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Chapter 1 Scientific Measurements Multiple Choice Questions 1. A tentative explanation used to explain observed facts or laws is called a. b. c. d. e. the scientific method. a scientific law. a theory. a hypothesis. an empirical fact. Answer: d Section 1.1 Difficulty Level: easy 2. A broad generalization based on the results of many experiments is called a. b. c. d. e. the scientific method. a scientific law. a theory. a hypothesis. an empirical fact. Answer: b Section 1.1 Difficulty Level: medium 3. Which of the following is false? a. Experiments can be used to show that a theory is somewhat limited in scope. b. A hypothesis which has successfully withstood many tests eventually can become a theory. c. In general, a theory can be proven to be absolutely true. d. In general, a theory cannot be proven to be absolutely true. e. A theory is an explanation of general principles which has withstood repeated testing. Answer: c Section 1.1 Difficulty Level: hard 1-1 4. A scientific law is a. a tentative explanation for a set of observations that can be tested by further experimentation. b. a statement describing a relationship between phenomena that is always the same under the same conditions. c. a unifying principle that explains a body of facts and relations. d. a model used to visualize the invisible. e. a rule that sets the standard units of scientific values. Answer: b Section 1.1 Difficulty Level: hard 5. Which of the following gives the best description of what the scientific method is? a. b. c. d. It is the process of carefully following the steps of a lab procedure. It is the guidelines that are followed during laboratory measurements. It is unifying principle that explains a body of facts and relations. It is the process of making observations and then designing ways to evaluate or explain those observations. e. It is a guidebook for laboratory techniques that is followed by all chemists. Answer: d Section 1.1 Difficulty Level: medium 6. An example of an element is a. glucose, C6H12O6. b. table salt, NaCl. c. gold, Au. d. an oxide of iron, Fe2O3. e. limestone, CaCO3. Answer: c Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 1-2 7. An example of an element is a. ozone gas, O3. b. water, H2O. c. benzene, C6H6. d. carbon dioxide gas, CO2. e. ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3. Answer: a Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 8. An example of a chemical compound is a. b. c. d. e. iron metal, Fe. brass, a solution of Cu and Zn. ozone gas, O3. sand. table salt, NaCl. Answer: e Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 9. An example of a chemical compound is a. b. c. d. e. silver, Ag. helium gas, He. carbon dioxide gas, CO2. mercury metal, Hg. hydrogen gas, H2. Answer: c Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 1-3 10. The two types of pure substances are a. b. c. d. e. compounds and elements. compounds and solutions. elements and mixtures. mixtures and solutions. solutions and elements. Answer: a Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: medium 11. Which is an example of a chemical change? a. b. c. d. e. Steam from the boiling water condenses on the ceiling. The solid metal is heated until it melts. The gas is cooled until it finally becomes a liquid. A piece of paper burns in air with a smoky flame. The table salt in the warehouse container had very large chunks in it. Answer: d Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: medium 12. Which is an example of a physical change? a. b. c. d. e. The milk in the box left on the table becomes sour after a few days. The bit of scrap metal dissolves when placed in the container of acid. The gas is cooled until it finally becomes a liquid. A piece of paper burns in air with a smoky flame. Bubbles are seen on the egg shell after some vinegar is poured on it. Answer: c Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: medium 1-4 13. Which is an example of a physical change? a. b. c. d. e. Water, when heated, forms steam. Bleach turns hair yellow. Sugar, when heated, becomes brown. Milk turns sour over time. Apples, when exposed to air, turn brown over time. Answer: a Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: medium 14. Which is an example of a chemical change? a. The milk in the carton became frozen after the carton was accidentally placed in the freezing compartment. b. The bit of scrap metal was crushed by the heavy machine. c. The gas was cooled until it eventually became a liquid. d. The piece of paper was cut into many thin strips by the shredding machine. e. Bubbles were seen on the egg shell after some vinegar was poured on it. Answer: e Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: medium 15. Which is an example of a physical change? a. Steam from the boiling water condenses on the cooler part of the ceiling. b. The crude metal ore was first heated then combined with pure oxygen gas to make the oxide of the metal. c. The chef made scrambled eggs for their breakfast. d. A piece of paper burns in air with a smoky flame. e. The table salt in the warehouse was used to make some of the polymeric material. Answer: a Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: medium 1-5 16. Which is an example of a physical change? a. b. c. d. e. Water freezing at 0°C. Burning gasoline. A potato turns brown after being cut open and left out. Heating magnesium metal causes it to turn into an off white solid. When exposed to certain metals hydrogen peroxide will bubble and fizz. Answer: a Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: medium 17. Which is an example of both a physical and a chemical change? a. The milk in the carton became frozen after the carton was accidentally placed in the freezing compartment overnight. b. The bit of scrap metal was removed to the junkyard after being crushed by the heavy machine. c. The gas was collected in a flask and cooled until it eventually became a liquid. d. The old parchment became dry after being placed in the hot oven, but then was charred since it was not removed in the specified time. e. Bubbles were seen on the egg shell when the vinegar was poured on it. Answer: d Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: hard 18. Which is an example of both a physical and a chemical change? a. The milk in the carton became frozen because the carton was accidentally placed in the freezing compartment overnight. b. The bit of scrap metal was removed to the junkyard after being crushed by the heavy machine. c. The gas was collected in a flask and cooled until it eventually became a liquid. d. The old parchment became dry when it was placed in the warm oven for ten minutes. e. Bubbles were seen on the egg shell soon after a sample of the vinegar was poured on it. Answer: e Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: hard 1-6 19. An example of a chemical change is a. the mixing of glucose with table salt. b. the dissolving of table salt in water. c. sodium combining with chlorine to form table salt. d. mixing rust with sand. e. mixing chalk with helium in a balloon. Answer: c Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 20. Which of the examples below is a chemical change? a. b. c. d. e. A bottle of wine completely evaporates in two