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International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 13, No 5, October 2021
Ton Tsang and Cheung Yip Kan
Centre of International Education, Hong Kong
College of Technology, Hong Kong
Along by a continuous improvement to composite electronic devices, a safety to technicians takes
additionally become the matter to good concern, as a result to technicians' lives is in jeopardy while their
work through shutting down circuit breakers, even that even once the breaker takes been switched off,
someone will inadvertently flip to while a technician remains working. That should be a system to
guarantee safety that technicians. Also, individuals do not love switching all the time toward turn on / off
appliances like fans/lighting/air conditioners. It ends in wasted energy thanks to unnecessarily placing the
instrument. To address these issues, we tend to come up through the system through mobile app-controlled
circuit breakers that degrade wireless management to home appliances to hunt down a golem app. That
replaces a traditional breaker through the mobile app-controlled system in the on / off system, where no
one will activate the breaker, while not the word. The remote of home appliances helps a user to save
electricity. That enhances a quality of life and luxury. Additionally, a system includes the home security
mechanism against drone intrusion using the mobile app-controlled door lock system besides the
mechanism that sleuthing dangerous gas leaks. A formation of the system subtracts the degree of victim
associate ESP 32 microcontroller, the Bluetooth module, matrix 4x4 keyboards, and the paraffin gas
detector associate with a golem mobile application. The entire system is usually compact systems.
ESP 32, BT, mobile app, fire alarm, machine-controlled door lock, word-controlled breaker I.
As electric parts are getting better day through day, the safety to electricians take becoming the
important issue along by it. Typically, electricians finish a longest line to breaker earlier working
the any device. Therefore, they need to make it positive that when a trained worker is performing
on home appliances, no one returns it. The reception of individuals at a constant time additionally
seeks a cushy life. Once people research about these needs, we tend to come up with a solution.
We tend to assure that our system is making progress that can serve the wide variety to
individuals besides make a life to users simple besides comfortable. At an interval of the
designed system, 2 classes to people progress to benefit. A benefiting cluster is progressing to be
electric. The World Health Organization is progressing to that able toward end a breaker using
the mobile app-controlled interface through that working on electric home appliances. Other class
remains that a World Health Organization, the end group of users, has progressed to be able to
manage home devices by victimizing mobile apps [1],[2]. They may also that able toward avoid a
risk to the gas leakage, as a result of the paraffin gas detector, if they accidentally place the gas
stove on the gas stove, they can eliminate the gas stove. In that absence to that safety system at
intervals, a running kitchen range can refill the room by gas besides once a stove remains on, it
will cause the stove to explode. An association plays out the restriction of building electrical
DOI: 10.5121/ijcsit.2021.13505
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 13, No 5, October 2021
force and making it available at the zone any place it's required. Its concerned 3 territories - age,
transmission and dispersing conveyed over a fantastic geographic area. The office structure
incorporates entirely unexpected electrical and mechanical gadget gismo that arranges to remain
up a tireless easily of capacity to the purchaser. The switch is one such contraption whose
working is primed to the upkeep of consistent dexterously of intensity. As its name recommends,
it is wont to address the junction in time the development of power. It’s utilized to organize the
framework along these lines on the executives the heap stream and separate the office structure
from any litigant parts. Once gave the breaker increases some scholastic encounters of 20-40
years all through that its state changes conflictingly. The breaker takes no comprehension to its
own. It’s worked through association security moves which comprehend deficiencies on a
framework besides separate a worthy breaker towards that opened toward isolate an inadequacy
besides permit a structure toward work [3]. Essentially, the breaker is likewise worked through a
manual solicitation from power structure managers. Regularly a breaker probably won't open or
close available, allowing a deformity toward exist that and the ton of drawn out fluctuate than the
framework will continue while working typically. Disoperation of breakers can incite undesirable
changes in framework working that outcome into the structure moving into an odd state. In
stunning absolute, the office gadget may need to figure past its evaluations and is hypothetically
expecting to get injured. The aftereffects of sporadic working reach from flashing obstacle of
association in neighborhoods complete framework breakdown. This may cost where that
sensitive load toward loss to be variation dollars. Power outage limits inside the advancing years
have shown well the need of getting a reliable association. The switch traces an essential an
aspect of the attestation structure similarly in light of the fact that the higher-up the board and
data Acquisition framework (SCADA) Its activity ought to be solid, secure and rapid. To ensure
these choices reformist review and upkeep that be performed to the breakers toward recognize
besides fix that the abrogate deteriorating breakers [4],[5].
