Download AU-Research-Paper-Fulltext-21419

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Venerable Nandobhasa
I.D. No. 5819545
Graduate School of Human Science
Assumption University of Thailand
Copyright by
Accepted by the Graduate School of Human Sciences, Assumption University in
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master Degree in Philosophy and
(Assoc. Prof. Dr. Suwattana Eamoraphan)
Dean of the Graduate School of Human Sciences
Research Paper Approval Committee
……………………………..……..….. ……..Chairman
(Dr. Kajornpat Tangyin)
….………………….…..…………… Member/Advisor
(Dr. Veerachart Nimanong)
…….………………………………………… Member
(Dr. Shang-Wen Wang)
Research Paper Advisor: DR. VEERACHART NIMANONG
Accepted by the Graduate School of Human Sciences, Assumption University in
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master Degree in Philosophy and
.~&:. . ~. .
(Assoc. Prof. Dr. Suwattana Eamoraphan)
Dean of the Graduate School of Human Sciences
Research Paper Approval Committee
~............... Chair
(Dr. Kajompat Tangyin)
. . . . . . . . . .~. . . . . . . .#.. . . . .
(Dr. Veerachart Nimanong)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... Faculty Member
(Asst. Prof. Dr. Shang-Wen Wang)
Research Title:
The Buddhist Doctrine of Dependent-Origination
with the Focus on Parābhava Sutta
Proposed By:
Graduate School of Human Science
Majoring In:
Philosophy and Religion
Dr. Veerachart Nimanong
Academic Year:
This Research Paper consists of three objectives. The Research Objective One is to
analyze the process of origination and cessation of evils or immoralities appeared in the
Parābhava Sutta in the Buddhist text. The Research Objective Two is to study the
(Paticcasamuppāda). in the Buddhist texts and the Research Objective Three is to apply the
Buddhist teachings and to find the solution to solve the moral problems in daily life.
This research is based on the admonition of all Buddhas: “Not to do any evils, to do
good things and to purify one’s mind.” The research demonstrates the evils or immoralities
that can cause the moral problems in the society and shows the root causes of all evils and
how these evils originate and cease according to the doctrine of Dependent Origination in
The doctrine of Dependent Origination is one of the most important tenets of Buddha
illustrating the chain of cause and effect. Furthermore, this research exhibits the principle of
Dependent Origination both on an individual basis, as it occurs within the mind, and also in a
social context as it occurs in human relationships.
The purpose of this research is to find the solution to solve the moral problems
committed by human beings in their daily life, to live together in peace and harmony and to
purify one’s mind. The research found that the Noble Eightfold Path is the best solution to
solve moral problems. In this context, applying the Buddha’s teaching to solve the moral
problems is also elaborately discussed. The external human problems like violence, crimes,
and conflicts, come out of internal feeling or frustration. This research points out the root
cause of all moral problems and the way to solve these problems. By pursuing the Noble
Eightfold Path, people can live their lives peacefully.
First and foremost, I would like to express my thanks on the Venerable Sitagū
Sayādaw Ashin Ñāṇissara for helping me realize how important it is to widen my scope of
knowledge in the field of Buddhism from every aspect. Therefore, I owe him a great deal of
thank. And my thanks go to all my professors from the Graduate School of Philosophy and
Religion at Assumption University. They have opened my academic sight to the global world
of knowledge. I am very grateful to them.
Moreover, I am indebted to Professor Dr. Veerachart Nimanong, my advisor, for his
support and kindness. Without his understanding and encouragement, it would not have been
possible for me to do this research. My sincere thanks also go to Dr. U Myint Thein (Retired
Senior Lecturer, Assumption University) and Daw Than Than Myint (Chulalongkorn
University) for their support and their great patience in checking and polishing my writing. I
would like to express my thanks on Ko Min Thet Maw who gives me assistance to draw the
picture of the cycle of Dependent Origination.
My deep gratitude goes to my family, my friends and all the Burmese community and
Thai community who have given me their support. Their loving-kindness and acts of charity
have provided me with all the things I needed during my stay here in Thailand. Last but not
least, all names whose assist me in doing this research are too many to be mentioned here,
nevertheless, they will be everlasting in my memory.
