entire motion? If so, identify the point(s). 1Notice that the displacement Dx also approaches zero as Dt approaches zero, so the ratio looks like 0/0. While this ratio may appear to be difficult to evaluate, the ratio does have a specific value. As Dx and Dt become smaller and smaller, the ratio Dx/Dt approaches a value equal to the slope of the line tangent to the x-versus-t curve. 2 As with velocity, we drop the adjective for instantaneous speed. Speed means “instantaneous speed.” 27 2.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed ▸ 2.2 c o n t i n u e d Solution (A) The average velocity for the thrown ball is zero because the ball returns to the starting point; therefore, its displacement is zero. There is one point at which the instantaneous velocity is zero: at the top of the motion. (B) The car’s average velocity cannot be evaluated unambiguously with the information given, but it must have some value between 0 and 100 m/s. Because the car will have every instantaneous velocity between 0 and 100 m/s at some time during the interval, there must be some instant at which the instantaneous velocity is equal to the average velocity over the entire motion. (C) Because the spacecraft’s instantaneous velocity is constant, its instantaneous velocity at any time and its average velocity over any time interval are the same. Example 2.3 Average and Instantaneous Velocity A particle moves along the x axis. Its position varies with time according to the expression x 5 24t 1 2t 2, where x is in meters and t is in seconds.3 The position–time graph for this motion is shown in Figure 2.4a. Because the position of the particle is given by a mathematical function, the motion of the particle is completely known, unlike that of the car in Figure 2.1. Notice that the particle moves in the negative x direction for the first second of motion, is momentarily at rest at the moment t 5 1 s, and moves in the positive x direction at times t . 1 s. (A) Determine the displacement of the particle in the time intervals t 5 0 to t 5 1 s and t 5 1 s to t 5 3 s. Solution From the graph in Figure 2.4a, form a mental representation of the particle’s motion. Keep in mind that the particle does not move in a curved path in space such as that shown by the red-brown curve in the graphical representation. The particle moves only along the x axis in one dimension as shown in Figure 2.4b. At t 5 0, is it moving to the right or to the left? During the first time interval, the slope is negative and hence the average velocity is negative. Therefore, we know that the displacement between A and B must be a negative number having units of meters. Similarly, we expect the displacement between B and D to be positive. x (m) 10 8 Slope 4 m/s 6 4 2 0 C A 2 t (s) B 4 0 a 4 D Slope 2 m/s 1 2 B A 2 0 3 C 2 4 D 4 6 8 x b Figure 2.4 (Example 2.3) (a) Position– time graph for a particle having an x coordinate that varies in time according to the expression x 5 24t 1 2t 2. (b) The particle moves in one dimension along the x axis. In the first time interval, set ti 5 t A 5 0 and tf 5 t B 5 1 s and use Equation 2.1 to find the displacement: Dx ASB 5 xf 2 xi 5 x B 2 x A For the second time interval (t 5 1 s to t 5 3 s), set ti 5 t B 5 1 s and tf 5 t D 5 3 s: Dx BSD 5 xf 2 xi 5 x D 2 x B 5 [24(1) 1 2(1)2] 2 [24(0) 1 2(0)2] 5 22 m 5 [24(3) 1 2(3)2] 2 [24(1) 1 2(1)2] 5 18 m These displacements can also be read directly from the position–time graph. (B) Calculate the average velocity during these two time intervals. continued 3 Simply to make it easier to read, we write the expression as x 5 24t 1 2t 2 rather than as x 5 (24.00 m/s)t 1 (2.00 m/s2)t 2.00. When an equation summarizes measurements, consider its coefficients and exponents to have as many significant figures as other data quoted in a problem. Consider its coefficients to have the units required for dimensional consistency. When we start our clocks at t 5 0, we usually do not mean to limit the precision to a single digit. Consider any zero value in this book to have as many significant figures as you need. 28Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension ▸ 2.3 c o n t i n u e d Solution In the first time interval, use Equation 2.2 with Dt 5 tf 2 ti 5 t B 2 t A 5 1 s: In the second time interval, Dt 5 2 s: v x,avg 1A S B 2 5 v x,avg 1B S D 2 5 Dx A S B Dt Dx B S D Dt 5 22 m 5 22 m/s 1s 5 8m 5 14 m/s 2s These values are the same as the slopes of the blue lines joining these points in Figure 2.4a. (C) Find the instantaneous velocity of the particle at t 5 2.5 s. Solution Measure the slope of the green line at t 5 2.5 s (point C) in Figure 2.4a: vx 5 10 m 2 1 24 m 2 5 16 m/s 3.8 s 2 1.5 s Notice that this instantaneous velocity is on the same order of magnitude as our previous results, that is, a few meters per second. Is that what you would have expected? 2.3 Analysis Model: Particle Under Constant Velocity Analysis model In Section 1.2 we discussed the importance of making models. A particularly important model used in the solution to physics problems is an analysis model. An analysis model is a common situation that occurs time and again when solving physics problems. Because it represents a common situation, it also represents a common type of problem that we have solved before. When you identify an analysis model in a new problem, the solution to the new problem can be modeled after that of the previously-solved problem. Analysis models help us to recognize those common situations and guide us toward a solution to the problem. The form that an analysis model takes is a description of either (1) the behavior of some physical entity or (2) the interaction between that entity and the environment. When you encounter a new problem, you should identify the fundamental details of the problem and attempt to recognize which of the situations you have already seen that might be used as a model for the new problem. For example, suppose an automobile is moving along a straight freeway at a constant speed. Is it important that it is an automobile? Is it important that it is a freeway? If the answers to both questions are no, but the car moves in a straight line at constant speed, we model the automobile as a particle under constant velocity, which we will discuss in this section. Once the problem has been modeled, it is no longer about an automobile. It is about a particle undergoing a certain type of motion, a motion that we have studied before. This method is somewhat similar to the common practice in the legal profession of finding “legal precedents.” If a previously resolved case can be found that is very similar legally to the current one, it is used as a model and an argument is made in court to link them logically. The finding in the previous case can then be used to sway the finding in the current case. We will do something similar in physics. For a given problem, we search for a “physics precedent,” a model with which we are already familiar and that can be applied to the current problem. All of the analysis models that we will develop are based on four fundamental simplification models. The first of the four is the particle model discussed in the introduction to this chapter. We will look at a particle under various behaviors and environmental interactions. Further analysis models are introduced in later chapters based on simplification models of a system, a rigid object, and a wave. Once 29 2.3 Analysis Model: Particle Under Constant Velocity we have introduced these analysis models, we shall see that they appear again and again in different problem situations. When solving a problem, you should avoid browsing through the chapter looking for an equation that contains the unknown variable that is requested in the problem. In many cases, the equation you find may have nothing to do with the problem you are attempting to solve. It is much better to take this first step: Identify the analysis model that is appropriate for the problem. To do so, think carefully about what is going on in the problem and match it to a situation you have seen before. Once the analysis model is identified, there are a small number of equations from which to choose that are appropriate for that model, sometimes only one equation. Therefore, the model tells you which equation(s) to use for the mathematical representation. Let us use Equation 2.2 to build our first analysis model for solving problems. We imagine a particle moving with a constant velocity. The model of a particle under constant velocity