1.1. Problem Definition
A control is encased various mechanical gadget parts. The basic portions of a breaker are
contacts, dielectric, working instrument, input circle partner degreed packaging. A shortcoming
in at any rate one among these parts could incite discontentedness of electrical switch
development. Clear looking frameworks are sorted out and intended to screen the remaining of
those sections and anticipate the hour of help. A social gathering of pros has built up a watching
structure that gets information with respect to the instrument speed, stage streams, gas weight and
temperature. Another function here at Texas A&M workforce has built up an electrical switch
viewing and assessment programming that utilizations signal getting ready partner degreed expert
structures to inspect the control criticism circle hails and separate irregularities inside the working
of the electrical switch. One all a ton of accumulation of specialists has composed a structure for
making positive with respect to and examining vibration signals from an electrical switch.
Supervise the working states of the electrical switch
stop activity if the electrical switch is outside its operational cutoff points
Execute working solicitations whenever it's guaranteed to attempt to hence
Signs recorded that a control circuit will give information around these cutoff points besides have
connection end of control circuit thriving. Beginning at now accessible checking structures are
extreme and don't thoroughly legitimize the expense of introducing them [6],[7]. This proposal
rotates around organizing a reaction for screen the control circuit of an electrical switch and
assembles information which would then have the alternative to be eviscerated to anticipate
upkeep time.
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 13, No 5, October 2021
The design of a monitoring system involves:
Determining a total toward be surveyed
Defining the utilitarian necessities that checking framework
Designing the planning that checking framework
Evaluating the model to an organized electrical switch screen
The organized framework must cook explicitly to appraisal of the control circuit signals. The
going with an area portrays a touch of the current watching plans and their injuries.
1.2. Proposed solution
Web seeing of control input circle are frequently acclimated drive the degree partner degreed
fleeting request of unequivocal encourage exercises to be performed.
Synchronized record: The CBM synchronizes recorded data to a general time typical sharing
framework wide application toward utilizes the recorded information.
Straightforward establishment: The electrical switch checking structure can be given at a
station inside minutes by 2 or 3 staff. The framework basically must be constrained to be
identified with the signs and ability to be usable.
Estimation of establishment: beside the irrelevant work cost the same expense is
associated with gear establishment.
Straightforward use and support: an on the spot graphical UI award the customer to deal
with the structure and screen the breaker.
Data interface: The framework outfits combine limit with a data interface whereat totally
various applications are frequently delivered, as such broadening utility of the structure
1.3. Objective
1. For building services 4 type services need converge one or two type service for further
2. Study survey project need include design issues.
3. This is design, innovation & research projects.
4. Saving energy and power consumption issues need indicate how much % improvement
in performance parameters.
1.4. Conclusion
This part spoke to the issue that the sorted-out breaker Monitor hopes to explain. Upkeep
techniques right as of now being used by organization affiliations were investigated. The power
remaining of set up was depicted and a territory of the current examination was assessed. A short
system of the necessities for the arranged arrangement was introduced.
2.1. System Architecture
This half portrays the overall concocting of the control checking structure. The framework
arrangement is measurable to nature toward think about re-accommodation to equipment besides
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 13, No 5, October 2021
programming blocks. A need envisioned to the past part show that the information guaranteeing
about unit ought to be mounted that breaker. One information getting unit besides dealing by unit
remains required that each breaker. In order to decrease a by and large estimation of the structure
educated slave design is arranged that keeps the information securing equipment at the breaker,
known as the slave, to while not an uncertainty the base and consolidates the dealing with that all
breakers into one professional unit, known as a master. Inside the expert slave planning, a slave
unit remain found at each breaker that switchyard besides should get the sign information. The
learned unit remains prepared that an administration house toward store up an information
collected through all slave units besides cycle it six shows a setup of the CBM framework inside
a substation. A structure remains wanted toward consider comparative assortment of slaves as
that remain circuit breakers to substation. A slave structures will be controlled that the control
house abuses an interface gave through a learned framework.