Anguttara Nikāya
Dhammapada-atthakathā (Commentary to the Dhammapada)
Digha Nikāya
Dīgha Nikāya Aṭṭhakathā
Khuddaka Nikāya
Majjhima Nikāya
Majjhima Nikāya Aṭṭhakathā
Sutta Nipāta
Sutta Nipāta Aṭṭhakathā
Samyutta Nikāya
Vibhañga Aṭṭhakathā
1.1 Background and Significance of the Research Problem
1.2 Dependent Origination of the downfall on Social Scale
1.2.1 Cessation of the Downfalls
1.2.2 An Application to the Buddhist Teachings to Solve the Moral Problems
1.3 Research Objectives
1.4 Statement of the Research
1.5 Research Scope
1.6 Research Methodology
1.7 Definition of the Terms Used
2.1 The Basic Factors of the Dependent Origination (Paṭiccasamuppāda) in Buddhism
2.2 Observation the Way of Dependent Origination by Way of Causal Condition
2.2.1 The Principle of Dependent Origination on an Individual Basis
2.2.2 The Dependent Origination and Cessation of Problems in daily life
2.2.3 How to Train Our Mind to Be Able to Release from Frustration or stress
2.3 The Principle of Dependent Origination on Social Context
2.3.1 Origination of Downfalls
2.3.2 Cessation of Downfalls
3.1. Downfalls or Destruction of Human’s Acts
3.1.1 Opposition to the Dhamma
3.1.2 Laziness and Finding the Pleasure with the Assembled Company
3.1.3 Manifesting Anger
3.1.4 Support to Old Parents Praised by the Buddha
3.1.5 Discrimination in Birth and Caste
3.1.6 Indulging in Intoxicants and Gambling
3.1.7 Committing Adultery
3.2 Relationship between Parābhava Sutta and Mangala Sutta and Its Philosophy
4.1 An Application to the Dependent Origination in the Buddhist Meditation
4.1.1 The Practice
4.1.2 Wrong Perception (Saññāvippāllāsa)
4.1.3 Discussion on the theory of two truths
4.1.4 Realization (Pariññā)
4.2 Discussion the Buddhist Perspectives on the Moral Problems
4.3 The Path Leading to the Cessation of Social Problems
4.4 The Results of the Application to the Buddha’s Teachings.
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendation for Further Research
1.1 Background and Significance of the Research Problem
This research paper starts with the teachings of all Buddhas “Sabbapāpassa
akaranam, kusalassūpa sampadā, sacitta pariyodapanam etam Buddhāna sāsanam” which
mean that not to do any evils, to do good things and to purify one’s mind, this is the teaching
of all Buddhas.” (DhA, II, P. 237) This teaching reminds me of some religious motto in
Burmese “Ma kaung hmute shaung, Kaung hmute saung, Phyu aung site ko htā” This motto
is very well known as a warning about peoples’ conduct. We can see this motto written on the
wall in the monastery, in the Buddhist temple and even in the commentary in Myanmar.
We should pose following questions; what is evils according to Buddha, why we
should not do these evils, how these evils start, what is the solution to avoid them. In this
research paper, the researcher will present the evils that cause moral problems in the society
and make people fall into downfall or destruction as appeared in the Parābhava Sutta. The
Parābhava Sutta appears in the Khuddaka Nikaya, Suttanipata Pāli in Buddhist Tipitaka
literature. The researcher uses the translation to Parābhava Sutta written by Nārada Thera.
Venerable Nārada Thera defined the Parābhava as the cause of downfall. And also he writes
the comments on the Parābhava Sutta:
“While the Mangala Sutta deals with the way of life conducive to progress
and happiness, the Parabhava Sutta supplements it by pointing out the
causes of downfall. He who allows himself to become tarnished by these
blemishes of conduct blocks his own road to worldly, moral and spiritual
progress and lowers all that is truly noble and human in man. But he who is
heedful of these dangers keeps open the road to all those thirty-eight
blessings of which human nature is capable.” (Narada, 1997)
Parābhava Sutta is one of the significant suttas in the Buddhist texts because, on the
earlier day, the Lord Buddha taught the Mangala Sutta which is to be practiced and applied in
the society. The next day, the Lord Buddha taught Parābhava Sutta to be avoided in the
society. This Sutta consists of twelve pairs of questions and answers composing twenty-four
verses. Although there are many aspects of immoralities in this Sutta, the researcher will
present only some specific things by pointing the related stories so that readers can better
About the questions of what is evils and why should not we do these,The research will
be focused on evils or immoralities such as Killing living beings, stealing what is not given,
sexual misconduct, telling lies, opposition to the Dhamma, association with the wicked ones,
laziness and finding the pleasure with the assembled company, not supporting old parents,
discrimination, indulging in intoxicants and gambling as appeared in the commentary of
At present time, the wrong actions that people act are increasing day by day, because
people could not solve and reduce these problems. People’s moral standards are declining
nowadays. This research aims to promote the moral standards so as to avoid moral declining.
