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Cells and Organelles– Workbook
Student Name………………………………………….
Pre-Knowledge Quiz:
1. What are cells?
2. What are organelles?
3. Name as many organelles as you know present within cells and also state their
4. What is an organism?
5. Distinguish between unicellular and multicellular organisms.
6. Name the six kingdoms used to classify living organisms.
Check your understanding:
1. List the 8 requirements for staying alive?
2. What did Hooke and Leeuwenhoek discover about cells by using a microscope?
3. What does the cell theory state? Name the three scientists mainly responsible for
developing the cell theory.
4. List the four parts that are found in all living cells.
Analyse and Explain
5. One of the cells pictured below is a human brain cell. The other cell is found in
human blood. Which cell came from the brain? Explain your answer.
Think Critically
6. Why are all cells very small? Explain what limits the size of cells.
7. Compare and contrast prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
8. Explain why viruses are not considered to be living.
Points to Consider
Cells have many different structures that carry out the processes of life.
9. Beside the cell parts described in this lesson, what other structures do you think cells
might have? What life processes might these other structures carry out?
10. Do you think plant and animal cells are just alike? Or do they differ in some way?
How might they differ?
11. Label the diagram of the bacterial cell below with brief description of each structure
12. Label the diagram of the plant cell below with brief description of each
13. Label the diagram of the animal cell below with brief description of each
14. What is meant by surface area to volume ratio when applied to a cell?
15. A round cell with a diameter of 2 cm has a greater chance of survival than a round cell
with a diameter of 5 cm. Explain why is this so.
16. Plant cells are generally larger in comparison to animal cells. How do permanent
vacuoles in large plant cells aid in diffusion of vital inputs into the cell to run its
17. The figure below shows three different types of cell arrangements.
a. Which cell would have the smallest surface area to volume ratio? Justify
b. Describe how cell C has evolved to increase the SA:V ratio.
c. Use the dimensions given for the two cuboidal cells and calculate the surface area,
volume and surface area to volume ratio for the two cells.
Practical activity 1
Can you make square soap bubbles?
Aim- To explore shape and surface area
250 ml beaker (or large glass)
2* 30 cm pipe cleaners
Liquid dishwashing detergent
Place approximately 200 ml cold water into a beaker.
Add about 10ml of detergent, being careful not to let it froth. If froth does appear, scrape it
Bend each pipe cleaner to form a square, one with sides 3*3 cm and the other 5*5 cm.
Dip the pipe cleaners into the soapy mixture and gently blow to form bubbles. Observe the
shape changes that occur as the bubble forms and floats away.
Account for the shape of the bubble in terms of surface area and volume.
Were you able to blow square bubbles ?
Why do you think most animal cells are circular in shape.
Critical Reading and Comprehension
Scientists create an artificial cell that makes its own energy by photosynthesising
Artificial cells created in the lab have taken another major step forward, with scientists
developing cells that are abe to produce their own chemical energy and synthesise parts of
their own construction. That makes these artificial cells a lot more like real, biological cellscells that can construct and organise their own building blocks naturally.
Not only could this help us understand how real cells work and come into being in the first
place, it could also be vital for a host of other areas for research- such as ongoing efforts to
produce artificial organs and other body tissue to fight back against disease.
“I have been trying for a long time to construct a living artificial cell, especially focussing on
membranes,” says lead researcher Yutetsu Kuruma from the Tokyo Institute of Technology in
“In this work, our artificial cells were wrapped in lipid membranes, and small membrane
structures were encapsulated inside them. In this way, the cell membrane is the most
important aspect of forming a cell.”
The lipid membranes contained the proteins ATP synthase and bacteriorhodopsin, purified
from living cells. These were designed to work in tandem, to use light energy to create an
energy difference inside the cell, and then use that energy difference to construct more
molecules and more protein.
During the experiments, the photosynthesis process happened as the scientists had hoped.
The artificial cells mimicked real cells by making messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA and
then making protein from mRNA.
The key feature here is the cells’ ability to produce that energy and do their own synthesising,
potentially leading to the creation of independent artificial cells that can be sustained on
their own.
While the study was not able to duplicate the full range of proteins that an actual cell can, the
researchers think this might be within reach with an upgraded set-up.
The scientists say their work could also be important in the study of protocells, which are
thought to have come before modern cells. How did these protocells produce energy to create
their own metabolism? This new type of artificial cell might tell us.
If two membrane proteins can produce enough energy to drive gene expression, as the study
shows, then protocells might have been able to use sunlight to evolve into what we know as
modern cells.
As the research continues, we might be able to reach and observe the cell development
tipping point that happened on the early Earth. Other benefits of the research could cover
everything from drug delivery to the development of super-smart sensors, and there is a lot
more to come yet.