2.2. Hardware Architecture
The rigging is wanted to gracefully a sensible reaction for checking information effectively. It
incorporates slave structures mounted near a circuit breaker to environment evidence specialties.
A master unit remains place inside an administration house that consumes controlled
environment that vigorous activity to expert unit inside basic cutoff points.
Figure 1
2.3. Slave unit architecture
An unimportant work account checking makes that rudimentary that a slave unit to perform
information securing at each breaker to stripped right down toward a base necessity.
Subsequently a slave unit is sorted out signally towards picked up information flags and sent
them to the master unit while loathing out any asset genuine dealing with on the signs. The slave
unit contains four huge segments - signal trim, direct to inventive change, dealing with and much
off transmission.
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 13, No 5, October 2021
Figure 2
Figure 3. Circuit Breaker Monitoring
Signal trim module: The sign adornment and partition module give satisfactory voltage
levels to information securing. The signs of the control input circuit are at 2 voltage
levels. A standing signs are at 130V DC however the shunt flags that screen streams are
inside the ±1V space. The sign trim component scales the data signs that be in the [-5,
+5] V shift variable at the responsibility of the A/D convertor component. The
concocting of the sign adornment module is anticipated to the reason that the high or low
potential unitage input signals are first condensed or heightened in centrality
[4],[10],[11]. The circuit gives selectable development modules to accomplish this. The
signs are then rehearsed a withdrawal block.
Figure 4. Input Amplifier
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 13, No 5, October 2021
Simple to creative change component: The A/D component takes the data signal in [-5,
+5] volt reach and converts it to a programmed sign. The module should give a goal of
least twelve things for the voltage range. The examination is achieved at
indistinguishable time for all channels. The looking at rate will be set by the customer
inside the available degree of the apparatus. The component is said with the processor
and moves information thereto and gains power orders from it.
Remote Transceiver: an unfamiliar electronic hardware abuse Frequency Hopping unfurl
Spectrum headway is utilized to pass on the collected information to the educated unit
inside the administration house. Continue skipping spread arrive at improvement is
singled out the grounds that the transmission shift required in a really station ought to be
developed utilizing this inaccessible progression. The modem works in a component
multipoint mode [12]. During this mode, the slave units talk with the ace unit and
furthermore the contrary route around in any case there's no correspondence between the
slaves. During this mode the guarantee to expert information partner is regularly solid,
ensuring valiant nature of information move. The far-off module goes more likely than
not together of the multipoint focuses and chats with the expert unit. The correspondence
is constrained by the chip that plans the distant phone for non-concurrent broadcast all
together that messages will be sent and gotten as and once ability occur.
The past region portrayed the nonexclusive planning of the framework that may fulfill the strong
conditions of the control checking structure. This fragment depicts the use of a working model to
fulfill the objectives appeared in past parts. The improvement of the electrical circuit watching
System could be a constant cycle at the electrical Power besides Power Engineering (EPPE) labs
in Texas A&M School. An execution to first model that checking structure besides consequently
a driving force that item made game plans for the accompanying model is depicted during this
fragment. The utilization of second model is advancing at the hour of making out of this report.
The execution is routinely comprehensively assembled into 2 courses of action for
straightforwardness of portrayal. One request is instrumentation that depicts all the contraptions
that went into the structure and another is adjusting which portrays the organization headings
written to make the rigging play out the ideal undertaking [13]. The equipment configuration is
basically vague as in each the fundamental and second model, the most separation being that the
accompanying model uses ease fragments giving very nearly a relative utility because the basic
model. This part depicts the equipment inferred for the principle model. The item expected for
the main model is a straightforward one. It basically offers accomplice degree demand line
interface toward execute data guarantee limits. No interface remains available toward move the
plan of the contraption or to check a got information [13]. The central method of composing PC
programs was made with the plan toward check the working of the model inside the field and in
this way toward make a necessary alteration that ensuing variety toward fulfill a sensible basics.
This part depicts the organized of second sort of the item with the movements set.