And about this question of how these evils start, The researcher will also present the concept
of Dependent Origination in terms of two ways; an individual basis according to Myanmar
Buddhist scholar, Dr. Nandamālābhivamsa in his book ‘Observation the way of Dependent
Origination by way of Causal Condition’ and a social context revealed by Thai Buddhist
scholar, P.A Payutto in his book ‘Buddhadhamma’.
When the researcher presents the concept of Dependent Origination, he will present it
by highlighting the stories from the Jātakas and Dhammapada in the Buddhist Texts and
possible events in the present society. And also, he will present how these immoralities
originate and cease in man according to the Doctrine of Dependent Origination.
1.2 Dependent Origination of the downfall on Social Scale
According to the Doctrine of Dependent Origination (Paṭiccasamuppāda), people act
their daily activities with the body and speech led by the mind. In Dhammapada of Khudaka
Nikāya, the Lord Buddha said as follows:
Manasācepaduṭṭhena bhāsativī karotivā,
tato nam dukkhamanveti
cakkamva vahato padamwhich. Which means “the only mind is the leader
of all mental phenomenon. The mind is their chief; they are made up of
mind. If a man speaks or acts with an evil mind, pain follows him, as the
wheel follows the foot of the ox that draws the carriage. (Dhp, P. 1)
The immoralities that create the problems and these problems start from the link
known as ‘contact’ (Phassa) of the twelve links in the cycle of Dependent Origination
(Paṭiccasamuppāda). An action which is good or bad becomes out of mind depended upon
situations or conditions. For example, when a man saw a good looking woman, he fell in love
with her. At this point, there are many conditions to arise contact (phassa) in man. When
man’s internal sensitive eye connects with the external object which is woman’s lovely style,
eye-consciousness arises in man.
The combination of these three is called contact (Phassa). Dependent on contact,
feeling arises in man. Dependent on feeling, craving arises. Dependent on craving, seeking
arises. Dependent on seeking, he gains her and feels happy. If he loses her, he will feel
unhappy. Dependent on gaining, he will evaluate her. Dependent on evaluation, he will be
fond of her. Dependent on fondness, avarice arises in him. Dependent on avarice he will be
jealous of her.
Dependent on jealousy, he will guard her. Dependent on guarding, the taking up of
the stick, the knife, contention, dispute, arguments, abuse, slander, and lying may arise. In
this way, the defilements will originate in profusion.
1.2.1 Cessation of the Downfalls
To prevent such causes of downfall the researcher would like to call the reader’s
attention to the basic teaching of the Buddhas; Not to do any evils, to do good things and to
purify one’s mind (Sacittapariyodapanam). (DhpA, II, P. 237)
According to the Buddha, the immoralities or Defilements arise from the mind. They
can be purified only through one’s mind. Just as the clay comes out of the water, it can be
purified only by water. To purify one’s mind the Lord Buddha taught the Noble Eightfold
Paths; right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right
effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.
The path leading to the cessation of downfalls is the essence of this research. By
cultivating the Noble Eightfold Path in one’s mind, one can cease all downfalls or
defilements in the individual as well as in society.
According to this research, the Four Noble Truths will be like this; First noble truth,
one’s downfall or destruction in terms of spiritually and mentally is suffering (Dukkha).
Second noble truth, the cause of downfall is the origin of suffering (Samudaya). Third noble
truth, the cessation or reduction of downfalls is a cessation of suffering (Nirodha). And the
fourth noble truth, the path by which all beings can cease and reduce all downfalls is the path
leading to the cessation of downfall (Magga)
1.2.2 An Application to the Buddhist Teachings to Solve the Moral Problems
In connection with the application of the Buddhist teachings, the researcher will
present the antidotes of the downfalls or defilements based on how to apply the Dependent
Origination in the insight meditation practice according to Moegok Sayādaw. And also to
solve the moral problems in the individual as well as in the society, he will use the
“Everyman’s Ethics: Four Discourses by the Buddha” (Nārada Thera, 1985) written by
Venerable Nārada Thera. By pursuing the teachings in the Buddhism, people would be able
to elevate physical or mental progress. If people apply or follow these moralities, for sure,
people can live together in peace so as to overcome the problems in societies although we
have various diversities. Even wars and violence can be reduced.
1.3 Research Objectives:
The research objectives are as follows:
1. To analyze the processes of origination and cessation of wrong actions appeared in the
Parābhava Sutta according to the Doctrine of Dependent Origination (Paṭiccasmuppāda).