can be applied in any situation in which an entity that can be modeled as a particle is moving with constant velocity. This situation occurs frequently, so this model is important. If the velocity of a particle is constant, its instantaneous velocity at any instant during a time interval is the same as the average velocity over the interval. That is, vx 5 vx,avg. Therefore, Equation 2.2 gives us an equation to be used in the mathematical representation of this situation: Dx Dt Remembering that Dx 5 xf 2 xi , we see that vx 5 (xf 2 xi)/Dt, or vx 5 x Slope xi x vx t t Figure 2.5 Position–time graph for a particle under constant velocity. The value of the constant velocity is the slope of the line. (2.6) xf 5 xi 1 vx Dt This equation tells us that the position of the particle is given by the sum of its original position xi at time t 5 0 plus the displacement vx Dt that occurs during the time interval Dt. In practice, we usually choose the time at the beginning of the interval to be ti 5 0 and the time at the end of the interval to be tf 5 t, so our equation becomes xf 5 xi 1 vxt (2.7) (for constant vx) Equations 2.6 and 2.7 are the primary equations used in the model of a particle under constant velocity. Whenever you have identified the analysis model in a problem to be the particle under constant velocity, you can immediately turn to these equations. Figure 2.5 is a graphical representation of the particle under constant velocity. On this position–time graph, the slope of the line representing the motion is constant and equal to the magnitude of the velocity. Equation 2.7, which is the equation of a straight line, is the mathematical representation of the particle under constant velocity model. The slope of the straight line is vx and the y intercept is xi in both representations. Example 2.4 below shows an application of the particle under constant velocity model. Notice the analysis model icon AM , which will be used to identify examples in which analysis models are employed in the solution. Because of the widespread benefits of using the analysis model approach, you will notice that a large number of the examples in the book will carry such an icon. Example 2.4 Modeling a Runner as a Particle WW Position as a function of time for the particle under constant velocity model AM A kinesiologist is studying the biomechanics of the human body. (Kinesiology is the study of the movement of the human body. Notice the connection to the word kinematics.) She determines the velocity of an experimental subject while he runs along a straight line at a constant rate. The kinesiologist starts the stopwatch at the moment the runner passes a given point and stops it after the runner has passed another point 20 m away. The time interval indicated on the stopwatch is 4.0 s. (A) What is the runner’s velocity? continued 30Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension ▸ 2.4 c o n t i n u e d Solution We model the moving runner as a particle because the size of the runner and the movement of arms and legs are unnecessary details. Because the problem states that the subject runs at a constant rate, we can model him as a particle under constant velocity. Having identified the model, we can use Equation 2.6 to find the constant velocity of the runner: vx 5 xf 2 xi Dx 20 m 2 0 5 5 5 5.0 m/s Dt Dt 4.0 s (B) If the runner continues his motion after the stopwatch is stopped, what is his position after 10 s have passed? Solution xf 5 xi 1 vxt 5 0 1 (5.0 m/s)(10 s) 5 50 m Use Equation 2.7 and the velocity found in part (A) to find the position of the particle at time t 5 10 s: Is the result for part (A) a reasonable speed for a human? How does it compare to world-record speeds in 100-m and 200-m sprints? Notice the value in part (B) is more than twice that of the 20-m position at which the stopwatch was stopped. Is this value consistent with the time of 10 s being more than twice the time of 4.0 s? The mathematical manipulations for the particle under constant velocity stem from Equation 2.6 and its descendent, Equation 2.7. These equations can be used to solve for any variable in the equations that happens to be unknown if the other variables are known. For example, in part (B) of Example 2.4, we find the position when the velocity and the time are known. Similarly, if we know the velocity and the final position, we could use Equation 2.7 to find the time at which the runner is at this position. A particle under constant velocity moves with a constant speed along a straight line. Now consider a particle moving with a constant speed through a distance d along a curved path. This situation can be represented with the model of a particle under constant speed. The primary equation for this model is Equation 2.3, with the average speed v avg replaced by the constant speed v: d (2.8) Dt As an example, imagine a particle moving at a constant speed in a circular path. If the speed is 5.00 m/s and the radius of the path is 10.0 m, we can calculate the time interval required to complete one trip around the circle: v5 v5 d Dt S Dt 5 2p 1 10.0 m 2 d 2pr 5 5 5 12.6 s v v 5.00 m/s Analysis Model Particle Under Constant Velocity Imagine a moving object that can be modeled as a particle. If it moves at a constant speed through a displacement Dx in a straight line in a time interval Dt, its constant velocity is Dx (2.6) Dt The position of the particle as a function of time is given by vx 5 xf 5 xi 1 vxt v (2.7) Examples: • a meteoroid traveling through gravity-free space • a car traveling at a constant speed on a straight highway • a runner traveling at constant speed on a perfectly straight path • an object moving at terminal speed through a viscous medium (Chapter 6) 2.4 Acceleration 31 Analysis Model Particle Under Constant Speed Examples: Imagine a moving object that can be modeled as a particle. If it moves at a constant speed through a distance d along a straight line or a curved path in a time interval Dt, its constant speed is v5 d Dt • a planet traveling around a perfectly circular orbit • a car traveling at a constant speed on a curved racetrack • a runner traveling at constant speed on a curved path • a charged particle moving through a uniform magnetic field (Chapter 29) (2.8) v 2.4 Acceleration In Example 2.3, we worked with a common situation in which the velocity of a particle changes while the particle is moving. When the velocity of a particle changes with time, the particle is said to be accelerating. For example, the magnitude of a car’s velocity increases when you step on the gas and decreases when you apply the brakes. Let us see how to quantify acceleration. Suppose an object that can be modeled as a particle moving along the x axis has an initial velocity vxi at time ti at position A and a final velocity vxf at time tf at position B as in Figure 2.6a. The red-brown curve in Figure 2.6b shows how the velocity varies with time. The average acceleration ax,avg of the particle is defined as the change in velocity Dvx divided by the time interval Dt during which that change occurs: a x,avg ; v xf 2 v xi Dv x 5 Dt tf 2 ti (2.9) WW Average acceleration As with velocity, when the motion being analyzed is one dimensional, we can use positive and negative signs to indicate the direction of the acceleration. Because the dimensions of velocity are L/T and the dimension of time is T, acceleration has dimensions of length divided by time squared, or L/T2. The SI unit of acceleration is meters per second squared (m/s2). It might be easier to interpret these units if you think of them as meters per second per second. For example, suppose an object has an acceleration of 12 m/s2. You can interpret this value by forming a mental image of the object having a velocity that is along a straight line and is increasing by 2 m/s during every time interval of 1 s. If the object starts from rest, The slope of the green line is the instantaneous acceleration of the car at point B (Eq. 2.10). vx The car moves with different velocities at points A and B. A ti v vxi a B vxf B vxi vx A t x tf v vxf ti b tf t The slope of the blue line connecting A and B is the average acceleration of the car during the time interval t tf ti (Eq. 2.9). Figure 2.6 (a) A car, modeled as a particle, moving along the x axis from A to B, has velocity vxi at t 5 ti and velocity vxf at t 5 tf . (b) Velocity–time graph (redbrown) for the particle moving in a straight line. 32Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension Instantaneous acceleration