3.1. Hardware
The framework instrumentation is every now and again secluded into slave unit equipment and
master unit gear. These 2 strategies of unit are truly specific from each other. They at any rate
rely upon one another to play out the data ensuring about hence should utilize strong turn of
events. The resulting two domains depict the slave besides thusly a master unit hardware.
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 13, No 5, October 2021
Slave unit hardware
A slave unit equipment fuses to five modules combined, signal frivolity module, processor, streak
putting away, distant French telephone and force deftly.
Signal conditioning module
A sign condition module remains masterminded through discrete portions mounted to the PCB
toward offer confining, confinement besides right augmentation that data signals. A circuit is
replicated indistinct extent of times on the PCB in light of the fact that the proportion of required
channels. The circuit is consistently allocated into 3 zones as indicated by the capacity each
performs. Starting section is formed circuit U1 by outside resistors, capacitors accomplice
degreed inductors. Inductors L1 besides L2, besides capacitors C1 then C2 are utilized toward
perform change separating. Made circuit U1 is operational speaker which, with outside resistors
fills in as an arrangement intensifier. Its motivation is to achieve signal trim.
Figure 5: Signal conditioning module
Processor and storage
An 80486-style based by and large processor running the ROM-DOS working framework
remains used considering a way that the basic creation arranged contraption. A 32Mb flicker
microchip introduced on a processor board fills in as a breaking point contraption that recorded
information. A processor combines the fifty-pin transport that conversing through A/D board. A
processor in addition takes 2 sequent ports, one in all that remains used that correspondence
through a star unit.
Wireless transceiver
The far-off handset made by Freeware impels is related to the progressive port to the processor.
That chats through a master handset unit utilizing Frequency Hopping spread out Spectrum
advancement. A handset remains set up toward figure as the slave inside an element multipoint
methodology to development. A data rate remains set at 115,200 Bps.
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 13, No 5, October 2021
3.2. Software
Slave unit software
1. Instrumentality subordinate restricts: These cutoff points depend upon the equipment for
accomplishing the ideal objective. The Hardware introduction work, A/D baffle and
memory warehousing limit have a locale with this class.
2. Instrumentality free restricts: These cutoff points are autonomous of the equipment and a
code can be reused whether a processor changes as long as it may be gathered to a new
A A/D interfere with work and the continuous correspondence intrude on limits make the thing
work driven. At whatever point A/D change happens the AD Interrupt () intrude with work gets
the changed over modernized respects that an ADC besides stores them to cyclic assistance to
processor's key memory. On an off chance that a limit has happened the Data Record () work
begins recording an information that cyclic that streak memory. A cyclic cushion besides
contains information that going before a second once the work happened. This information offers
data as for the conditions before the limits and is additionally recorded that streak memory
through a post work information. A Retransfer () work remains used toward move information
toward besides from the sparkle memory. At the explanation, when a record has been placing
away, the slave request that the master perceive information file and upon affirmation sends the
data record.
Table 1. Slave unit software
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 13, No 5, October 2021
Figure 6. Flow diagram of slave unit software
Communication protocol
A correspondence show shapes a connection among the ace besides slave unit programming
adventures. An order named CommRS232 () remains proposed toward understand a
correspondence show among an ace besides slave unit. a class executes strategies to empower
correspondence that persistent port.
Relay orders from expert to slave
Transfer new strategy data from genius to slave
A class takes ways to understand a correspondence show besides gives interfaces that enable
totally startling characterizations or capacities to incite to the correspondence work environments.
This thing figured out framework licenses ease of progress and programming support. On these
lines, regardless of whether the slave and master unit programming checks change a
correspondence show class shouldn't be changed. The going with generally not many passages
depicts the subtleties of the correspondence show. The faraway structure organized works to the
component multipoint mode. In that mode a master gives near message toward all a slave unit
besides a message isn't seen through a slave. At any rate that slaves set up an association with the
master a message is seen through a professional. A return partner remains as such the solid one.
That show remains finished inside through an inaccessible gadget utilized for communication.