“Our artificial photosynthetic cell system paves the way to construct an energetically
independent artificial cell,” write the researchers.
1. List two major steps forward that have been achieved with this artificial cell.
2. From a scientific point of view, what is the point in trying to create an artificial cell?
3. “ ….the cell membrane is the most important aspect of forming a cell.” Explain what
the researcher meant by this statement.
4. What new questions arise from this research and how could scientists use this work in
the future?
Exam Practice Questions:
1. Archaea are
A living things.
B non-living things.
2. Which of the following qualities do living things not need to fulfil? (Select all that
I maintain equilibrium
II move
III grow
IV excrete
V respire
VI oxygenate
VII sense
VIII reproduce
IX sunlight
X intake nutrients
3. Cell theory applies to
A all living things.
B eukaryotic organisms only.
C prokaryotic organisms only.
4. Fill in the blanks in the following sentence.
Cell theory states that all ……………….. are made up of cells, cells are the ………………
and most basic unit of life, and all cells come from………………………….
5. Categorise the following as being found in prokaryotic organisms, eukaryotic
organisms, or both.
I ribosomes ……………………………
membrane-bound organelles ………………………
III linear DNA …………………….
multicellular organisms ……………………….
binary fission …………………………..
VI circular DNA……………………..
VII plasma membrane ……………………..
VIII mitosis and meiosis ………………………
unicellular organisms ………………………..
6. A typical prokaryotic cell does not have
B ribosomes.
C a plasma membrane.
D membrane-bound organelles.
7. Which of the following kingdoms contain a circular molecule of DNA in their cells?
A Animalia
B Bacteria
C Plantae
D Fungi
8. The genetic material of eukaryotic cells is contained in
A a circular chromosome and many small plasmids.
B a linear chromosome and many small plasmids.
C circular chromosomes.
D linear chromosomes.
9. Which of the following statements is correct?
A Prokaryotes and eukaryotes both have DNA.
B Prokaryotic and eukaryotic genetic material is stored within the nucleus.
C Prokaryotes and eukaryotes both store genetic material in the form of linear
D Prokaryotes and eukaryotes both store genetic material in the form of circular
10. Fill in the blanks with the following terms.
• mitochondria
• chloroplast
• nucleus
• cell walls
• vacuoles
……………… and ………………… are found in plant cells but not animal cells.
…………………… and ………………….. are found in both plant and animal cells. In
animal cells, there can be multiple ………………………….. or they can be absent, however
there is generally only one in each plant cell.
11. Label the parts of the plant cell from the list of terms.
• rough endoplasmic reticulum
• mitochondrion
• chloroplast
• Golgi body
• ribosomes
• cell wall
• nucleus
• vacuole
12. One principle reason cells are so small is so that
A the distance that molecules have to travel in, around, and out of a cell is small.
B cells can specialise their functions quickly.
13. Calculate the volume of the following shape.
6 cm2
6 cm3
8 cm2
8 cm3
14. Calculate the surface area of the following shape.
14 cm2
14 cm3
28 cm2
28 cm3
15. Calculate the surface area to volume ratio of the following shape. The volume is 4
cm3 and the surface area is 18 cm2. Use a calculator if required.
A 4.5 : 1
1 : 4.5
16. There are two types of protists shown in the image: Paramecium and amoeba. Which
of the following statements is correct?
A The Paramecium has the highest SA:V, so is the most efficient at exchanging
materials with the environment.
B The Paramecium has the lowest SA:V, so is the most efficient at exchanging
materials with the environment.
C The amoeba has the highest SA:V, so is the most efficient at exchanging
materials with the environment.
D The amoeba has the lowest SA:V, so is the most efficient at exchanging
materials with the environment.
Cell organelles
1. Match the organelle to its function
rough endoplasmic reticulum
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi body
plasma membrane
site of protein synthesis
controls what enters and exits the cell
sorts, packages, and modifies proteins
the control centre of the cell that holds
nuclear information
site of aerobic cellular respiration
the site where proteins are synthesised
and modified and contains ribosomes
on the surface
contains molecules that digest waste
site of lipid production in the cell
site of photosynthesis
2. The membrane-bound organelle that packages proteins is the
A ribosome.
B lysosome.
C Golgi body.
D smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
3. Which of the following organelles contains circular DNA within it?
A nucleus
B ribosomes
C lysosomes
D mitochondria
4. Plant and animal cells are examples of
A prokaryotic cells.
B eukaryotic cells.
C bacterial cells.
D fungal cells.
5. The following diagram displays a eukaryotic cell.
a Identify structure X.
b State whether the diagram shows an animal or a plant cell. Justify your response.
c Identify which structure is the main site of aerobic cellular respiration.
d What is the name and role of structure Z?
e Explain the difference between the cytosol and the cytoplasm.
