* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
A system for capturing, storing, editing, integrating, managing, displaying, querying, analyzing & distributing geographic data which reference to The Earth. Answered Data Layer linked by geography Planning data Road Network Utility data Map Chart Reports Software Hardware People Method & Procedures Data • Raster •Vector •Real World Raster data is stored as a uniform grid of rows and columns with a Digital Value (DV) / Digital Number (DN) for each cell. Each unit (pixel or cell) within the grid is assigned an identifying value based on its characteristics. Groups of cells represent geographical features; the value in the cell represents the attribute of the feature. Numerous raster data formats are GIF, JPEG, TIFF, GeoTIFF, MrSID, IMG etc. Vectors store, represent and display spatial data as sets of X,Y coordinate pairs, to represent features and locations on the surface of the earth. Each feature is represented by a series of co- ordinates which define its shape, and which can have linked information. Features can take the form of single points, lines, arcs or closed lines (polygons). Numerous vector data formats are DWG, DXF, SHP, SHX, DBF, TAB etc. Shapefiles- A shapefile is an Esri vector data storage format for storing the location, shape, and attributes of geographic features. It is stored as a set of related files and contains one feature class. Layers- Layers are the mechanism used to display geographic datasets in Arc Map. Each layer references a dataset and specifies how that dataset is portrayed using symbols and text labels. We typically represent objects in space as three distinct spatial elements: Points - simplest element Lines (arcs) - set of connected points Polygons - set of connected lines We use these three spatial elements to represent real world features and attach locational information to them. Data Assembly Remote Sensing Maps Database Direct Entry GPS Keyboard GIS based solutions for property tax management including spatial content generation, assessment data preparation, desktop application and web interface Creation of a GIS-based spatial property database using high resolution satellite imagery geo-referenced control points taken by dual-band GPS (DGPS) survey, and updated by ground truthing (validation). The property boundary layer is then migrated on top of this GIS base map to create homogenous GIS data layers. Assessment data preparation using existing property details and door-to-door contact surveys. Re-number of properties in the ULB jurisdiction to assign a unique identifier to each property and fixing of house numbers In GIS based property tax assessment each house is identified with the House number, owner name, contact no etc. The accurate area of the plot is calculated with the help of the GIS. Mapping the cleaning of streets, drains, removal of rubbish, scavenging and solid waste management Mapping the city into various illumination zones of public street lighting. Electric poles & Street Lights View Mapping the areas supplied with protected water. Identification of new roads, bridges, cause ways and culverts. Mapping the road width and major road junctions. Mapping the city into various illumination zones of public street lighting. Manage the construction and maintenance of buildings, Property tax assessment etc. Health mapping the city like hospitals, maternity and child welfare centers, dispensaries. Mapping the slaughter houses, markets parks, play grounds, burial grounds and urban forestry. Utility mapping includes Roads, water pipelines, sewerage, storm water electric lines, traffic management, health center, fire stations telecommunications Miscellaneous services etc. Define Problem Take Decision Create Create Output Output Perform Analysis GIS Process Evaluate Criteria Build Dataset ILWIS ERDAS Imagine ER Mapper Map Info Auto CAD Map Arc View Arc Info Arc GIS Quantum GIS (QGIS)- Open source software Many other open source software like Global Mapper, Sky map etc. Right click on a gray area at the top of the screen. For example, under the toolbars Then choose Georeferencing This will activate the Georeferencing toolbar Define Projection System Now start adding GCP- Ground control point on map and assign coordinates Add GCP- Minimum 4 GCP required for geroreference the images By using Transformation you can manage the Georeferencing transformation order. Then click Rectify and save in desired format and location Done Georeferencing 1. Add the data you want to edit to your map * Add other layers for orientation and reference (e.g., aerial photography) 2. Display the Editor toolbar and start an edit session 3. Set the editing environment • * Specify your editing target – the layer you want to edit • * Specify the editing task (e.g., modify) • * Enable additional settings (e.g., snapping) 4. Select the feature and display its sketch • Double-click a feature to show vertices and segments 5. Make your edits Move, insert or delete vertices 6. Save your edits Heads-up digitizing – tracing shapes on screen using another layer for reference (aerial photos) Each time you click on screen, an x,y coordinate is recorded To digitize, follow these steps: i. Start an edit session and set editing env. (target layer, editing task and snapping environment) ii. Zoom to the feature you want to digitize on your base layer iii. Trace the outline of the feature, clicking to create each vertex iv. Save your edits Install Arc GIS Software To be Continue………………………..