The correspondence show utilized by the far away handsets is specific and hence stands out from
the affiliation organizing the modems [13]. The correspondence show executed in the thing is
organized in order to work with any restrictive show as long as the select show fulfills
information move necessities. The show expected that Master-slave correspondence connects
each slave unit to perceive if the message is made arrangements that it. Each slave remains
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 13, No 5, October 2021
distributed an ID which is one byte long. A degree to IDs remains that 0 to 255. An ID 0 is saved
toward imply "all slaves" besides an ID one remains set something aside the Master unit. Thus,
that are as often as possible a limitation of two54 slaves for every master. The all-inclusive
message is what's all the more modestly coded into a 1 PC memory unit code, implied as code.
Table 2. Master side view of communication codes
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 13, No 5, October 2021
Figure 7. Command message structure
On the off likelihood that everyone slaves are to execute a vague solicitation; the ID byte will
zero. The masterminding orders appeared to the Tables license an ace unit toward talk by a slave
unit as such as toward perform client showed course of action tries and a couple robotized
strategies errands. The solicitations are utilized to demand current approach that the slave, see
receipt to design, send new plan toward the slave besides see change to course of action. a data
move orders remain utilized to perceive to the slave remains set up to send information, get
information, confer and header records from slave and see a receipt to the information. A GPS
synchronization orders remain utilized through a GPS synchronization tally depicted later during
this part. Totally startling solicitations like restart grant the client to regulate slave development
Data transfer
The solicitation codes hush up unambiguously to contain messages that practices to a slave needs
to perform. An equivalent regardless genuinely extraordinary strategy remains applied that move
to data among an ace besides slave units. A data is isolated to the bunch the best size of that is
picked reliant to the far-off transmission data move capacity besides might be arranged through
the UI. That all gathering remain included 2 zones.
Data packet structure
Figure 8. Command message structure
The information contained inside the bundle is in equivalent arrangement yet is tended to in
positional depiction system base in the figure for comfort. The focal PC memory unit is that the
slave id. A subsequent two bytes address a gathering number to unsigned into plan. That can be
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 13, No 5, October 2021
the limitation of 32768 packs earlier a number again goes toward zero. a going with 4 bytes
chooses a measure to bytes 'N' contained to that pack. A data remains in unsigned long into plan.
In this way the best number to bytes. A going with N bytes contains an information byte that the
record. An information bytes remain 2-byte whole numbers to two's improvement plan. Precisely
that a slave unit finishes the way toward recording of a limit, it demands the professional to
perceive information. The master unit arranges the information gathering programming and sends
besides sees toward the slave unit. A slave unit by then beginnings moves of information
gatherings. The expert unit gets the gathering and checks in the event that it contains the
predestined extent of information. On the off chance that the bundle size is right, the expert unit
affirms get-together of the gathering with a see signal. In the event that the slave doesn't get a see
message that master after a specific time interval, it emphasizes an information bundle [2]. Right
when all information bundles that be sent besides seen, a slave unit sends an "Information move
total" sign to the star unit and the master unit information move assessment finishes and moves
control to the arrangement record move check.
Figure 9. design data structure in software
Configuration and header file transfer
The plan besides header record move figuring’s similar to the information move assessment
adjacent to that the reports are little to the point that the calculations don't need to break them into
different bundles. Additionally, the number of bytes to pack remain in ASCII plan for 54 ease of
progress to message setup reports.
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 13, No 5, October 2021
3.3. Master unit software
Correspondence by the slaves
Graphical UI that control
GPS synchronization
Information assessment besides breaking point
A master unit composing PC programs remains a limit driven programming what's more uses a
graphical UI to permit the customer to deal with the observing framework. It’s made in Visual C#
that ponders direct improvement of each these highlights.
Graphical user interface
A graphical UI connects with a client to control a watching framework by varied structure
interfaces like gets, textboxes and thereafter forward showed up on the windows interface.
Table 3. Windows forms designed in master unit software
The designed project can turn on or off the most important breaker in the house by a help to the
4x4 matrix keyboard. Additionally, a BT board has been used that Bluetooth assets to mobile
applications by ESP 32. A Bluetooth module offers an option to simultaneously add intervals
from zero to one hundred meters, with a two hundred Mbps information transfer rate and thirtytwo gigabytes. We connected a home appliance to an ESP 32 board with relay module. The user
remains allowed toward control home appliances through a mobile application. This explicit
system is built in some way so that the data input device is accessible by a trained worker to get
the word in to close the breaker. A silencing button next to the keyboard is complemented. If the
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 13, No 5, October 2021
paraffin gas detector becomes active and therefore eliminates the need for an alarm, the buzzer it
is usually silenced by the silent button.