2. To study the background and significance of Parābhava Sutta in the Buddhist text.
3. To apply the Buddhist teachings to solve the moral problems in the society.
1.4 Statement of the Research:
This research paper aims to show the way leading to the peaceful life in the society
under different situations such as different races, cultures, belief, religion, perspectives, and
ideas, and to reveal how the problems occur, according to Buddhism. This research will give
some kind of knowledge concerning with physical and psychological aspects. This research
can help not only to reduce social problems but also to develop the spiritual progress.
1.5 Research Scope:
This research paper is concerned with the analytical study of Buddhist teachings and
will focus on the Buddhist texts, commentaries, and sub-commentaries. In this context, this
research scope would be from religious perspectives only. As a consequence of religious
views, there must be certain relationship created by missionaries working for spiritual
guidelines between Buddhist community and another community. We can get some things
beneficial, understandable, trust and devotion to this research. If there is an understandable
relationship between societies, people will be able to guide themselves in the right direction
to progress their mentalities. Therefore, in this context, the researcher expects that people will
live together in peace and harmony in different societies.
1.6 Research Methodology:
It is a documentary research concerning the analytical study of the Buddhist
teachings. The researcher especially focuses on the Buddhist texts and commentaries and
sub-commentaries regarding the ‘Parābhava Sutta’ and Paṭiccasamuppāda Sutta.
The researcher will explain how the Buddhist teachings impact on the society.
Buddhist teachings can help people live together in peace and harmony and co-existence in
society and prohibit the threat or use of force and reduce war potential and develop friendly
relations and prohibit acts of aggression and prohibit coercion against internationally
recognized state boundaries and ensure the right to self-determination of peoples of states.
The fact is that the Buddhist teachings can lead to a better world to live in peace and reduce
all kinds of mental and physical tension.
1.7 Definition of the Terms Used:
Bodhisattva means a person who has potentialities to be Enlightened One (Buddha).
Mangala means Blessing or good omen.
Kusala means merit or wholesome that is a blameless action producing beneficial results and
brings all kinds of happiness and prosperity.
Bhikkhu means male monk
Sotāpanna means a person who has abandoned wrong view and doubt and will return to the
human world at least seven times.
Arahatta means a person who has eradicated all defilements and will not return to the world.
Sakadāgāmī means a person who returns once again to the world.
Anāgāmī means a person who will not return to the human world anymore.
Āyatana means internal sense organ.
Yoniso manasikāra means positive or clear or proper thinking
Ayoniso manasikāra means negative thinking or improper thinking
Magga means Path leading to the cessation of suffering.
Phala means fruition or result of Magga.
Mettā means loving kindness
Karuṇā means compassion
Muditā means appreciative-joy
Upekkhā means equanimity
2.1 The Basic Factors of the Dependent Origination (Paṭiccasamuppāda) in Buddhism
In Myanmar, there are many famous meditation centers; Mahāsī meditation center,
Moegok meditation center, Phar Auk meditation center, Thae Inn Gū meditation center, and
Sun Lun Gū meditation and so on. This research especially emphasizes the Moegok
meditation technique. We call it Moegok Nee in Burmese. This meditation center was
established by venerable Vimala Thera. He is a pioneer of this technique in this meditation.
The Moegok technique was influent in every part of Myanmar. This technique was based on
Paticcāsamuppāda Sutta. Buddhist scholar-monk, Venerable Bhikkhus Bodhi translates the
word ‘Paṭccasamuppāda’ as Dependent Origination. Paṭicca means dependent on.
Samuppāda means origination. (Bodhi, 2003, pp. 534–536) Dependent on a condition,
another condition arises or dependent on something, something arises. Let me take an
example of a tree. Dependent on seed, moisture, earth, sunlight and wind, a tree arises. Here
the Dependent Origination is operation of mental process in every living being biologically.
Dependent Origination is profound and unique teachings in Buddhism. The Buddha
discovered it as a natural law and as a fundamental truth. It has been existing forever, whether
or not the Lord Buddha teaches. This Paṭiccasmuppāda vibhanga Sutta appears in the
Nidānavagga Pāli in Samyutta Nikāya. The Dependent Origination (Paṭiccasamuppāda) is
composed of twelve factors or links; Avijjā, Sankhāra, Vinnāna, Nāma-rūpa, Saḷāyatana,
Phassa, Vedanā, Taṇhā, Upādāna, Bhava, Jīti, and Jarā-Maraṇa. First of all, the researcher
would like to present the basic illustrations included in Paṭiccasamuppāda.
The following basic illustrations come from the Paṭiccasamuppādavibhanga Sutta in
Samyutta Nikāya. (SN, II. P, 1).