vx tA tB tC t a The acceleration at any time equals the slope of the line tangent to the curve of vx versus t at that time. tC tB t b Figure 2.7 That is, the instantaneous acceleration equals the derivative of the velocity with respect to time, which by definition is the slope of the velocity–time graph. The slope of the green line in Figure 2.6b is equal to the instantaneous acceleration at point B. Notice that Figure 2.6b is a velocity–time graph, not a position–time graph like Figures 2.1b, 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5. Therefore, we see that just as the velocity of a moving particle is the slope at a point on the particle’s x–t graph, the acceleration of a particle is the slope at a point on the particle’s vx –t graph. One can interpret the derivative of the velocity with respect to time as the time rate of change of velocity. If ax is positive, the acceleration is in the positive x direction; if ax is negative, the acceleration is in the negative x direction. Figure 2.7 illustrates how an acceleration–time graph is related to a velocity– time graph. The acceleration at any time is the slope of the velocity–time graph at that time. Positive values of acceleration correspond to those points in Figure 2.7a where the velocity is increasing in the positive x direction. The acceleration reaches a maximum at time t A, when the slope of the velocity–time graph is a maximum. The acceleration then goes to zero at time t B, when the velocity is a maximum (that is, when the slope of the vx –t graph is zero). The acceleration is negative when the velocity is decreasing in the positive x direction, and it reaches its most negative value at time t C. Q uick Quiz 2.3 Make a velocity–time graph for the car in Figure 2.1a. Suppose the speed limit for the road on which the car is driving is 30 km/h. True or False? The car exceeds the speed limit at some time within the time interval 0 2 50 s. ax tA you should be able to picture it moving at a velocity of 12 m/s after 1 s, at 14 m/s after 2 s, and so on. In some situations, the value of the average acceleration may be different over different time intervals. It is therefore useful to define the instantaneous acceleration as the limit of the average acceleration as Dt approaches zero. This concept is analogous to the definition of instantaneous velocity discussed in Section 2.2. If we imagine that point A is brought closer and closer to point B in Figure 2.6a and we take the limit of Dvx /Dt as Dt approaches zero, we obtain the instantaneous acceleration at point B: Dv x dv x a x ; lim (2.10) 5 Dt S 0 Dt dt (a) The velocity–time graph for a particle moving along the x axis. (b) The instantaneous acceleration can be obtained from the velocity–time graph. For the case of motion in a straight line, the direction of the velocity of an object and the direction of its acceleration are related as follows. When the object’s velocity and acceleration are in the same direction, the object is speeding up. On the other hand, when the object’s velocity and acceleration are in opposite directions, the object is slowing down. To help with this discussion of the signs of velocity and acceleration, we can relate the acceleration of an object to the total force exerted on the object. In Chapter 5, we formally establish that the force on an object is proportional to the acceleration of the object: F x ~ ax (2.11) This proportionality indicates that acceleration is caused by force. Furthermore, force and acceleration are both vectors, and the vectors are in the same direction. Therefore, let us think about the signs of velocity and acceleration by imagining a force applied to an object and causing it to accelerate. Let us assume the velocity and acceleration are in the same direction. This situation corresponds to an object that experiences a force acting in the same direction as its velocity. In this case, the object speeds up! Now suppose the velocity and acceleration are in opposite directions. In this situation, the object moves in some direction and experiences a force acting in the opposite direction. Therefore, the object slows 2.4 Acceleration down! It is very useful to equate the direction of the acceleration to the direction of a force because it is easier from our everyday experience to think about what effect a force will have on an object than to think only in terms of the direction of the acceleration. Q uick Quiz 2.4 If a car is traveling eastward and slowing down, what is the direction of the force on the car that causes it to slow down? (a) eastward (b) westward (c) neither eastward nor westward 33 Pitfall Prevention 2.4 Negative Acceleration Keep in mind that negative acceleration does not necessarily mean that an object is slowing down. If the acceleration is negative and the velocity is negative, the object is speeding up! Pitfall Prevention 2.5 Deceleration The word deceleration From now on, we shall use the term acceleration to mean instantaneous acceleration. When we mean average acceleration, we shall always use the adjective average. Because vx 5 dx/dt, the acceleration can also be written as dv x d dx d 2x ax 5 5 a b5 2 (2.12) dt dt dt dt has the common popular connotation of slowing down. We will not use this word in this book because it confuses the definition we have given for negative acceleration. That is, in one-dimensional motion, the acceleration equals the second derivative of x with respect to time. Conceptual Example 2.5 Graphical Relationships Between x, v x , and ax The position of an object moving along the x axis varies with time as in Figure 2.8a. Graph the velocity versus time and the acceleration versus time for the object. Solution x The velocity at any instant is the slope of the tangent to the x–t graph at that instant. Between t 5 0 and t 5 t A, the slope of the x–t graph increases uniformly, so the velocity increases linearly as shown in Figure 2.8b. Between t A and t B, the slope of the x–t graph is constant, so the velocity remains constant. Between t B and t tA tB tC tD tE tF t D, the slope of the x–t graph decreases, so the value of a the velocity in the vx –t graph decreases. At t D, the slope vx of the x–t graph is zero, so the velocity is zero at that instant. Between t D and t E, the slope of the x–t graph and therefore the velocity are negative and decrease unit tA tB tC tD tE tF formly in this interval. In the interval t E to t F, the slope b of the x–t graph is still negative, and at t F it goes to zero. Finally, after t F, the slope of the x–t graph is zero, meanax ing that the object is at rest for t . t F. The acceleration at any instant is the slope of the tangent to the vx –t graph at that instant. The graph of accelt tB tE tF tA eration versus time for this object is shown in Figure 2.8c. The acceleration is constant and positive between 0 and c t A, where the slope of the vx –t graph is positive. It is zero Figure 2.8 (Conceptual Example 2.5) (a) Position–time graph between t A and t B and for t . t F because the slope of the for an object moving along the x axis. (b) The velocity–time graph vx –t graph is zero at these times. It is negative between for the object is obtained by measuring the slope of the position– t B and t E because the slope of the vx –t graph is negative time graph at each instant. (c) The acceleration–time graph for during this interval. Between t E and t F, the acceleration the object is obtained by measuring the slope of the velocity–time graph at each instant. is positive like it is between 0 and t A, but higher in value because the slope of the vx –t graph is steeper. Notice that the sudden changes in acceleration shown in Figure 2.8c are unphysical. Such instantaneous changes cannot occur in reality. 34Chapter 2 Example 2.6 Motion in One Dimension Average and Instantaneous Acceleration The acceleration at B is equal to the slope of the green tangent line at t 2 s, which is 20 m/s2. The velocity of a particle moving along the x axis varies according to the expression vx 5 40 2 5t 2, where vx is in meters per second and t is in seconds. vx (m/s) 40 (A) Find the average acceleration in the time interval t 5 0 to t 5 2.0 s. 30 Solution 20 Think about what the particle is doing from the mathematical representation. Is it moving at t 5 0? In which direction? Does it speed up or slow down? Figure 2.9 is a vx –t graph that was created from the velocity versus time expression given in the problem statement. Because the slope of the entire vx –t curve is negative, we expect the acceleration to be negative. 