weeks. Bleach changes the color of the stain on the white shirt. The ‘dry ice’ (solid CO2) changes to vapor. Bubbles form in the water when He gas is blown into the water. These are all examples of chemical change. Answer: b Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 21. Which is an example of a chemical change? a. b. c. d. e. the separation of air into oxygen, nitrogen, and other components the separation of a compound into its elements the separation of gases from liquids the separation of a mixture into its components the separation of solids from liquids Answer: b Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 1-7 22. Which one of the following is a physical change? a. b. c. d. e. When ignited with a match in open air, paper burns. In cold weather, water condenses on the inside surface of single pane windows. When treated with bleach, some dyed fabrics change color. When heated strongly, sugar turns dark brown. Grape juice left in an open unrefrigerated container turns sour. Answer: b Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 23. Which is an example of a physical change? a. b. c. d. e. The ‘dry ice’ (solid CO2) changes to vapor. A bottle of wine turns into vinegar in a few months. Bleach changes the color of the stain on the white shirt. Bubbles form on the egg shell when it is placed in the vinegar. A portion of the figurine dissolves after being placed in the container of acid. Answer: a Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 24. Which one of the following examples does not involve a chemical change? a. b. c. d. e. A fish that is left for some time in an unrefrigerated place decomposes. Apple juice which is left in an open bottle, ferments. A loaf of bread rises and its volume expands when it is baked in an oven. When a lake starts to freeze in winter, ice is formed on the surface. When sugar is fermented under certain conditions, alcohol is produced. Answer: d Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 1-8 25. Which one of the following is a chemical change? a. b. c. d. e. When blood is mixed with 3% hydrogen peroxide solution, it changes color. When water is boiled, it forms steam. When a solid stick of butter is heated, it becomes a liquid. When blue paint is mixed with yellow paint, a green colored paint is obtained. When a bar of gold metal is pounded with a hammer, it flattens out. Answer: a Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 26. Which of the following is not a chemical change? a. A nail rusts when exposed to air and moisture. b. Milk turns sour if left unrefrigerated. c. Yeast produces carbon dioxide to help bread rise. d. Copper is molded with heat to form pipes. e. Mixing baking soda and vinegar causes fizzing and bubbling. Answer: e Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 27. Each of the following properties of a sample of a pure substance can be used for identification except its a. density. b. freezing point temperature. c. mass. d. melting point temperature. e. solubility in water. Answer: c Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: easy 1-9 28. A physical property is one that a. b. c. d. e. can be observed without changing the chemical identity of a substance. is based on one particular scientific law. describes a chemical reaction that a substance undergoes. cannot be seen with the naked eye. is considered hypothetical in origin. Answer: a Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: medium 29. Which is an example of a physical property? a. b. c. d. e. corrosiveness of sulfuric acid toxicity of cyanide flammability of gasoline neutralization of stomach acid with an antacid lead become a liquid when heated to 601 °C Answer: e Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: easy 30. Which is an example of a physical property? a. b. c. d. e. dynamite explodes meat rots if it is not refrigerated honey tastes sweet ice floats on top of liquid water a silver platter tarnishes over time. Answer: e Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: medium 1-10 31. All of these statements describe properties of sodium. Which one describes a physical property of sodium? Sodium’s surface turns black when first exposed to air. Sodium is a solid at 25°C and changes to a liquid when heated to 98°C. When exposed to water, sodium reacts violently and a gas is formed. When placed in contact with chlorine, sodium forms a compound that melts at 801°C. e. Sodium is never found as a pure metal in nature. a. b. c. d. Answer: b Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: medium 32. Water can also exist as a gas that is called a. ice. b. steam. c. the melt. d. molecules. e. atomic water. Answer: b Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: medium 33. Which of the following describes a chemical property? a. b. c. d. e. A property based solely on the scientific method. A property which is based on a particular scientific law. A property which describes a change a substance undergoes. A property which cannot be seen. A property which is considered hypothetical. Answer: c Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: medium 1-11 34. All of these statements describe properties of tin. Which one describes a chemical property of tin? a. b. c. d. e. Tin can be hammered into a thin sheet. The density of white tin is 7.365 g cm-3. Tin melts at 231.9°C. When a bar of tin is bent, it emits an audible “cry”. Tin dissolves slowly in cold, dilute hydrochloric acid, but it dissolves readily in concentrated hydrochloric acid. Answer: e Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: medium 35. Which is an example of a chemical property? a. b. c. d. e. combustibility volatility viscosity malleability ductility Answer: a Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: easy 36. Which is an example of an intensive property of matter? a. color b. volume c. mass d. weight e. length Answer: a Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: medium 1-12 37. Which is an example of an intensive property of matter? a. temperature b. volume c. length d. weight e. melting point Answer: e Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: medium 38. Which is an example of an extensive property of matter? a. color b. density c. mass d. melting point e. flash point Answer: c Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: medium 39. Which is an example of an extensive property of matter? a. surface area b. boiling point c. density d. hardness e. freezing point Answer: a Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: medium 1-13 40. The kilo is a. a unit of mass. b. a unit used in medical terminology. c. a decimal multiplier in the metric system. d. a unit of speed. e. a volume unit used by the DEA (drug enforcement agency). Answer: c Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: easy 41. The SI base units of temperature and mass, respectively, are a. b. c. d. e. degree and gram. kelvin and kilogram. Celsius and milligram. degree and kilogram. kelvin and gram. Answer: b Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: easy 42. The SI base units of length and mass, respectively, are a. b. c. d. e. centimeter and gram. inch and kilogram. meter and kilogram. meter and gram. inch and pound. Answer: c Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: easy 1-14 43. Which of the following is an SI base unit? a. b. c. d. e. dyne newton milliliter ampere calorie Answer: d Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 44. Which is a unit of surface area of a circular object? a. b. c. d. e. pascal joule square meter cubic centimeter kilometer Answer: c Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: easy 45. The SI derived unit for area is a. b. c. d. e. square centimeter. square yard. square kilometer. square meter. pascal. Answer: d Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 1-15 46. The density of an object is the ratio of its mass to its volume. What is the derived SI unit for density? a. b. c. d. e. kg m/s3 kg m/s kg/m3 m/s2 pounds per cubic inches Answer: c Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 47. The momentum of an object is its mass times its velocity. What is the derived SI unit for momentum? a. b. c. d. e. kg/m kg m/s g m/s m/s2 pounds per inches Answer: b Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 48. The force experienced by an object is its mass times its acceleration. What is the derived SI unit for force? a. b. c. d. e. kg m/s2 kg m/s g m/s m/s2 pounds per inches squared Answer: a Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 1-16 49. The volume of a cylinder is r2h, where r is the radius and h is the height. What is the derived SI unit for the volume of a cylinder? a. b. c. d. e. kg m/s3 liter cm3 m3 cubic inches Answer: d Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 50. The SI prefixes giga and micro, indicate respectively: a. b. c. d. e. 109 and 10-6 10-9 and 10-6 106 and 10-3 103 and 10-3 10-9 and 10-3 Answer: a Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: easy 51. The SI prefixes mega and nano indicate, respectively: a. b. c. d. e. 109 and 10-6 10-6 and 109 106 and 10-9 106 and 109 10-6 and 10-9 Answer: c Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: easy 1-17 52. The SI prefixes kilo and centi indicate, respectively: a. b. c. d. e. 103 and 10-2 106 and 10-1 10-3 and 10-2 10-6 and 102 102 and 10-3 Answer: a Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: easy 53. Which is the longest measurement? a. b. c. d. e. 10 mm 10 dm 10 cm 10 m They are all the same measurement. Answer: b Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 54. Which is the shortest measurement? a. b. c. d. e. 10 mm 1 km 10 cm 10 m They are all the same measurement. Answer: d Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 1-18 55. Which is the shortest measurement? a. b. c. d. e. 10 mm 1 km 10 cm 10 in They are all the same measurement. Answer: a Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 56. Which is the longest measurement? a. b. c. d. e. 10 mm 10 dm 10 cm 10 in They are all the same measurement. Answer: d Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: hard 57. What is the number needed to complete the following: 1 dm = __ m? a. b. c. d. e. 10 20 1 0.1 0.01 Answer: d Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 1-19 58. What is the number needed to complete the following: 1 m = __ pm? a. b. c. d. e. 10-6 2.010-9 10-12 0.1 1012 Answer: e Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 59. What is the number needed to complete the following: 1 g = __ kg? a. b. c. d. e. 103 2.010-9 10-3 0.1 1012 Answer: c Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 60. What is the number needed to complete the following: 1 g = __ g? a. b. c. d. e. 106 10-9 10-3 0.1 10-2 Answer: a Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 1-20 61. The boiling point of chlorine is -34.6 °C. This temperature expressed in Kelvin is a. b. c. d. e. -30.3 K 177.4 K 238.6 K 243.0 K 307.6 K Answer: c Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: easy 62. Convert 25.4 K to oC. a. b. c. d. e. -30.3 oC -247.8 oC -38.6 oC -13.8 oC -107.6 oC Answer: b Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: easy 63. Convert 79.0°F to oC. a. b. c. d. e. 79.0 oC 26.1 oC 352 oC 45 oC 111 oC Answer: b Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 1-21 64. Ammonia boils at -33.4°C. What temperature is this in °F? a. b. c. d. e. -60.1 oF -92.1 oF -28.1 oF -18.5 oF 13.5 oF Answer: c Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 65. The boiling point of barium is 725 °C. Determine the equivalent value in °F. a. b. c. d. e. 435 °F 1337 °F 1247 °F 1392 °F 1273 °F Answer: b Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 66. The melting point of a metal is listed in one handbook as 630.5 °C. Determine the equivalent value in °F. a. b. c. d. e. 382.41 °F 1103.3 °F 1077.7 °F 1166.9 °F 1192.9 °F Answer: d Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 1-22 67. The melting point of lead acetate, a white solid, is 280 °C. Determine the melting point of this compound in units of °F. a. b. c. d. e. 446 °F 472 °F 504 °F 536 °F 562 °F Answer: d Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 68. Convert 60.0°F to Kelvin. a. b. c. d. e. 289 K 15.6 K 140 K 413 K 333 K Answer: a Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 69. On a day in the summer of 1992, the temperature fell from 98 °F to 75 °F in just three hours. The temperature drop expressed in Celsius degrees (°C) was a. b. c. d. e. 13 °C 41 °C 45 °C 9 °C 75 °C Answer: a Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: hard 1-23 70. On a day in the summer of 1976, the temperature fell from 95 °F to 75 °F in just three hours. The temperature drop expressed in Celsius degrees (°C) was a. b. c. d. e. 11 °C 13 °C 18 °C 20 °C -12 °C Answer: a Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: hard 71. The melting point of antimony is listed in one handbook as 1167.3 °F. Expressed in Kelvin this temperature would be a. b. c. d. e. 357.6 K 496.8 K 583.7 K 894.2 K 903.9 K Answer: e Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 72. The highest temperature recorded in the athletic field house when the cooling units were being replaced and upgraded was 122.0 °F. Express this temperature in Kelvin. a. b. c. d. e. 323.2 K 337.6 K 341.0 K 435.2 K 492.8 K Answer: a Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 1-24 73. A metal alloy melts at 874 K. What is this temperature in °F? a. b. c. d. e. 302 °F 365 °F 1050 °F 1082 °F 1114 °F Answer: e Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 74. The boiling point of carbonyl selenide is 251.4 K. What is this temperature in °F? a. b. c. d. e. - 7.1 °F - 44.1 °F - 96.7 °F 0.00 °F +18.5 °F Answer: a Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 75. A number resulting from a measurement was properly expressed in scientific notation as 3.170 10-2 meters (m). The number could also be written correctly as a. b. c. d. e. 0.0317 m 0.03170 m 0.032 m 317 m 317.0 m Answer: b Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: easy 1-25 76. How many significant figures does the number 1.030 x 107 have? a. b. c. d. e. 2 3 4 7 1 Answer: c Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: easy 77. How many significant figures are in 5100.0 L? a. b. c. d. e. 1 2 3 4 5 Answer: e Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: easy 78. An electronic balance used in the mailroom displays tenths of a kilogram from 0 to 140 kg. How many significant figures should be used to express the mass of a package which has a mass between 80.2 and 83.5 kg? a. b. c. d. e. 3 5 4 2 1 Answer: a Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: easy 1-26 79. Which response gives the correct number of significant figures for all three of the following measurements? 