(1) Ignorance (Avijjā)
Ignorance means not knowing suffering, not knowing the origin of suffering, not
knowing the cessation of suffering, not knowing the way leading to the cessation of
suffering. (Bodhi, 2003b, p.534)
(2) Kammic or volitional Formations (Sañkhāra)
There are these kinds of volitional formations: the bodily volitional formation, the
verbal volitional formation, the mental volitional formation. Regardless of good or bad,
wholesome or unwholesome, all are included in volitional formations.
(3) Consciousness (Viññāna)
There are six classes of consciousness: eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, noseconsciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, mind-consciousness. All factors
are included in the resultant rebirth consciousness produced by kammic or volitional
(4) Mind and Matter (Nāma-Rūpa)
Here, the researcher would like to present the different translations to the word
‘Nāma-Rūpa’ by Scholars. The Bhikkhu Bodhi and Bhikkhu Thanissaro translate the word
‘Nāma-Rūpa’ into ‘Name and form’. (Bodhi, 2003b, pp. 533–536)
The Nānatiloka Mahāthera also translates the word ‘Nāma-Rūpa’ into ‘Mental and
Physical phenomena’. (Nānatiloka, 1939) The Venerable Setthila translates it into ‘Mind and
Matter’. (Setthila, 1963)
The researcher prefers the translation of Mind and Matter or
Physical and Mental phenomena rather than the translation of Name and Form because the
translation of Mind and Matter or Mental and Physical phenomena represents
the real meaning. Feeling, perception, volition, contact, attention: this is called Mind. The
four great elements and the form derived from the four great elements: this is called matter.
(5) Six sense bases (Saḷāyatana)
The eye base, the ear base, the nose base, the tongue base, the body base, the mind
base: these are called the six sense bases.
(6) Contact (Phassa)
There are six kinds of contact: eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact,
body-contact, mind-contact.
(7) Feeling (Vedanā)
There are six kinds of feeling: feeling born of eye-contact, feeling born of ear-contact,
feeling born of nose-contact, feeling born of tongue-contact, feeling born of body-contact,
and feeling born of mind-contact.
(8) Craving (Taṇhā)
There are six types of craving; craving for forms, craving for sounds, craving for
odors, craving for tastes, craving for tactile objects, craving for mental phenomena.
(9) Clinging (Upādāna)
Cling (Upādāna) is usually defined as an intensified degree of craving. There are four
kinds of clinging: clinging to sensual pleasures, clinging to views, clinging to rule
and rites or vows, clinging to a doctrine of self.
(10) Existence (Bhava)
There are three kinds of existence: sense-sphere existence, form-sphere existence,
formless-sphere existence. The researcher will present the existence in detail next chapter.
(11) Birth (Jāti)
The birth of the various beings into the various orders of beings, their being born,
descent into the womb, production, manifestation of the aggregates, the obtaining of the sense
(12) Decay and Death (Jarā- Marana)
The aging of the various beings in the various orders of beings, their growing old, the
brokenness of teeth, greyness of hair, wrinkling of skin, decline of vitality, degeneration of
the faculties: this is called aging.
The passing away of the various beings from the various orders of beings, their
perishing, breakup, disappearance, mortality, death, completion of time, the breakup of the
aggregates, the laying down of the carcass: this is called death. The rest of decay-death,
sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair show the incidental consequences of birth. They
are not included in twelve factors.
The cycle of Dependent Origination
(1) The Round of Defilements (Kilesavaṭṭa) = 3
(2) The Round of Kamma (Kammavatta) = 2
(3) The Round of Result (Vipākavaṭṭa) = 7 = 12 (total)
2.2 Observation the Way of Dependent Origination by Way of Causal Condition
The Venerable Nandamālābhivamsa is a very famous Abhidhammic scholar in
Myanmar. He teaches Abhidhamma to people who are interested in, from all over the world.
Recently, he wrote a book named ‘Observation the way of Dependent Origination
(Paṭicasamuppāda) by way of Causal Condition (Paṭṭhāna)’. Initially, he gave the Dhamma
talk to the lay people and then his dhamma talks were well-organized and published as a book
so that especially lay people can understand Paṭiccasamuppāda (2010-Feb-16. Myanmar,
The researcher would like to recommend this book because this book is suitable for
those who have never experienced with Paṭiccasamuppāda. The researcher will present his
approaches to the Dependent Origination as an individual basis as it occurs within the mind.
Before he mentions his approaches, he would like to present the two ways; the way of
Dependent Origination and the way of Causal Condition (Paṭiccascasamuppāda and Paṭṭhāna)
according to Bhikkhu Bodhi. Bhikkhu Bodhi mentioned the distinction between these two
ways in his book, A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma as follows.