10 A B t (s) 0 Figure 2.9 (Example 2.6) The velocity–time graph for a particle moving along the x axis according to the expression vx 5 40 2 5t 2. Find the velocities at ti 5 t A 5 0 and tf 5 t B 5 2.0 s by substituting these values of t into the expression for the velocity: Find the average acceleration in the specified time interval Dt 5 t B 2 t A 5 2.0 s: 10 20 30 0 1 2 3 4 vx A 5 40 2 5t A2 5 40 2 5(0)2 5 140 m/s vx B 5 40 2 5t B2 5 40 2 5(2.0)2 5 120 m/s a x,avg 5 v xf 2 v xi tf 2 ti 5 vx B 2 vx A tB 2 tA 5 20 m/s 2 40 m/s 2.0 s 2 0 s 5 210 m/s2 The negative sign is consistent with our expectations: the average acceleration, represented by the slope of the blue line joining the initial and final points on the velocity–time graph, is negative. (B) Determine the acceleration at t 5 2.0 s. Solution Knowing that the initial velocity at any time t is vxi 5 40 2 5t 2, find the velocity at any later time t 1 Dt: Find the change in velocity over the time interval Dt: vxf 5 40 2 5(t 1 Dt)2 5 40 2 5t 2 2 10t Dt 2 5(Dt)2 Dvx 5 vxf 2 vxi 5 210t Dt 2 5(Dt)2 Dv x 1 210t 2 5 Dt 2 5 210t 5 lim Dt S 0 Dt To find the acceleration at any time t, divide this expression by Dt and take the limit of the result as Dt approaches zero: a x 5 lim S Substitute t 5 2.0 s: ax 5 (210)(2.0) m/s2 5 220 m/s2 Dt 0 Because the velocity of the particle is positive and the acceleration is negative at this instant, the particle is slowing down. Notice that the answers to parts (A) and (B) are different. The average acceleration in part (A) is the slope of the blue line in Figure 2.9 connecting points A and B. The instantaneous acceleration in part (B) is the slope of the green line tangent to the curve at point B. Notice also that the acceleration is not constant in this example. Situations involving constant acceleration are treated in Section 2.6. So far, we have evaluated the derivatives of a function by starting with the definition of the function and then taking the limit of a specific ratio. If you are familiar with calculus, you should recognize that there are specific rules for taking 2.5 Motion Diagrams 35 derivatives. These rules, which are listed in Appendix B.6, enable us to evaluate derivatives quickly. For instance, one rule tells us that the derivative of any constant is zero. As another example, suppose x is proportional to some power of t such as in the expression x 5 At n where A and n are constants. (This expression is a very common functional form.) The derivative of x with respect to t is dx 5 nAt n21 dt Applying this rule to Example 2.6, in which vx 5 40 2 5t 2, we quickly find that the acceleration is ax 5 dvx /dt 5 210t, as we found in part (B) of the example. 2.5 Motion Diagrams The concepts of velocity and acceleration are often confused with each other, but in fact they are quite different quantities. In forming a mental representation of a moving object, a pictorial representation called a motion diagram is sometimes useful to describe the velocity and acceleration while an object is in motion. A motion diagram can be formed by imagining a stroboscopic photograph of a moving object, which shows several images of the object taken as the strobe light flashes at a constant rate. Figure 2.1a is a motion diagram for the car studied in Section 2.1. Figure 2.10 represents three sets of strobe photographs of cars moving along a straight roadway in a single direction, from left to right. The time intervals between flashes of the stroboscope are equal in each part of the diagram. So as to not confuse the two vector quantities, we use red arrows for velocity and purple arrows for acceleration in Figure 2.10. The arrows are shown at several instants during the motion of the object. Let us describe the motion of the car in each diagram. In Figure 2.10a, the images of the car are equally spaced, showing us that the car moves through the same displacement in each time interval. This equal spacing is consistent with the car moving with constant positive velocity and zero acceleration. We could model the car as a particle and describe it with the particle under constant velocity model. In Figure 2.10b, the images become farther apart as time progresses. In this case, the velocity arrow increases in length with time because the car’s displacement between adjacent positions increases in time. These features suggest the car is moving with a positive velocity and a positive acceleration. The velocity and acceleration are in the same direction. In terms of our earlier force discussion, imagine a force pulling on the car in the same direction it is moving: it speeds up. This car moves at constant velocity (zero acceleration). a This car has a constant acceleration in the direction of its velocity. b This car has a constant acceleration in the direction opposite its velocity. c v v a v a Figure 2.10 Motion diagrams of a car moving along a straight roadway in a single direction. The velocity at each instant is indicated by a red arrow, and the constant acceleration is indicated by a purple arrow. 36Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension In Figure 2.10c, we can tell that the car slows as it moves to the right because its displacement between adjacent images decreases with time. This case suggests the car moves to the right with a negative acceleration. The length of the velocity arrow decreases in time and eventually reaches zero. From this diagram, we see that the acceleration and velocity arrows are not in the same direction. The car is moving with a positive velocity, but with a negative acceleration. (This type of motion is exhibited by a car that skids to a stop after its brakes are applied.) The velocity and acceleration are in opposite directions. In terms of our earlier force discussion, imagine a force pulling on the car opposite to the direction it is moving: it slows down. Each purple acceleration arrow in parts (b) and (c) of Figure 2.10 is the same length. Therefore, these diagrams represent motion of a particle under constant acceleration. This important analysis model will be discussed in the next section. Q uick Quiz 2.5 Which one of the following statements is true? (a) If a car is traveling eastward, its acceleration must be eastward. (b) If a car is slowing down, its acceleration must be negative. (c) A particle with constant acceleration can never stop and stay stopped. 2.6 Analysis Model: Particle Under Constant Acceleration x Slope vxf xi Slope vxi t t a vx Slope ax axt vxi vx i vx f t t If the acceleration of a particle varies in time, its motion can be complex and difficult to analyze. A very common and simple type of one-dimensional motion, however, is that in which the acceleration is constant. In such a case, the average acceleration ax,avg over any time interval is numerically equal to the instantaneous acceleration ax at any instant within the interval, and the velocity changes at the same rate throughout the motion. This situation occurs often enough that we identify it as an analysis model: the particle under constant acceleration. In the discussion that follows, we generate several equations that describe the motion of a particle for this model. If we replace ax,avg by ax in Equation 2.9 and take ti 5 0 and tf to be any later time t, we find that v xf 2 v xi ax 5 t20 or vxf 5 vxi 1 axt b ax Slope 0 ax t c Figure 2.11 A particle under constant acceleration ax moving along the x axis: (a) the position– time graph, (b) the velocity–time graph, and (c) the acceleration– time graph. t (for constant ax) (2.13) This powerful expression enables us to determine an object’s velocity at any time t if we know the object’s initial velocity vxi and its (constant) acceleration ax . A velocity–time graph for this constant-acceleration motion is shown in Figure 2.11b. The graph is a straight line, the slope of which is the acceleration ax; the (constant) slope is consistent with ax 5 dvx/dt being a constant. Notice that the slope is positive, which indicates a positive acceleration. If the acceleration were negative, the slope of the line in Figure 2.11b would be negative. When the acceleration is constant, the graph of acceleration versus time (Fig. 2.11c) is a straight line having a slope of zero. Because velocity at constant acceleration varies linearly in time according to Equation 2.13, we can express the average velocity in any time interval as the arithmetic mean of the initial velocity vxi and the final velocity vxf : v x,avg 5 v xi 1 v xf 