7.103 cm, 0.00005 inch, and 1.3400 10-4 dm3 a. b. c. d. e. 3, 5, and 4 3, 1, and 3 4, 1, and 3 4, 1, and 5 4, 5, and 5 Answer: d Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: easy 80. How many significant figures should be displayed in the result of the operation, 8.5201 + 1.93? a. b. c. d. e. 1 2 3 4 5 Answer: d Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: easy 81. The number 0.0030600 is properly expressed in scientific notation as a. b. c. d. e. 3.0600 10-2 0.30600 10-2 0.306 10-2 3.06 10-3 3.0600 10-3 Answer: e Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: easy 1-27 82. The number 0.02100 is properly expressed in scientific notation as a. b. c. d. e. 0.21 10-1 2.1 10-2 2.100 10-2 21.0 10-3 2.10 10-2 Answer: c Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: easy 83. After evaluating the expression, 13.726 0.027 8.221 how many significant figures should be displayed in the result? a. b. c. d. e. 1 2 3 4 5 Answer: d Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: medium 84. Give the correct answer for the following problem with the correct number of significant figures. (13.7 + 0.027) a. b. c. d. e. 1.7 1.67 1.670 1.703 1.699 Answer: b Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: medium 1-28 85. Give the correct answer for the following problem with the correct number of significant figures. (1.5 x 10-4 x 61.3) a. b. c. d. e. 2.0192 2.0 2.019 2.02 2.019195 Answer: d Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: medium 86. Which of the following numbers has exactly three significant figures as written? a. b. c. d. e. 300 12.0 4021 0.12 0.005 Answer: b Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: medium 87. Which of the following numbers has exactly four significant figures as written? a. b. c. d. e. 3150 0.921 4020 0.0068 170.0 Answer: e Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: medium 1-29 88. When the expression, 412.272 + 0.00031 - 1.00797 + 0.000024 + 12.8, is evaluated, the result should be expressed as a. b. c. d. e. 424 424.0 424.1 424.06 424.064364 Answer: c Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: medium 89. When the expression, 16.0200 + 0.00048 - 11.184 - 221.1, is evaluated, the result should be expressed as a. b. c. d. e. -216.3 -216.26 -216.2635 -216.26352 -2.2 102 Answer: a Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: medium 90. Evaluate the expression to the correct number of significant figures. 0.04616 0.082057 293.30 0.654 a. b. c. d. e. 1.69 1.70 1.699 1.6987 1.69870 Answer: b Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: medium 1-30 91. Evaluate the expression to the correct number of significant figures. 4.268 0.082057 373.15 744.6 2.688 760.0 a. b. c. d. e. 49.623 49.631 49.62 49.64 49.623202 Answer: c Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: medium 92. 1657.3 grams of a compound are to be divided between 12 students. How many grams should each student receive? Express your answer with the correct number of significant figures. a. b. c. d. e. 138.108 g 138.11 g 138.1 g 138 g 1.4 x 102 g Answer: b Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: easy 1-31 93. An instructor gives a student a 103.1 g sample of a compound. A student takes this sample and using one of the laboratory balances measures the sample 4 times. He got the following results: 105.1 g 104.9 g 105.2 g 105.1 g Based on these results, how would the student’s measurements best be characterized? Assume that the sample’s mass is actually 103.1 g. a. b. c. d. e. The measurements are both accurate and precise. The measurements are accurate but not precise. The measurements are precise, but not accurate. The measurements are neither accurate nor precise. The measurements say nothing about accuracy or precision. Answer: c Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: easy 94. An instructor gives a student a 103.1 g sample of a compound. A student takes this sample and using one of the laboratory balances measures the sample 4 times. He got the following results: 108.1 g 105.9 g 101.2 g 107.1 g Based on these results, how would the student’s measurements best be characterized? Assume that the sample’s mass is actually 103.1 g. a. b. c. d. e. The measurements are both accurate and precise. The measurements are accurate but not precise. The measurements are precise, but not accurate. The measurements are neither accurate nor precise. The measurements say nothing about accuracy or precision. Answer: d Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: easy 95. A distance of 1.8 10-2 meters is equal to a. b. c. d. e. 1.8 micrometers. 1.8 millimeters. 0.18 meters. 1.8 centimeters. 18 kilometers. Answer: d Section 1.6 1-32 Difficulty Level: medium 96. this? The diameter of a certain atom was found to be 2.35 10-8 cm. How many nanometers is a. b. c. d. e. 2.35 101 nm 2.35 10-19 nm 2.35 10-15 nm 2.35 10-1 nm 2.35 10-10 nm Answer: d Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 97. How many micrometers are there in 3.672 km? a. b. c. d. e. 3.672 106 micrometers 2.723 10-7 micrometers 2.723 10-4 micrometers 3.672 109 micrometers 3.672 103 micrometers Answer: d Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 98. How many mm (millimeters) are there in 6.3 km? a. b. c. d. e. 6.3 10-5 mm 6300 mm 6.3 104 mm 6.3 105 mm 6.3 106 mm Answer: e Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 1-33 99. How many cm3 are in 0.00424 dm3? a. b. c. d. e. 0.0424 cm3 0.424 cm3 4.24 cm3 0.00000424 cm3 424 cm3 Answer: c Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 100. How many cubic inches are in 1.00 dm3? 1 in. = 2.54 cm. a. b. c. d. e. 61.0 in3 155 in3 394 in3 1.64 104 in3 3.83 103 in3 Answer: a Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 101. Which one of the following represents the smallest distance? a. b. c. d. e. 4.5 mm 0.20 inch 0.83 cm 0.73 m 0.30 yard Answer: a Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 1-34 102. How many m3 are in a 1.5 L bottle of soda? a. 1.5 101 m3 b. 0.0015 m3 c. 0.015 m3 d. 0.00015 m3 e. 1.5 m3 Answer: b Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 103. One radio station operates on an assigned frequency of 96.3 megahertz while another one operates on an assigned frequency of 1280 kilohertz. What is the ratio of the larger to the smaller value? a. b. c. d. e. 13.3 13.29 75.2 75.23 13.2918 Answer: c Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 104. One radio station operates on an assigned frequency of 88.1 megahertz while another one operates on an assigned frequency of 1460 kilohertz. What is the ratio of the larger to the smaller value? a. b. c. d. e. 16.5 16.57 16.57208 60.3 60.342 Answer: d Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 1-35 105. An industrial container was filled with 210.8 liters of a solvent. How many gallons of solvent does this container contain? 