The compendium of conditionality is twofold: (1) the method of dependent
arising and (2) the method of conditional relations. Of these, the method of
dependent arising is marked by the simple happening of a state in
dependence on some other state. The method of conditional relations is
discussed with reference to the specific causal efficacy of the conditions.
(Bodhi, 1999, p. 293)
2.2.1 The Principle of Dependent Origination on an Individual Basis
As the researcher mentioned, just as people sometimes go through the wrong way and
sometimes time through the right way like a blind man walking in the dark so too they
sometimes do good things and sometimes bad things. This is because of ignorance which is
called Avijjā in Pāli. Ignorance leads people to do or accumulate the actions; wholesome or
unwholesome which is called Kammic Formation.
If people accumulate the kammic formation which is called Sankhāra in Pāli, the
Kammic formation will produce the resultant consciousness which is called Viññāna in Pāli.
Some scholar said that kammic formation is like a seed and consciousness is like a tree. If
people cultivate the seed, it will produce a tree. Here, the researcher would like to observe the
Paticcasamuppāda by the way of decisive support condition or kamma condition (pattthāna).
The Buddha taught that kusalam kammam vipākassa upanissayapaccayena paccayo,
akusalam kammam vipākassa upanissayapaccayena paccayo. It means that wholesome
consciousness and unwholesome consciousness are condition for resultant consciousness by
way of decisive support condition. The Buddha also taught “kusalākusalam kammam
vipākānam khandhānam katattāca rūpānam kammapaccayena paccayo. It means that
wholesome consciousness and unwholesome consciousness which is called Kamma (cause) is
a condition for the result of aggregate by way of kammic condition.
As soon as we have got the consciousness which is the result of rebirth consciousness
(Viñña) dependent on kammic formation, mind, and matter will be arising in beings. Mind
here means mental factors (Cetasika) associated with consciousness and matter here means
four great elements; earth, water, fire, air and four derivatives— color, smell, taste, and
nutritive essence and life faculty (Biology), body, heart base, feminity (for woman),
masculinity (for man) in the tiny cell. We call the combination of these tiny cells ‘Kalala Ye
Kyi’ in Myanmar which means the beginning of a life.
The Lord Buddha taught kusalākusalam kammam vipākānam khandhānam katattāca
rūpānam kammapaccayena paccayo in Pattāna in Kamma condition. According to
Paticcasamuppāda, the teaching “sankhārapacayā vinnānam” says that only the result of
rebirth consciousness arises dependent on Sankhāra (kamma).
The Way of Dependent Origination (Paticcasamuppāda)
Vinnānam, Nāmarūpam
Kammic formations
Consciousness and mind & matter
The Way of Causal Condition (Pātthāna)
Kusalakusalam kamman
Vipākānam khandhānam Katattāca rūpānam
Wholesome and Unwholesome
The result of Khandas and Matter.
When our mind and matter become growing or got matured, the six internal senses;
eye, ear, nose, tongue, and body appear in order to connect with external objects; visible
form, sound, smell, taste, and tangibility.
In the Dependent Origination, the contact is conditioned by the six sense-bases. The
combination of these three factors; eye, visible object and, eye-consciousness is called
contact. Venerable Ñāṇatiloka mention the arising of eye-consciousness;
Conditioned through the eye, the visible object, light and attention, eyeconsciousness arises. Conditioned through the ear, the audible object, the
ear-passage, and attention, ear-consciousness arises. Conditioned through
the nose, the olfactive object, air and attention, nose-consciousness arises.
Conditioned through the tongue, the gustative object, humidity and
attention, tongue-consciousness arises. Conditioned by the body, bodily
impression, the earth-element and attention, body-consciousness arises.
Conditioned through the subconscious mind (bhavanga-mano), the mindobject and attention, mind-consciousness arises.
(Nyanatiloka, 1997, p. 193)
When the contact arises in people, they feel an object as pleasurable or unpleasurable.
At the time the feeling arises. The feeling is the starting point of human response because, at
this step, one recognizes pleasure, displeasure, and equanimity. Therefore one should be
mindful of himself in this condition of contact before going to the next step which is feeling,
Vedanā in Pāli.
The story of a monk explains the nature of dependent origination. Once upon a time,
there were thirty monks taking meditation together in a forest. One night, a tiger took a monk
away. The other monks ran after the tiger. But the other monks were not able to catch the
tiger because the tiger ran away to another precipice. The other monks were shouting at him
to be mindful to continue meditation that we know you are able to destroy the round of
Samsāra. The monk also continued meditating. He who is in the mouth of tiger takes
meditation of the foundation of mindfulness in contemplation of feelings (Vedanānupassanā).