2 1 for constant a x 2 (2.14) 2.6 Analysis Model: Particle Under Constant Acceleration 37 Notice that this expression for average velocity applies only in situations in which the acceleration is constant. We can now use Equations 2.1, 2.2, and 2.14 to obtain the position of an object as a function of time. Recalling that Dx in Equation 2.2 represents xf 2 xi and recognizing that Dt 5 tf 2 ti 5 t 2 0 5 t, we find that x f 2 x i 5 v x,avg t 5 12 1 v xi 1 v xf 2 t x f 5 x i 1 12 1 v xi 1 v xf 2 t 1 for constant a x 2 (2.15) This equation provides the final position of the particle at time t in terms of the initial and final velocities. We can obtain another useful expression for the position of a particle under constant acceleration by substituting Equation 2.13 into Equation 2.15: x f 5 x i 1 12 3 v xi 1 1 v xi 1 a xt 2 4 t x f 5 x i 1 v xit 1 12a xt 2 1 for constant a x 2 (2.16) This equation provides the final position of the particle at time t in terms of the initial position, the initial velocity, and the constant acceleration. The position–time graph for motion at constant (positive) acceleration shown in Figure 2.11a is obtained from Equation 2.16. Notice that the curve is a parabola. The slope of the tangent line to this curve at t 5 0 equals the initial velocity vxi , and the slope of the tangent line at any later time t equals the velocity vxf at that time. Finally, we can obtain an expression for the final velocity that does not contain time as a variable by substituting the value of t from Equation 2.13 into Equation 2.15: x f 5 x i 1 12 1 v xi 1 v xf 2 a v xf 2 v xi ax vxf 2 5 vxi2 1 2ax(xf 2 xi ) b 5 xi 1 WW Position as a function of time for the particle under constant acceleration model v xf 2 2 v xi 2 2a x (for constant ax ) (2.17) This equation provides the final velocity in terms of the initial velocity, the constant acceleration, and the position of the particle. For motion at zero acceleration, we see from Equations 2.13 and 2.16 that v xf 5 v xi 5 v x f x f 5 x i 1 v xt WW Position as a function of velocity and time for the particle under constant acceleration model when a x 5 0 That is, when the acceleration of a particle is zero, its velocity is constant and its position changes linearly with time. In terms of models, when the acceleration of a particle is zero, the particle under constant acceleration model reduces to the particle under constant velocity model (Section 2.3). Equations 2.13 through 2.17 are kinematic equations that may be used to solve any problem involving a particle under constant acceleration in one dimension. These equations are listed together for convenience on page 38. The choice of which equation you use in a given situation depends on what you know beforehand. Sometimes it is necessary to use two of these equations to solve for two unknowns. You should recognize that the quantities that vary during the motion are position xf , velocity vxf , and time t. You will gain a great deal of experience in the use of these equations by solving a number of exercises and problems. Many times you will discover that more than one method can be used to obtain a solution. Remember that these equations of kinematics cannot be used in a situation in which the acceleration varies with time. They can be used only when the acceleration is constant. WW Velocity as a function of position for the particle under constant acceleration model 38Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension Q uick Quiz 2.6 In Figure 2.12, match each vx –t graph on the top with the ax –t graph on the bottom that best describes the motion. Figure 2.12 (Quick Quiz 2.6) Parts (a), (b), and (c) are vx–t graphs of objects in one-dimensional motion. The possible accelerations of each object as a function of time are shown in scrambled order in (d), (e), and (f). vx vx vx t t t a b ax c ax ax t d t t e f Analysis Model Particle Under Constant Acceleration Imagine a moving object that can be modeled as a particle. If it begins from position xi and initial velocity vxi and moves in a straight line with a constant acceleration ax , its subsequent position and velocity are described by the following kinematic equations: (2.13) vxf 5 vxi 1 axt vx,avg 5 vxi 1 vxf (2.14) 2 xf 5 xi 1 12 1 vxi 1 vxf 2 t x f 5 x i 1 v xi t 1 12a x t 2 (2.16) vxf 2 5 vxi21 2ax(xf 2 xi ) (2.17) (2.15) Examples • a car accelerating at a constant rate along a straight freeway • a dropped object in the absence of air resistance (Section 2.7) • an object on which a constant net force acts (Chapter 5) • a charged particle in a uniform electric field (Chapter 23) v a Example 2.7 Carrier Landing AM A jet lands on an aircraft carrier at a speed of 140 mi/h (< 63 m/s). (A) What is its acceleration (assumed constant) if it stops in 2.0 s due to an arresting cable that snags the jet and brings it to a stop? Solution You might have seen movies or television shows in which a jet lands on an aircraft carrier and is brought to rest surprisingly fast by an arresting cable. A careful reading of the problem reveals that in addition to being given the initial speed of 63 m/s, we also know that the final speed is zero. Because the acceleration of the jet is assumed constant, we model it as a particle under constant acceleration. We define our x axis as the direction of motion of the jet. Notice that we have no information about the change in position of the jet while it is slowing down. 39 2.6 Analysis Model: Particle Under Constant Acceleration ▸ 2.7 c o n t i n u e d Equation 2.13 is the only equation in the particle under constant acceleration model that does not involve position, so we use it to find the acceleration of the jet, modeled as a particle: ax 5 v xf 2 v xi t < 0 2 63 m/s 2.0 s 5 232 m/s2 (B) If the jet touches down at position xi 5 0, what is its final position? Solution Use Equation 2.15 to solve for the final position: x f 5 x i 1 12 1 v xi 1 v xf 2 t 5 0 1 12 1 63 m/s 1 0 2 1 2.0 s 2 5 63 m Given the size of aircraft carriers, a length of 63 m seems reasonable for stopping the jet. The idea of using arresting cables to slow down landing aircraft and enable them to land safely on ships originated at about the time of World War I. The cables are still a vital part of the operation of modern aircraft carriers. W h at If ? Suppose the jet lands on the deck of the aircraft carrier with a speed faster than 63 m/s but has the same acceleration due to the cable as that calculated in part (A). How will that change the answer to part (B)? Answer If the jet is traveling faster at the beginning, it will stop farther away from its starting point, so the answer to part (B) should be larger. Mathematically, we see in Equation 2.15 that if vxi is larger, then xf will be larger. Example 2.8 Watch Out for the Speed Limit! AM A car traveling at a constant speed of 45.0 m/s passes a trooper on a motorcycle hidden behind a billboard. One second after the speeding car passes the billboard, the trooper sets out from the billboard to catch the car, accelerating at a constant rate of 3.00 m/s2. How long does it take the trooper to overtake the car? t A 1.00 s tB 0 tC ? A B C Solution A pictorial representation (Fig. 2.13) helps clarify the Figure 2.13 (Example 2.8) A speeding car passes a hidsequence of events. The car is modeled as a particle under conden trooper. stant velocity, and the trooper is modeled as a particle under constant acceleration. First, we write expressions for the position of each vehicle as a function of time. It is convenient to choose the position of the billboard as the origin and to set t B 5 0 as the time the trooper begins moving. At that instant, the car has already traveled a distance of 45.0 m from the billboard because it has traveled at a constant speed of vx 5 45.0 m/s for 1 s. Therefore, the initial position of the speeding car is x B 5 45.0 m. Using the particle under constant velocity model, apply Equation 2.7 to give the car’s position at any time t : x car 5 x B 1 vx car t A quick check shows that at t 5 0, this expression gives the car’s correct initial position when the trooper begins to move: x car 5 x B 5 45.0 m. The trooper starts from rest at t B 5 0 and accelerates at ax 5 3.00 m/s2 away from the origin. Use Equation 2.16 to give her position at any time t : x f 5 x i 1 v xit 1 12a x t 2 x trooper 5 0 1 1 0 2 t 1 12a x t 2 5 12a x t 2 Set the positions of the car and trooper equal to represent the trooper overtaking the car at position C: x trooper 5 x car 1 2 2a x t 5 x B 1 v x cart continued 40Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension ▸ 2.8 c o n t i n u e d Rearrange to give a quadratic equation: 1 2 2a x t Solve the quadratic equation for the time at which the trooper catches the car (for help in solving quadratic equations, see Appendix B.2.): t5 (1) t 5 Evaluate the solution, choosing the positive root because that is the only choice consistent with a time t . 