1 pint (pt) = 473.2 mL, 1 gallon (gal) = 8 pt. a. b. c. d. e. 55.00 gal 55.69 gal 59.15 gal 179.1 gal 798.0 gal Answer: b Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 106. How many square meters are in a rectangular piece of carpet which measures 12.0 feet by 22.0 feet? 1 m = 39.37 in., 1 ft = 12 in. a. b. c. d. e. 24.5 m2 28.4 m2 866 m2 80.5 m2 966 m2 Answer: a Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: hard 107. How many square meters of floor space are in a room which has 225.0 square yards of floor space? 1 m = 39.37 in., 1 yard = 36 in. a. b. c. d. e. 188.1 square meters 269.0 square meters 246.0 square meters 205.7 square meters 172.0 square meters Answer: a Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: hard 1-36 108. If a car has an EPA mileage rating of 3.0 101 miles per gallon, what is this rating in m L-1? 1 liter = 1 dm3, 1 gallon = 3.785 liter, 1 mile = 1.609 meter. a. b. c. d. e. 13 m L-1 200 m L-1 180 m L-1 70 m L-1 11 m L-1 Answer: a Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: hard 109. The diameter of a carbon atom is approximately 1 x 10-8 cm. What is this diameter when expressed in nanometers? a. b. c. d. e. 1 x 10-19 nm 1 x 10-15 nm 1 x 101 nm 1 x 10-10 nm 1 x 10-1 nm Answer: e Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 110. How many milliliters are in 0.0050 L? a. b. c. d. e. 0.50 mL 5.0 mL 0.50 mL 5.0 x 10-6 mL 5.0 x 103 mL Answer: b Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: easy 1-37 111. The density of gold, expressed in non-SI units is 19.3 g/cm3. In SI units, the density is a. b. c. d. e. 0.0193 kg/cm3 1.93 104 kg/cm3 1.93 104 kg/m3 193 kg/m3 1.93 10-2 kg/m3 Answer: c Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: medium 112. What is the volume of a 52.5 gram sample of nickel, if its density = 8.90 g/cm3? a. b. c. d. e. 467 cm3 0.170 cm3 5.90 cm3 43.6 cm3 61.4 cm3 Answer: c Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: medium 113. What is the volume of a 66.7 gram sample of vanadium (density = 6.11 g/cm3)? a. b. c. d. e. 11.9 cm3 9.92 cm3 60.6 cm3 10.9 cm3 0.0916 cm3 Answer: d Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: medium 1-38 114. A sample of zinc metal (density = 7.14 g/cm3) was submerged in a graduated cylinder containing water. The water level in the cylinder rose from 162.5 cm3 to 186.0 cm3. How many grams did the sample weigh? a. b. c. d. e. 168 g 22.7 g 26.1 g 48.8 g 3.29 g Answer: a Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: medium 115. A sample of an alloy (density = 9.62 g/cm3) was submerged in a graduated cylinder containing water. The water level in the cylinder rose from 166.5 cm3 to 182.0 cm3. How many grams did the sample weigh? a. b. c. d. e. 0.621 g 175 g 18.9 g 17.8 g 149 g Answer: e Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: medium 116. "Isooctane", a fuel used in gasoline engines because it has an antiknock octane rating of 100, has a density of 0.6919 g/cm3. How many pounds would 20.4 gallons of this fuel (a typical full tank) weigh? 1 gallon = 3785 cm3 = 4 quart; 1 pound = 453.6 g a. b. c. d. e. 77.2 pounds 246 pounds 118 pounds 24.2 pounds 50.6 pounds Answer: e Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: medium 1-39 117. Mercury, which has a density of 13.595 g/cm3, is usually stored in iron vessels for shipment. These vessels typically have a capacity of 2.60 liters. How many pounds of mercury would a filled container hold? 1 pound = 0.4536 kg, 1 liter = 1 dm3 = 1000 cm3. a. b. c. d. e. 77.9 pounds 86.7 pounds 11.5 pounds 16.0 pounds 42.6 pounds Answer: a Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: medium 118. Iron has a density of 7.86 g/cm3. How many pounds does a block of iron with a volume of 1.650 cubic feet weigh? 1 pound = 0.4536 kg, 1 foot = 12 in., 1 in. = 2.54 cm. a. b. c. d. e. 809.6 pounds 0.8715 pounds 871.1 pounds 491.2 pounds 3.015 pounds Answer: a Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: medium 119. Iridium has a density of 22.65 g/cm3. A student has an iridium figurine on his desk which weighs 11.50 pounds. What is its volume, in cubic inches? 1 pound = 0.4536 kg, 1 inch = 2.54 cm. a. b. c. d. e. 5.533 cubic inches 9.410 cubic inches 14.05 cubic inches 35.70 cubic inches 90.67 cubic inches Answer: c Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: medium 1-40 120. The metric equivalent of a 55 gallon drum has a volume of 0.200 cubic meters. One such drum was filled with a colorless liquid, Sukanol, which has a density of 1.168 g/cm3. How many kg should this quantity of Sukanol weigh? 1000 cm3 = 1 L, 1000 L = 1 m3. a. b. c. d. e. 24.3 kg 234 kg 243 kg 2.34 105 kg 500 kg Answer: b Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: medium 121. The metric equivalent of a 55 gallon drum has a volume of 0.200 cubic meters. One such drum was filled with a colorless liquid, Sukanol, which has a density of 1.168 g/cm3. How many pounds should this quantity of Sukanol weigh? 1000 cm3 = 1 L, 1000 L = 1 m3. a. b. c. d. e. 53.6 lb 515 lb 536 lb 5.15 105 lb 1102 lb Answer: b Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: medium 122. A 55.25 gallon container was filled with an industrial solvent whose density is 1.146 g/cm3. How many kg should the solvent in the container weigh? 1 gallon (gal) = 3.785 liters (L) . a. b. c. d. e. 23.9 kg 239.7 kg 239 kg 2.39 105 kg 500 kg Answer: b Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: medium 1-41 123. The density of iron is 7.86 g/cm3. What is the mass (in kg) of 20.00 cubic inches of iron? 1 inch = 2.54 cm, exactly. a. b. c. d. e. 6.46 10-3 kg 4.17 10-2 kg 0.393 kg 2.54 kg 2.58 kg Answer: e Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: medium 124. Acetone has a density of 0.791 g/mL. If 1 gallon = 3.7854 liters, how many kg should the contents of a 5.00 gallon container filled with acetone weigh? a. b. c. d. e. 1.045 kg 12.6 kg 13.8 kg 15.0 kg 23.9 kg Answer: d Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: medium 125. The density of cadmium metal is 8.642 g/cm3. Given that 1 foot (ft) = 12 inches (in.), 1 in. = 2.54 cm, and 1 pound (lb) = 453.6 g, what is the density of cadmium in lb/ft3? a. b. c. d. e. 17.70 lb/ft3 141.6 lb/ft3 539.5 lb/ft3 263.4 lb/ft3 327.7 lb/ft3 Answer: c Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 1-42 126. The density of chromium metal is 7.20 g/cm3. Given that 1 foot (ft) = 12 inches (in.), 1 in. = 2.54 cm, and 1 pound (lb) = 453.6 g, what is the density of chromium in lb/ft3? a. b. c. d. e. 14.7 lb/ft3 118 lb/ft3 449 lb/ft3 219 lb/ft3 393 lb/ft3 Answer: c Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 127. The density of copper metal is 8.92 g/cm3. Given that 1 foot (ft) = 12 inches (in.), 1 in. = 2.54 cm, and 1 pound (lb) = 453.6 g, what is the density of copper in lb/ft3? a. b. c. d. e. 18.3 lb/ft3 146 lb/ft3 557 lb/ft3 272 lb/ft3 317 lb/ft3 Answer: c Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 128. An empty volumetric flask, weighing 27.16 grams, has a volume of 100.4 cm3. How much would it weigh when filled with bromine, an element that has a density of 3.1028 g/cm3? a. b. c. d. e. 59.51 g 284.4 g 311.5 g 338.7 g 395.8 g Answer: d Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 1-43 129. Gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm3. How many pounds does a gold sphere weigh if it has a diameter of 5.20 inches? 1 pound = 0.4536 kg. The volume of a sphere = 4 ( π r 3 ). 