He repeatedly contemplates that this painful feeling arises dependent on contact and
that this painful feeling is conditional and that this feeling is impermanent or unsatisfactory or
non-self and after that, he realized that there is no I who feel, there is only nature of pain. He
attained Sotāpanna while the tiger was eating his sole. He attained Sakadāgāmī while the
tiger was eating his knees. He attained Anāgāmī while the tiger was eating his belly button.
He attained Arahat before the tiger was eating his heart. As soon as he has attained he
proclaimed that I could totally break the round of Samsāra although I was eaten. (Ariya,
1998, February)
When we see the beautiful objects, we feel the pleasure. When we feel it we got
attached to pleasant feeling or pleasant objects. From these pleasant feelings, the craving
called Taṇhā in Pāli arises in man. This is reasonable because we love the pleasant things.
Here, some people may criticize seeing the ugly object. No one attaches the
unpleasant things. Actually, if we see the ugly object, we do not get attached to it. How
should we justify it? If so how does craving arise? The solution is that one who sees
unpleasant feeling wishes to have the pleasant object. The wish to have a pleasant object is
also because of the craving. Therefore, the Lord Buddha taught that dependent on feeling,
craving arises because the attachment generally occurs in people.
At the beginning of occurrence of craving, craving is not so strong. When craving
becomes strong, the carving changes into clinging called Upādāna in Pāli. The clinging arises
dependent on craving. The craving is a condition for clinging by way of decisive support
As long as we have these clingings, we will conduct bodily action, verbal action, and
mental action based on sense pleasure, wrong view, rites and ceremonies and doctrine of self
in the present life. Clinging is a condition for active existence called Bhava in Pāli because,
under the influence of clinging, one engages in activity that is accumulated as kamma.
Clinging is a condition for kammic existence because the same clinging leads one back into
the round of rebirth in a state determined by one’s kamma. Dependent on Clinging, people
will accumulate present action which is good or bad. Dependent on existence or present
action called Kamma in Pāli, people will be born again and again. Being born of people is
birth called Jāti in Pāli.
Vedanakkhandā (feeling), Saññakkandā (perception), Sañkhārakkhandā (mental formation),
and Viññāṇakkhadā (consciousness) and gaining of twelve kinds of the base; Cakkhāytana
(eye) Sotāyatana (ear) Gānāyatana (nose) Jivhāyatana (tongue) kāyāyatana (body),
Manāyatana (mind) Rūpāyatana (form or object), Saddāyatana (sound), Gandāyatana (smell),
Rasāyatana (taste), Phoṭṭhabbāyatana (tangibility), and Dhammāyatana (mental formation).
Therefore, the continuity “Depending on existence, birth arises” appears. The existence
(present kamma) is a condition for birth by way of decisive support and kamma condition. If
a man were born, he will be getting old and dead. Therefore Depending on birth, decay
called Jarā in Pāli, and death called Maraṇa in Pāli arise. Birth is conditioned for decay and
death. When people lose their beloved family members or relatives, they feel sorrowful,
lamentation, painful, grief, and despair. The incidental consequences of birth will also follow.
2.2.2 The Dependent Origination and Cessation of Problems in Daily Life
Here, the researcher would like to present the Dependent Origination operated in
everyday life. Actually, this Dependent Origination is not something new, because we can
observe the Dependent Origination within our daily activities performed by body or speech or
mind. Our actions or activities come out of a condition dependent on something. The
researcher takes the example of Dependent Origination in term of the social scale.
Supposed, there are two classmates named “John” and “Ivan” in the same school.
Whenever they meet at school, they smile and say “Hello” to each other. One day John sees
Ivan and approaches him with a friendly greeting ready. But Ivan replies him with silence and
a sour expression. Ivan’s behavior makes John anger. From that day, John stopped talking to
Ivan. In this case, the chain of reactions might proceed in the following way:
John is ignorant of the true reason for Ivan’s grim face and sullenness. He fails to
reflect on the matter wisely and to ascertain the real reasons for Ivan’s behavior. As a result
of this, John proceeds to think in his mind, conditioned by his temperament, and these give
rise to doubt, anger, and resentment, once again dependent on his particular temperament.
Under the influence of these situations, John thinks.
He takes note of and interprets Ivan’s behavior and actions in accordance with those
previous impressions; the more he thinks about it, the surer he gets angry. Ivan’s every
gesture seems to reinforce his negative impressions or thinking. John’s feelings, thoughts,
moods facial expressions and gestures, that is, the body and mind, begin to take on the overall
features of an angry or offended person, and primed to function in accordance with John's
thoughts. John’s sense organs are primed to receive information that is related to and
conditioned by the physical and mental state of anger or hurt.