0: t5 2 v x cart 2 x B 5 0 v x car 6 "v x2car 1 2a xx B ax 2x B v x2 car v x car 6 1 ax ax Å a x2 1 45.0 m/s 2 2 2 1 45.0 m 2 45.0 m/s 1 1 5 31.0 s 2 2 2 Å 1 3.00 m/s 2 3.00 m/s 3.00 m/s2 Why didn’t we choose t 5 0 as the time at which the car passes the trooper? If we did so, we would not be able to use the particle under constant acceleration model for the trooper. Her acceleration would be zero for the first second and then 3.00 m/s2 for the remaining time. By defining the time t 5 0 as when the trooper begins moving, we can use the particle under constant acceleration model for her movement for all positive times. W h at If ? What if the trooper had a more powerful motorcycle with a larger acceleration? How would that change the time at which the trooper catches the car? Answer If the motorcycle has a larger acceleration, the trooper should catch up to the car sooner, so the answer for the time should be less than 31 s. Because all terms on the right side of Equation (1) have the acceleration ax in the denominator, we see symbolically that increasing the acceleration will decrease the time at which the trooper catches the car. Georgios Kollidas/Shutterstock.com 2.7 Freely Falling Objects Galileo Galilei Italian physicist and astronomer (1564–1642) Galileo formulated the laws that govern the motion of objects in free fall and made many other significant discoveries in physics and astronomy. Galileo publicly defended Nicolaus Copernicus’s assertion that the Sun is at the center of the Universe (the heliocentric system). He published Dialogue Concerning Two New World Systems to support the Copernican model, a view that the Catholic Church declared to be heretical. It is well known that, in the absence of air resistance, all objects dropped near the Earth’s surface fall toward the Earth with the same constant acceleration under the influence of the Earth’s gravity. It was not until about 1600 that this conclusion was accepted. Before that time, the teachings of the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–322 BC) had held that heavier objects fall faster than lighter ones. The Italian Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) originated our present-day ideas concerning falling objects. There is a legend that he demonstrated the behavior of falling objects by observing that two different weights dropped simultaneously from the Leaning Tower of Pisa hit the ground at approximately the same time. Although there is some doubt that he carried out this particular experiment, it is well established that Galileo performed many experiments on objects moving on inclined planes. In his experiments, he rolled balls down a slight incline and measured the distances they covered in successive time intervals. The purpose of the incline was to reduce the acceleration, which made it possible for him to make accurate measurements of the time intervals. By gradually increasing the slope of the incline, he was finally able to draw conclusions about freely falling objects because a freely falling ball is equivalent to a ball moving down a vertical incline. You might want to try the following experiment. Simultaneously drop a coin and a crumpled-up piece of paper from the same height. If the effects of air resistance are negligible, both will have the same motion and will hit the floor at the same time. In the idealized case, in which air resistance is absent, such motion is referred 2.7 Freely Falling Objects to as free-fall motion. If this same experiment could be conducted in a vacuum, in which air resistance is truly negligible, the paper and the coin would fall with the same acceleration even when the paper is not crumpled. On August 2, 1971, astronaut David Scott conducted such a demonstration on the Moon. He simultaneously released a hammer and a feather, and the two objects fell together to the lunar surface. This simple demonstration surely would have pleased Galileo! When we use the expression freely falling object, we do not necessarily refer to an object dropped from rest. A freely falling object is any object moving freely under the influence of gravity alone, regardless of its initial motion. Objects thrown upward or downward and those released from rest are all falling freely once they are released. Any freely falling object experiences an acceleration directed downward, regardless of its initial motion. We shall denote the magnitude of the free-fall acceleration, also called the acceleration due to gravity, by the symbol g. The value of g decreases with increasing altitude above the Earth’s surface. Furthermore, slight variations in g occur with changes in latitude. At the Earth’s surface, the value of g is approximately 9.80 m/s2. Unless stated otherwise, we shall use this value for g when performing calculations. For making quick estimates, use g 5 10 m/s2. If we neglect air resistance and assume the free-fall acceleration does not vary with altitude over short vertical distances, the motion of a freely falling object moving vertically is equivalent to the motion of a particle under constant acceleration in one dimension. Therefore, the equations developed in Section 2.6 for the particle under constant acceleration model can be applied. The only modification for freely falling objects that we need to make in these equations is to note that the motion is in the vertical direction (the y direction) rather than in the horizontal direction (x) and that the acceleration is downward and has a magnitude of 9.80 m/s2. Therefore, we choose ay 5 2g 5 29.80 m/s2, where the negative sign means that the acceleration of a freely falling object is downward. In Chapter 13, we shall study how to deal with variations in g with altitude. 41 Pitfall Prevention 2.6 g and g Be sure not to confuse the italic symbol g for free-fall acceleration with the nonitalic symbol g used as the abbreviation for the unit gram. Pitfall Prevention 2.7 The Sign of g Keep in mind that g is a positive number. It is tempting to substitute 29.80 m/s2 for g, but resist the temptation. Downward gravitational acceleration is indicated explicitly by stating the acceleration as ay 5 2g. Pitfall Prevention 2.8 Acceleration at the Top of the Motion A common misconception is that the acceleration of a projectile at the top of its trajectory is zero. Although the velocity at the top of the motion of an object thrown upward momentarily goes to zero, the acceleration is still that due to gravity at this point. If the velocity and acceleration were both zero, the projectile would stay at the top. Q uick Quiz 2.7 Consider the following choices: (a) increases, (b) decreases, (c) increases and then decreases, (d) decreases and then increases, (e) remains the same. From these choices, select what happens to (i) the acceleration and (ii) the speed of a ball after it is thrown upward into the air. Conceptual Example 2.9 The Daring Skydivers A skydiver jumps out of a hovering helicopter. A few seconds later, another skydiver jumps out, and they both fall along the same vertical line. Ignore air resistance so that both skydivers fall with the same acceleration. Does the difference in their speeds stay the same throughout the fall? Does the vertical distance between them stay the same throughout the fall? Solution At any given instant, the speeds of the skydivers are different because one had a head start. In any time interval Dt after this instant, however, the two skydivers increase their speeds by the same amount because they have the same acceleration. Therefore, the difference in their speeds remains the same throughout the fall. The first jumper always has a greater speed than the second. Therefore, in a given time interval, the first skydiver covers a greater distance than the second. Consequently, the separation distance between them increases. 42Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension Example 2.10 Not a Bad Throw for a Rookie! AM A stone thrown from the top of a building is given an initial velocity of 20.0 m/s straight upward. The stone is launched 50.0 m above the ground, and the stone just misses the edge of the roof on its way down as shown in Figure 2.14. (A) Using t A 5 0 as the time the stone leaves the thrower’s hand at position A, determine the time at which the stone reaches its maximum height. B tA 0 yA 0 vy A 20.0 m/s ay A 9.80 m/s2 t B 2.04 s y B 20.4 m vy B 0 ay B 9.80 m/s2 C t C 4.08 s yC 0 vy C 20.0 m/s ay C 9.80 m/s2 D t D 5.00 s y D 22.5 m vy D 29.0 m/s ay D 9.80 m/s2 A Solution You most likely have experience Figure 2.14 (Example 2.10) Position, velocity, and acceleration values at with dropping objects or throwvarious times for a freely falling stone ing them upward and watching thrown initially upward with a velocity them fall, so this problem should vyi 5 20.0 m/s. Many of the quantities describe a familiar experience. in the labels for points in the motion To simulate this situation, toss a of the stone are calculated in the example. Can you verify the other valsmall object upward and notice ues that are not? the time interval required for it to fall to the floor. Now imagine throwing that object upward from the roof of a building. Because the stone is in free fall, it is modeled as a particle under constant acceleration due to gravity. Recognize that the initial velocity is positive because the stone is launched upward. The velocity will change sign after the stone reaches its highest point, but the acceleration of the stone will always be downward so that it will always have a negative value. Choose an initial point just after the stone leaves the person’s hand and a final point at the top of its flight. Use Equation 2.13 to calculate the time at which the stone reaches its maximum height: Substitute numerical values: 50.0 m t E 5.83 s y E 50.0 m E vy E 37.1 m/s2 ay E 9.80 m/s v yf 5 v yi 1 a yt t 5 tB 5 S t5 v yf 2 v yi ay 0 2 20.0 m/s 5 2.04 s 29.80 m/s2 (B) Find the maximum height of the stone. Solution As in part (A), choose the initial and final points at the beginning and the end of the upward flight. Set y A 5 0 and substitute the time from part (A) into Equation 2.16 to find the maximum height: ymax 5 y B 5 y A 1 v x A t 1 12a yt 2 y B 5 0 1 1 20.0 m/s 2 1 2.04 s 2 1 12 1 29.80 m/s2 2 1 2.04 s 2 2 5 20.4 m (C) Determine the velocity of the stone when it returns to the height from which it was thrown. Solution Choose the initial point where the stone is launched and the final point when it passes this position coming down. Substitute known values into Equation 2.17: vyC2 5 vyA2 1 2ay(y C 2 y A) vyC2 5 (20.0 m/s)2 1 2(29.80 m/s2)(0 2 0) 5 400 m2/s2 vyC 5 220.0 m/s 2.8 Kinematic Equations Derived from Calculus 43 ▸ 2.10 c o n t i n u e d When taking the square root, we could choose either a positive or a negative root. We choose the negative root because we know that the stone is moving downward at point C. The velocity of the stone when it arrives back at its original height is equal in magnitude to its initial velocity but is opposite in direction. (D) Find the velocity and position of the stone at t 5 5.00 s. Solution Choose the initial point just after the throw and the final point 5.00 s later. Calculate the velocity at D from Equation 2.13: vyD5 vyA 1 ayt 5 20.0 m/s 1 (29.80 m/s2)(5.00 s) 5 229.0 m/s Use Equation 2.16 to find the position of the stone at t D 5 5.00 s: y D 5 yA 1 v y A t 1 12a yt 2 5 0 1 (20.0 m/s)(5.00 s) 1 12(29.80 m/s2)(5.00 s)2 5 222.5 m The choice of the time defined as t 5 0 is arbitrary and up to you to select as the problem solver. As an example of this arbitrariness, choose t 5 0 as the time at which the stone is at the highest point in its motion. Then solve parts (C) and (D) again using this new initial instant and notice that your answers are the same as those above. W h at If ? What if the throw were from 30.0 m above the ground instead of 50.0 m? Which answers in parts (A) to (D) would change? Answer None of the answers would change. All the motion takes place in the air during the first 5.00 s. (Notice that even for a throw from 30.0 m, the stone is above the ground at t 5 5.00 s.) Therefore, the height of the throw is not an issue. Mathematically, if we look back over our calculations, we see that we never entered the height of the throw into any equation. 2.8 Kinematic Equations Derived from Calculus This section assumes the reader is familiar with the techniques of integral calculus. If you have not yet studied integration in your calculus course, you should skip this section or cover it after you become familiar with integration. The velocity of a particle moving in a straight line can be obtained if its position as a function of time is known. Mathematically, the velocity equals the derivative of the position with respect to time. It is also possible to find the position of a particle if its velocity is known as a function of time. In calculus, the procedure used to perform this task is referred to either as integration or as finding the antiderivative. Graphically, it is equivalent to finding the area under a curve. Suppose the vx –t graph for a particle moving along the x axis is as shown in Figure 2.15 on page 44. Let us divide the time interval tf 2 ti into many small intervals, each of duration Dtn . From the definition of average velocity, we see that the displacement of the particle during any small interval, such as the one shaded in Figure 2.15, is given by Dxn 5 vxn,avg Dtn , where vxn,avg is the average velocity in that interval. Therefore, the displacement during this small interval is simply the area of the shaded rectangle in Figure 2.15. The total displacement for the interval tf 2 ti is the sum of the areas of all the rectangles from ti to tf : Dx 5 a v xn,avg Dtn n where the symbol o (uppercase Greek sigma) signifies a sum over all terms, that is, over all values of n. Now, as the intervals are made smaller and smaller, the number of terms in the sum increases and the sum approaches a value equal to the area 44Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension Figure 2.15 Velocity versus time for a particle moving along the x axis. The total area under the curve is the total displacement of the particle. The area of the shaded rectangle is equal to the displacement in the time interval tn. vx vxn,avg ti tf t t n under the curve in the velocity–time graph. Therefore, in the limit n S `, or Dtn S 0, the displacement is Dx 5 lim v xn,avg Dtn Dtn S 0 a (2.18) n If we know the vx –t graph for motion along a straight line, we can obtain the displacement during any time interval by measuring the area under the curve corresponding to that time interval. The limit of the sum shown in Equation 2.18 is called a definite integral and is written lim v xn,avg Dtn 5 3 v x 1 t 2 dt Dtn S 0 a tf Definite integral n vx vx vxi constant t vxi vxi ti tf Figure 2.16 The velocity–time curve for a particle moving with constant velocity vxi . The displacement of the particle during the time interval tf 2 ti is equal to the area of the shaded rectangle. t (2.19) ti where vx(t) denotes the velocity at any time t. If the explicit functional form of vx(t) is known and the limits are given, the integral can be evaluated. Sometimes the vx –t graph for a moving particle has a shape much simpler than that shown in Figure 2.15. For example, suppose an object is described with the particle under constant velocity model. In this case, the vx –t graph is a horizontal line as in Figure 2.16 and the displacement of the particle during the time interval Dt is simply the area of the shaded rectangle: Dx 5 vxi Dt (when vx 5 vxi 5 constant) Kinematic Equations We now use the defining equations for acceleration and velocity to derive two of our kinematic equations, Equations 2.13 and 2.16. The defining equation for acceleration (Eq. 2.10), dv x dt may be written as dvx 5 ax dt or, in terms of an integral (or antiderivative), as ax 5 v xf 2 v xi 5 3 a x dt t 0 For the special case in which the acceleration is constant, ax can be removed from the integral to give v xf 2 v xi 5 a x 3 dt 5 a x 1 t 2 0 2 5 a xt t 0 which is Equation 2.13 in the particle under constant acceleration model. Now let us consider the defining equation for velocity (Eq. 2.5): dx vx 5 dt (2.20) General Problem-Solving Strategy 45 We can write this equation as dx 5 vx dt or in integral form as x f 2 x i 5 3 v x dt t 0 Because vx 5 vxf 5 vxi 1 axt, this expression becomes t2 x f 2 x i 5 3 1 v xi 1 a xt 2 dt 5 3 v xi dt 1 a x 3 t dt 5 v xi 1 t 2 0 2 1 a x a 2 0b 2 t 0 x f 2 x i 5 v xit 1 t t 0 0 1 2 2 a xt which is Equation 2.16 in the particle under constant acceleration model. Besides