3 a. b. c. d. e. 16.3 pounds 19.7 pounds 51.3 pounds 63.7 pounds 411 pounds Answer: c Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 130. A spherical cannonball which has a volume given by 4 (π r 3 ) 3 is made of an iron alloy and has a diameter of 9.55 inches and a density of 7.89 g/cm3. How many pounds does this cannonball weigh? 1 pound = 0.4536 kg, 1 inch = 2.54 cm. a. b. c. d. e. 59.0 pounds 1.30 102 pounds 41.4 pounds 1.24 103 pounds 21.0 pounds Answer: b Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 131. A piece of silver (Ag) metal weighing 194.3 g is placed in a graduated cylinder containing 242.0 mL of water. The volume of water now reads 260.5 mL. From this data calculate the density of silver. a. b. c. d. e. 10.5 g/cm3 0.10 g/cm3 0.0952 g/cm3 1.34 g/cm3 0.0134 g/cm3 Answer: a Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 1-44 132. A piece of silver (Ag) metal weighing 194.29 g is placed in a graduated cylinder containing 242.0 mL of water. The volume of water now reads 260.53 mL. From this data calculate the density of silver with the correct number of significant figures. a. b. c. d. e. 10.49 g/mL 0.095 g/mL 0.09526 g/mL 1.3409 g/mL 10.485 g/mL Answer: a Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 133. In determining the density of a rectangular metal bar, a student made the following measurements: length = 8.56 cm width = 2.0 cm height = 1.865 cm mass = 52.7064 g Calculate the density of the metal to the correct number of significant figures. a. b. c. d. e. 0.607 g/cm3 1.6 g/cm3 1.647 g/cm3 0.60714 g/cm3 0.61 g/cm3 Answer: b Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 1-45 134. Sulfuric acid has a specific gravity of 1.84 at a certain temperature. If the density of water at the same temperature is 62.4 pounds per cubic foot, how many cubic feet of the acid will weigh 44.5 kg? (1.0 kg = 2.20 pounds) a. b. c. d. e. 2.04 ft3 0.853 ft3 13.0 ft3 1.55 ft3 0.0154 ft3 Answer: b Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 135. Ethanol has a specific gravity of 0.78 at a certain temperature. If the density of water at the same temperature is 62.4 pounds per cubic foot, how many cubic feet of the ethanol will weigh 19.3 kg? (1.0 kg = 2.20 pounds) a. b. c. d. e. 4.15 ft3 0.180 ft3 0.397 ft3 0.872 ft3 48.7 ft3 Answer: d Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 136. Ethanol has a specific gravity of 0.78 at a certain temperature. If the density of water at the same temperature is 62.4 pounds per cubic foot, what is the density of ethanol at this temperature? a. b. c. d. e. 4.15 lbs/ft3 48.672 lbs/ft3 0.0125 lbs/ft3 80.0 lbs/ft3 13.7 lbs/ft3 Answer: b Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: easy 1-46 Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 137. A statement that describes something seen, heard, or smelled, is called an ____________. Answer: observation Section 1.1 Difficulty Level: easy 138. A statement based on a series of observations is a ____________. Answer: conclusion Section 1.1 Difficulty Level: medium 139. A broad generalization based on the results from many experiments is called a__________. Answer: scientific law Section 1.1 Difficulty Level: medium 140. Chemistry is particularly about the way substances undergo changes in ___________. Answer: chemical reactions Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 141. All the objects around us are examples of what are called __________. Answer: matter Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 142. Substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical reactions are examples of __________ . Answer: elements Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 1-47 143. An abbreviation used to represent the name of an element is a __________ . Answer: chemical symbol Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 144. The melting of lithium chloride is an example of a____________ . Answer: physical change Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 145. The burning of sulfur is an example of a____________ . Answer: chemical change Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 146. The dissolving of glucose in water is a ___________. Answer: physical change Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 147. The evaporation of water from a saltwater solution until only salt is left is a ___________. Answer: physical change Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 148. Bleaching of hair is a ___________. Answer: chemical change Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 1-48 149. Water has a freezing point of 0oC. This is a __________ of water. Answer: physical property Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: easy 150. Sodium metal reacts violently with water. This is a __________ of sodium metal. Answer: chemical property Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: easy 151. Aluminum metal reacts with oxygen to form an aluminum oxide. This is a __________ of aluminum metal. Answer: chemical property Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: easy 152. Gold metal can be pressed into very thin sheets or foils. This is a __________ of aluminum metal. Answer: physical property Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: easy 153. Antimony has a high density of 6.697 g/cm3. This is a __________ of antimony. Answer: physical property Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: easy 154. Neon gas does not react with any metal at room temperature. This is a __________ of neon. Answer: chemical property Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: easy 1-49 155. The SI prefix micro indicates _________. Answer: 10-6 Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 156. A kilometer is ______ times longer than a centimeter. Answer: 105 Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 157. A 201 g sample weighs ______ mg. Answer: 2.01 105 mg Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 158. A 1.54 L sample contains ______ mL. Answer: 1.54 x 103 mL Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: easy 159. A 405 nm is equivalent to ______ cm. Answer: 4.05 x 10-5 Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 160. Express the mass, 2.34 10-9 g, without scientific notation, and using the appropriate SI prefix _________. Answer: 2.34 ng Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 1-50 161. Many home freezers maintain a temperature of 0.0 oF. Express this temperature in °C. ______ Answer: -17.8 °C Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 162. Many home freezers maintain a temperature of 0.0 oF. Express this temperature in Kelvin. ______ Answer: 255.4 K Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 163. Antimony melts at 630.63°C. Express this temperature in °F. ______ Answer: 1167.1°F Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 164. How many significant figures does the number 30.340 contain? ______ Answer: 5 Section 2.3 Difficulty Level: easy 165. How many significant digits are there in the number 1.050 109? ______ Answer: 4 Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: medium 166. How many significant digits are there in the number 0.070120? ______ Answer: 5 Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: medium 1-51 167. Express the result of the operation, 8.520 + 2.7 – 1.03, to the proper number of significant digits. ______ Answer: 10.2 Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: medium 168. Express the result of the operation, (8.317 x 2.7 x 3.159)/4.19, to the proper number of significant digits. ______ Answer: 17 Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: medium 169. Express the result of the operation, 95.17 + 5.311 + 0.01275, to the proper number of significant digits. ______ Answer: 100.49 Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: medium 170. What will be the cost, in dollars, of gasoline for a 3170 mile trip in a car pulling a trailer that delivers 13.30 miles per gallon, if the average price of gas is $1.449 cents per gallon? ______ Answer: $345 Section 2.4 Difficulty Level: medium 171. What will be the cost of gasoline for a 4710 mile automobile trip if the car delivers 27.35 miles per gallon of gasoline, and the average price of gas is $1.249 per gallon? ______ Answer: $215 Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 1-52 172. A spot on a microchip which is 7500 nm (nanometers) in diameter is ______ pm (picometers) in diameter. Answer: 7.5 106 pm Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 173. An object weighing 450 kg, expressed in megagrams (Mg), is ______ Mg. Answer: 0.45 mg Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 174. The stone is a unit of weight that is still used in some areas of Europe. It is equal to exactly 14 pounds. Using this information what would a person weighing 14.9 stones weigh in kg? (1 kg = 2.20 lbs) Answer: 94.8 kg Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 175. An organic liquid has a mass of 23.0 g. If the volume of the liquid is 29.75 mL, what is the density of the liquid? Answer: 0.773 g/mL Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: easy 176. A certain liquid has a density of 1.76 g/mL. If 56.1 mL of this liquid is measured out, what would be the mass of this liquid? Answer: 98.7 g Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: easy 1-53 177. An organic liquid has a mass of 23.0 g. If the liquid has a density of 0.785 g/cm3, what is the volume of this liquid? ________ Answer: 29.3 mL Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: medium 178. A metal ball has a radius of 1.42 inches, and a density of 3.94 g/cm3. What is the mass in grams? 2.54 cm = 1 inch ________ Answer: 774 g Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 179. Liquid lead has a density of 10.66 g/cm3. How many kilograms of lead could fit into a box that is 5.00 cm long, 10.0 cm wide, and 10.0 cm high? ________ Answer: 5.33 kg Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 180. Sulfuric acid has a specific gravity of 1.84 at a certain temperature. If the density of water at the same temperature is 62.4 pounds per cubic foot, what is the density of sulfuric acid at the same temperature? a. b. c. d. e. 115 lbs/ft3 33.9 lbs/ft3 74.3 lbs/ft3 0.0295 lbs/ft3 52.4 lbs/ft3 Answer: a Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 1-54 True and False Questions 181. The following equation, Pressure = Constant/Volume, is an example of a theory. Answer: False Section 1.1 Difficulty Level: medium 182. Theoretical models are used to help in explaining laws. Answer: True Section 1.1 Difficulty Level: medium 183. The observations made during an experiment are known as conclusions. Answer: False Section 1.1 Difficulty Level: medium 184. A sample of a pure compound contains two or more phases. Answer: False Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 185. Mass indicates how much matter is in a given object. Answer: True Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 186. A compound is an example of a mixture which can have variable composition. Answer: False Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 1-55 187. A homogeneous mixture consists of only one chemical substance. Answer: False Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 188. A mixture always contains more than one chemical substance. Answer: True Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 189. There is only one pure form for each element on the periodic table. Answer: False Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: easy 190. The mass of a water molecule is the same on the moon as it is on the earth. Answer: True Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: medium 191. A heterogeneous mixture can exist as only a single phase. Answer: False Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: medium 192. A homogeneous mixture can exist as only a single phase. Answer: True Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: medium 1-56 193. The evaporation of rubbing alcohol is a chemical change. Answer: False Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: medium 194. The combustion of gasoline into carbon dioxide gas and water vapor is both a chemical and physical change. Answer: False Section 1.2 Difficulty Level: medium 195. Density is one of the extensive properties of matter. Answer: False Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: medium 196. The volume of a sample is an extensive property of matter. Answer: True Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: medium 197. The density of water is a physical property of water. Answer: True Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: medium 198. The combustibility of octane is a physical property of octane. Answer: False Section 1.3 Difficulty Level: medium 1-57 199. A liter of carbon tetrachloride is smaller than a quart of the same substance. Answer: False Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 200. An increase of one Kelvin in temperature, is a smaller change than an increase of one degree Fahrenheit. Answer: False Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 201. The measurement, 7.05 10-12 m, is the same measurement as 7.05 pm. Answer: True Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: medium 202. A large crowd attending a celebration in a metropolitan area was described as 450,000 in the morning newspaper the next day. A chemistry student stated that, mindful of the purpose of using scientific notation, this should be correctly expressed in scientific notation as 4.50000 105. The number expressed this way truly represents the crowd size, true or false? Answer: False Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: medium 203. Any number known accurately to six or more significant digits is defined as an exact number. Answer: False Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: easy 1-58 204. In determining the number of significant digits in the result of a calculation, exact numbers are considered as having a value to six significant digits. Answer: False Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: easy 205. Ambiguity in the number of significant digits in a number being expressed can be eliminated by proper use of scientific notation. Answer: True Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: medium 206. The result of the operation, 8.52010 7.90, should be expressed as 67.3088. Answer: False Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: medium 207. A 15 km distance run is a shorter run than a 10 mile distance run. Answer: True Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 208. A 5.00 pound bag of sugar weighs more than a 2.50 kg bag of