6. Baani and Sana were completing a microscopy practical in their class, where they
observed three different specimens under a light microscope. Each specimen was
exposed to a dye that changed the colour of the nucleus to pink.
a Explain the function of the nucleus.
b Explain one benefit of using a light microscope instead of an electron microscope.
c Sana states that specimen 3 is prokaryotic. What evidence supports her claim?
d Explain what cell types are shown by specimens 1 and 2. Justify your response.
e While packing up after the practical, Sana drops and shatters some glass slides. Sana is
really concerned that someone will hurt themselves on the broken glass, so immediately tells
her teacher. Which approach to bioethics is most important to Sana in this situation?
Question 1
A typical prokaryotic cell has:
a) Nucleic acid
b) Chloroplasts
c) A small nucleus
d) Membrane bound organelles
Question 2
A defining characteristic of a prokaryote is the:
a) Presence of a cell wall
b) Presence of a nucleus
c) Absence of ribosomes
d) Absence of membrane bound organelles
Question 3
A plant cell can be distinguished from an animal cell because of the presence of:
a) Cytosol
b) A cell wall
c) A nucleus
d) Chloroplasts
Question 4
Observe the internal structures of the following cell.
It is most likely to:
a) Be a cheek epithelial cell
b) Be a mature red blood cell
c) Require high levels of oxygen
d) Produce high levels of sugars
Question 5
A prokaryotic cell contains
a) A nucleus
b) A vacuole
c) Ribosomes
d) Endoplasmic reticulum
Question 6
Which of the following features found in a eukaryotic cell is also found in prokaryotic cells?
a) Golgi apparatus
b) Nucleus
c) Linear chromosomes
d) Endoplasmic reticulum
e) Ribosomes
Question 7
A human cell which contains a large amount of rough ER, many Golgi bodies and a
prominent nucleus is most likely a:
a) Muscle cell
b) Secretory cell
c) Epithelial cell
d) Nerve cell
e) Red blood cell
Question 8
Which of the following organelles in a eukaryotic cell are correctly matched with their
a) Nucleolus: assembly of nucleus
b) Mitochondria: nucleotide degradation
c) Lysosomes: synthesis of lipids
d) Smooth ER: ATP synthesis
e) Rough ER: protein synthesis
Question 9
Which of the following is found in eukaryotic cells but not in prokaryotic cells?
a) RNA
b) Mitochondria
c) Chlorophyll
d) Lipids
e) Ribosomes
Question 10
Compared to human cells that secrete few proteins, human cells that secrete a large number
of proteins are most likely to have:
a) An extensive Golgi apparatus
b) A thicker cell membrane
c) Additional copies of the genes that code for the proteins
d) Larger chromosomes
e) Two or three rather than 1 ribosome
Question 11
Which of the following (I to III) can contain functional ribosomes
I Cytoplasm
II Membrane of the ER
III Mitochondria
I only
II only
I and II only
I and III only
I, II and III
Question 12
Which of the following structures can be found in all cells?
a) Nucleus
b) Golgi body
c) Vacuole
d) Ribosomes
e) Centrioles
Question 13
Which of the following cell types would you expect to be abundant in ER and Golgi bodies?
a) Plasma B cells (which produce antibodies)
b) Adipose cells (which store fats)
c) Islets of Langerhans cells (secrete insulin)
d) Red blood cells (transport oxygen)
Question 14
The function of the chloroplasts is to
a) Carry out photosynthesis in all types of cells
b) Carry out photosynthesis in plant cells
c) Produce CO2 for cellular respiration
d) Produce lipids for storage
Question 15
Mitochondria is the main organelle required for energy production in cells and are present in
a) Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells as all cells need energy.
b) Cells that do not produce any energy
c) Only eukaryotic cells as they are a membrane bound organelle.
d) Only some cells if the energy demand is very high.
Question 1
The following table contains images of a number of structures seen in cells. Name each
structure and identify a function of each.
Question 2
Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium. Cells can be classified as prokaryotic or eukaryotic. To
which group do bacterial cells belong?
Question 3
The table below contains the names of 6 cellular structures found in a plant cell. In the list
below the table a number of functions of cellular structures are given. Complete the table by
matching the letter of a function to the appropriate cellular structure in the plant cell.
Cellular structure
Golgi apparatus
Cell membrane
Matching function (A-H)
Site where ATP is generated
Digestion of macromolecules
Site of protein synthesis
Proteins modified and packaged for transport
Selective barrier that limits movement in or out of the cell
Solar energy is converted to chemical energy
Contains DNA
Storage of wastes and other materials