Figure 10. Flowchart of the operation process
3.4. Summary of Methodology
The instrumentation required besides that combine subtleties remained portrayed that both a slave
besides a master unit. An item made toward play out A data ensuring about limit on the slave unit
remained investigated. The movement of the thing for master unit, that co-ordinates the data
ensuring about amongst slaves and makes the information responsive absolutely different
applications was examined. The following half portrays the examination of this model course of
4.1. Conclusions
This part spoke to the issue that the sorted-out breaker Monitor hopes to explain. Upkeep
techniques right as of now being used by organization affiliations were investigated. The power
remaining of set up was depicted and a territory of the current examination was assessed. A short
system of the necessities for the arranged arrangement was introduced. Partner in treatment gifted
slave planning is extended which can have a cost to the structure per breaker toward a base. A
different segment to the slave besides master gear remains depicted besides their interconnection
subtleties remain introduced. A thing necessity is that slave besides expert structure remain
spoken to besides that part modules remain depicted to detail. A course of action portrayed
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 13, No 5, October 2021
during this part is nonexclusive in nature. The instrumentation required besides its combine
subtleties remained portrayed that both a slave besides a master unit. An item made toward play
out a data ensuring about limit that slave unit remained investigated. A movement to a thing that
master unit, that coordinates a data ensuring about between slaves besides makes the information
responsive absolutely different applications was examined. The following half portrays the
examination of this model course of action. Circuit breakers structure a key a bit of the force
framework and need standard evaluation and support to ensure immovable nature of activity.
This assistance procedure utilized consolidates hands going truly to the breaker. They record the
info hover signals by working the breaker and build an end subject to the evaluation between
recorded signals and reference signals. Different affiliations have begun utilizing arranged
checking of circuit breakers regardless it's yet to impel wide insistence. Inspectors have made
ways to deal with eviscerate the recorded signs in addition, make decisions regarding breaker
status. At any rate crucial expense of utilization veered from the utility that the robotized
frameworks give is an impediment to their colossal degree use. Smallest effort discerning related
robotized assessment structures that give fare explicitly to switch looking at aren't open viewing.
A straightforwardness checking framework orchestrated expressly to figure with electrical switch
control signals was existent and overviewed. The framework will screen up to 15 electrical
switch signals. Accomplice master slave planning was depicted for the framework which reduces
use regard per breaker by utilizing a solitary processor as far as possible fundamental to any or all
data procure units. The slave unit secures the signs from the electrical switch input circle and
converts them to arranged structure. The signs are around then sent remotely to master unit. The
choice to talk data remotely was made to reduce association expenses and expansion ease of
4.2. Recommendation
This arrangement typically extends to working with each GSM and Bluetooth association at the
same time. That is a controller typically complementary to the offered connection check. If A
Bluetooth association remains out there, it works through a Bluetooth association. If Bluetooth
association remains not offered then it works through GSM association. In this way, that be able
toward function below in all circumstances. Voice management can also be supplemented by this
system, thus not requiring a user toward press any button toward issue commands, but only
commands. A system can also be worked through optional home appliances to a skin part of the
house. It can also be extended toward associate itself with predefined Macintosh addresses to
Bluetooth modules.
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Tony Tsang (MIEEE’2000) received the BEng degree in Electronics & Electrical
Engineering with First Class Honours in U.K., in 1992. He studied the Master Degree in
Computation from Computing Laboratory, Oxford University (U.K.) in 1995. He
received the Ph.D from the La Trobe University (Australia) in 2000. He was awarded the
La Trobe University Post-graduation Scholarship in 1998. He works in Hong Kong
Polytechnic University as Lecturer since 2001. He works in Hong Kong College of
Technology in 2014. He has numerous publications (more than 110 articles) in
international journals and conferences and is a technical reviewer for several international journals and
conferences. His research interests include mobile computing, networking, protocol engineering and formal
methods. Dr. Tsang is a member of the IET and the IEEE.