sugar. Answer: False Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 209. A piece of carpet which measures 44.0 square yards is smaller than a piece of carpet which measures 44.0 square meters. Answer: True Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 1-59 210. A liquid which has a volume of 8.50 mL, and a mass of 7.05 g, has a density of 0.829 g/cm3. Answer: True Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: medium 211. A liquid has a density of 3.10 g/mL. A 17.7 g sample of this liquid has a volume of 55 mL. Answer: False Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: medium 212. The density of a metal reported as 1.74 g/cm3, also has a density of 1.74 kg/m3. Answer: False Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 213. Yeast cells feed on glucose in grape juice to give ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide during the fermentation reaction. Answer: True Section: Chemistry Outside the Classroom 2.1 Difficulty Level: medium 214. A very quick way to determine the sugar content of grapes is to determine the density of the grape juice using a hydrometer. Answer: True Section: Chemistry Outside the Classroom 1.1 Difficulty Level: medium 215. A sample of wine from grape juice can be distilled to obtain a mixture of alcohol and water. Answer: True Section: Chemistry Outside the Classroom 1.1 Difficulty Level: medium 1-60 216. One way to determine the alcohol content of wine is to determine the specific gravity of the wine using a hydrometer. Answer: False Section: Chemistry Outside the Classroom 1.1 Difficulty Level: medium Critical Thinking Questions 217. A young high school student has invented a new temperature scale, the Zuban scale (his last name, of course). In common with the Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit scales, it is a linear scale. According to Zuban, 1) the boiling point of water which is 100.00 °C = 373.15 K = 0.00 °Z 2) the boiling point of sulfur which is 444.60 °C = 717.75 K = 250.00 °Z 3) the melting point of silver which is 960.15 °C = 1233.30 K = 624.02 °Z Calculate the value of absolute zero on the Zuban Scale. ________ Answer: -270.71 °Z Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: hard 218. Carl, a ninth grade whiz kid, has invented a new temperature scale, the Vitellan scale (his last name, of course). In common with the Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit scales, it is a linear scale. According to Carl, 1) the melting point of benzene which is 5.53 °C = 0.00 °V 2) the boiling point of benzene which is 80.10 °C = 100.00 °V 3) the melting point of lead which is 327.50 °C = 431.77 °V Calculate the value for the melting point of mercury ( -38.86 °C) on the Vitellan scale. ______ Answer: -59.53 °V Section 1.4 Difficulty Level: hard 1-61 219. A number resulting from a measurement was properly expressed in scientific notation as 2.1 10-3 meters (m). The number could also be correctly written as a. b. c. d. e. 0.0021 m 0.002100 m 0.00021 m 2.1000 m 21000 m Answer: a Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: easy 220. Solve the following: (628.83 – 627.71) 124 122.08 Answer: 261 Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: medium 221. Solve the following: (2.15 106 + 3.2 102)/(2.332 + 22.0005 + 0.9861) a. b. c. d. e. 1.45 48.8 233.1 106 1,080.2 Answer: d Section 1.5 Difficulty Level: hard 222. If 1 meter = 39.37 inch and 1 foot = 12.00 inch, calculate the relationship to four significant digits, which will convert cubic feet into cubic meters directly. 1 ft3 = ______ m3 Answer: 0.02832 Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: medium 1-62 223. A home aquarium measures 17.0 inches wide, 17.0 inches long and 8.50 inches high. What is the volume in liters? Answer: 40.2 L Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: hard 224. Express 109 miles per hour, in meters per second. Answer: 48.7 m/s Section 1.6 Difficulty Level: hard 225. Consider this data from a lab, concerning the mass and the volume of water displaced in a graduated cylinder by introduction of a metal sample to the cylinder: Mass of weighing cup = 0.452 g Mass of weighing cup + metal sample = 72.943 g Volume of water in cylinder = 15.2 cm3 When the metal sample was carefully lowered into the graduated cylinder, the water above the submerged metal sample rose to the 19.0 cm3 mark. What is the density of the metal? a. b. c. d. e. 2.2 g cm-3 3.8 g cm-3 4.8 g cm-3 19 g cm-3 19.2 g cm-3 Answer: d Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: medium 226. A spherical cannonball made of an iron alloy has a specific gravity of 7.88, and weighs 22.12 pounds. It has a diameter of 13.46 cm. On the other hand, spent uranium (from processing which removes the commercially important rare isotope) has a specific gravity of 19.05. How many pounds would a uranium cannonball of the same dimensions as the iron cannonball weigh? volume 4 ( π r 3 ) 3 Answer: 53.5 pounds Section 1.7 1-63 Difficulty Level: hard 227. A spherical cannonball made of an iron alloy has a density of 7.86 g/cm3, and weighs 22.12 pounds. On the other hand, spent uranium (from processing which removes the commercially important rare isotope) has a density of 19.05 g/cm3. What would be the diameter, in cm, of a uranium round shot which has exactly twice the weight as the iron ball described above? 1 pound = 0.4536 kg. volume 4 ( π r 3 ) 3 Answer: 12.62 cm Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 228. Some students in the AP chemistry class have come up with an idea they would like to have tested which involves collaboration with two or three DOD facilities. They want to test two small muzzle loading cannons like the ones used in the 18th century. One would be using spherical cannonballs made of iron, while the other would be using spherical cannonballs made of spent uranium. Both cannons will be using cannonballs with a diameter of 5.000 inches. If uranium has a density of 19.05 g/cm3, what would be the mass, in pounds, of the uranium cannonballs? 1 pound = 453.6 g, 1 inch = 2.54 cm exactly. volume 4 ( π r 3 ) 3 ___________ Answer: 45.04 pounds Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 229. Iron has a density of 7.86 g/cm3. As part of their exam, students in the junior class at a boarding school were to weigh a metal sphere, measure its diameter and calculate its density. Some of the seniors sneaked into the lab the weekend before, took the iron sphere, took it downtown, and had the interior partially hollowed and the surface repaired so it wouldn't be noticed and replaced it in the cabinet late on Sunday. The junior students who had this iron sphere for their "unknown" obtained 9.30 cm for the diameter and 2.44 kg for the mass. What value should they have reported for the mass of the sphere if it had not been tampered with, and what was the volume of the hollowed out space in the interior of the sphere? volume 4 ( π r 3 ) ___________________ 3 Answer: 3.31 kg and 111 cm3 Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 1-64 230. Solid antimony has a density of 6.70 g/cm3. Liquid antimony has a density of 6.53 g/cm3. If a 1.34 kg sample of liquid antimony is allowed to cool into a solid by how much will the volume of the sample change? Answer: 5.21 cm3 Section 1.7 Difficulty Level: hard 1-65