what you might expect to learn about physics concepts, a very valuable skill you should hope to take away from your physics course is the ability to solve complicated problems. The way physicists approach complex situations and break them into manageable pieces is extremely useful. The following is a general problem-solving strategy to guide you through the steps. To help you remember the steps of the strategy, they are Conceptualize, Categorize, Analyze, and Finalize. General Problem-Solving Strategy Conceptualize • The first things to do when approaching a problem are to think about and understand the situation. Study carefully any representations of the information (for example, diagrams, graphs, tables, or photographs) that accompany the problem. Imagine a movie, running in your mind, of what happens in the problem. • If a pictorial representation is not provided, you should almost always make a quick drawing of the situation. Indicate any known values, perhaps in a table or directly on your sketch. • Now focus on what algebraic or numerical information is given in the problem. Carefully read the problem statement, looking for key phrases such as “starts from rest” (vi 5 0), “stops” (vf 5 0), or “falls freely” (ay 5 2g 5 29.80 m/s2). • Now focus on the expected result of solving the problem. Exactly what is the question asking? Will the final result be numerical or algebraic? Do you know what units to expect? • Don’t forget to incorporate information from your own experiences and common sense. What should a reasonable answer look like? For example, you wouldn’t expect to calculate the speed of an automobile to be 5 3 106 m/s. Categorize • Once you have a good idea of what the problem is about, you need to simplify the problem. Remove the details that are not important to the solution. For example, model a moving object as a particle. If appropriate, ignore air resistance or friction between a sliding object and a surface. • Once the problem is simplified, it is important to categorize the problem. Is it a simple substitution problem such that numbers can be substituted into a simple equation or a definition? If so, the problem is likely to be finished when this substitution is done. If not, you face what we call an analysis problem: the situation must be analyzed more deeply to generate an appropriate equation and reach a solution. • If it is an analysis problem, it needs to be categorized further. Have you seen this type of problem before? Does it fall into the growing list of types of problems that you have solved previously? If so, identify any analysis model(s) appropriate for the problem to prepare for the Analyze step below. We saw the first three analysis models in this chapter: the particle under constant velocity, the particle under constant speed, and the particle under constant acceleration. Being able to classify a problem with an analysis model can make it much easier to lay out a plan to solve it. For example, if your simplification shows that the problem can be treated as a particle under constant acceleration and you have already solved such a problem (such as the examples in Section 2.6), the solution to the present problem follows a similar pattern. continued 46Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension Analyze • Now you must analyze the problem and strive for a mathematical solution. Because you have already categorized the problem and identified an analysis model, it should not be too difficult to select relevant equations that apply to the type of situation in the problem. For example, if the problem involves a particle under constant acceleration, Equations 2.13 to 2.17 are relevant. • Use algebra (and calculus, if necessary) to solve symbolically for the unknown variable in terms of what is given. Finally, substitute in the appropriate numbers, calculate the result, and round it to the proper number of significant figures. Finalize • Examine your numerical answer. Does it have the correct units? Does it meet your expectations from your conceptualization of the problem? What about the algebraic form of the result? Does it make sense? Examine the variables in the problem to see whether the answer would change in a physically meaningful way if the variables were drastically increased or decreased or even became zero. Looking at limiting cases to see whether they yield expected values is a very useful way to make sure that you are obtaining reasonable results. • Think about how this problem compared with others you have solved. How was it similar? In what critical ways did it differ? Why was this problem assigned? Can you figure out what you have learned by doing it? If it is a new category of problem, be sure you understand it so that you can use it as a model for solving similar problems in the future. When solving complex problems, you may need to identify a series of subproblems and apply the problemsolving strategy to each. For simple problems, you probably don’t need this strategy. When you are trying to solve a problem and you don’t know what to do next, however, remember the steps in the strategy and use them as a guide. For practice, it would be useful for you to revisit the worked examples in this chapter and identify the Conceptualize, Categorize, Analyze, and Finalize steps. In the rest of this book, we will label these steps explicitly in the worked examples. Many chapters in this book include a section labeled Problem-Solving Strategy that should help you through the rough spots. These sections are organized according to the General ProblemSolving Strategy outlined above and are tailored to the specific types of problems addressed in that chapter. To clarify how this Strategy works, we repeat Example 2.7 below with the particular steps of the Strategy identified. When you Conceptualize a problem, try to understand the situation that is presented in the problem statement. Study carefully any representations of the information (for example, diagrams, graphs, tables, or photographs) that accompany the problem. Imagine a movie, running in your mind, of what happens in the problem. Example 2.7 Carrier Landing Simplify the problem. Remove the details that are not important to the solution. Then Categorize the problem. Is it a simple substitution problem such that numbers can be substituted into a simple equation or a definition? If not, you face an analysis problem. In this case, identify the appropriate analysis model. AM A jet lands on an aircraft carrier at a speed of 140 mi/h (< 63 m/s). (A) What is its acceleration (assumed constant) if it stops in 2.0 s due to an arresting cable that snags the jet and brings it to a stop? Solution Conceptualize You might have seen movies or television shows in which a jet lands on an aircraft carrier and is brought to rest surprisingly fast by an arresting cable. A careful reading of the problem reveals that in addition to being given the initial speed of 63 m/s, we also know that the final speed is zero. Categorize Because the acceleration of the jet is assumed constant, we model it as a particle under constant acceleration. Summary 47 ▸ 2.7 c o n t i n u e d Analyze We define our x axis as the direction of motion of the jet. Notice that we have no information about the change in position of the jet while it is slowing down. v xf 2 v xi 0 2 63 m/s Equation 2.13 is the only equation in the particle under a x 5 5 t 2.0 s constant acceleration model that does not involve position, so we use it to find the acceleration of the jet, modeled as 5 232 m/s2 a particle: (B) If the jet touches down at position xi 5 0, what is its final position? Solution Use Equation 2.15 to solve for the final position: x f 5 x i 1 12 1 v xi 1 v xf 2 t 5 0 1 12 1 63 m/s 1 0 2 1 2.0 s 2 5 63 m Finalize Given the size of aircraft carriers, a length of 63 m seems reasonable for stopping the jet. The idea of using arresting cables to slow down landing aircraft and enable them to land safely on ships originated at about the time of World War I. The cables are still a vital part of the operation of modern aircraft carriers. Suppose the jet lands on the deck of the aircraft carrier with a speed higher than 63 m/s but has the same acceleration due to the cable as that calculated in part (A). How will that change the answer to part (B)? W h at I f ? Answer If the jet is traveling faster at the beginning, it will stop farther away from its starting point, so the answer to part (B) should be larger. Mathematically, we see in Equation 2.1