The impingement on the sense organs will be Ivan’s activities that seem particularly
relevant to the case such as unfriendly gestures. Feelings, conditioned by sense contact, are
unpleasant because Ivan replied him with the silence. The craving for a friendly reply from
Ivan arises in John and he does not want an offensive image from Ivan and desire for it to go
away. When he is thinking it again and again, his craving became strong. Strong thinking in
relation to Ivan’s behavior follows. Ivan’s behavior is interpreted as a challenge; he is seen as
an adversary.
John’s subsequent behavior falls under the influence of strong craving and his actions
become those of an adversary. As the feeling of enmity becomes more obvious, it is assumed
as an identity. The distinction between “me” and “him” becomes more distinct, and then John
will repay him with the negative attitude next time. The negative thinking exists and is
dependent on certain conditions, such as the desire for honor, to preserve pride, and to be the
victor, all of which have their opposites, such as feelings of worthlessness, inferiority, and
failure. As soon as that negative thinking, it is confronted with the absence of any guarantee
of victory. Even if he does attain the victory he desires, there is no guarantee that John will be
able to preserve his supremacy for any length of time. He may not be the “tough victor” he
wants to be, but rather the loser.
These possibilities of suffering play with John’s moods and produce stress, insecurity,
and worry. Such negative thinking is like festering wounds that have not been treated, and so
continue to release their “poisoning” effect on John’s consciousness, influencing all of his
behavior, and causing problems both for himself and for others. In John’s case, he may feel
unhappy for the whole day, speaking gruffly to whoever he comes into contact with, and so
increasing the likelihood of more unpleasant incidents.
In this case, for John to practice correctly, he would be advised to start off on the right
foot: seeing his friend’s sullenness, he could use his intelligence or clear thinking or positive
thinking known as “Yoniso Manasikāra” in Pāli and reflect that Ivan may have some
problems on his mind – he may have been scolded by his mother, he may be in need of
money, or he may simply be depressed. If John reflected in this way, no incident would arise,
his mind would be also untroubled. And he might even be moved toward compassionate
actions and understanding. The positive thinking “Yoniso Manasikāra” is very important to
everyone. In accordance with it, the venerable P.A. Payutto states in the session of “The way
of Wisdom” in his book, Buddhadhamm as follows:
Monks, before the rising of the sun there is the dawn; the dawn is the
herald of the rising sun. In the same way, the perfection of “Yoniso
Manasikāra” is the herald of the Noble Eightfold Path. Of a monk who is
possessed of “Yoniso Manasikāra”, can be expected that he will flourish
and progress on the Noble Eightfold Path. (Payutto, 1996, P.333)
Once the negative chain of events has been set in motion, however, it can still be cut
off with mindfulness at any point. For instance, if it had continued on up to sense contact,
where Ivan’s actions were perceived in a negative way, John could still set up mindfulness
right there: instead of falling under the power of craving for friendly reply, he could instead
consider the facts of the situation and thereby gain a fresh understanding of Ivan’s behavior.
He could then reflect wisely in regard to both his own and his friend’s actions, so that
his mind would no longer be weighed down by negative emotional reactions, but instead
respond in a clearer and more positive way. Such reflection, in addition to causing no
problems for himself, could also serve to encourage the arising of compassion.
2.2.3 How to Train Your Mind to Be Able to Release from Frustration or Stress
Actually, we are social beings. We cannot stay away from society. We talk every day
with people in school, at work and in the office. Sometimes, we may face problems between
us. We may feel unhappy or stressful or frustrated or even get angry with people. Here the
researcher would like to present how to train or practice your mind to be able to release from
such a kind of frustration or stress according to his experience with the technique revealed by
Venerable Dhammasāmi, Oxford Sayādaw. When we experience like that, we need to train
the mind to be able to release from frustration or anger, etc. For this practice, we need to take
the normal time.
For example, we should take thirty minutes for taking training in a day. If we do not
train our mind to release from daily frustrations, they became strong and change into mental
solidity. Our mind or brain uses to collect the frustration like a computer collects the data. If a
computer is extremely full of the data, the computer will harm or broken down very soon.
Therefore we need to delete useless data and make it refresh to be easy to use. Likewise,
there are many useless emotions in us or our mind. We need to also delete them to be easy to
use our mind in daily activities. The researcher would like to present how to train our mind to
release from frustration. Firstly, we need to choose a quiet or suitable place or room.
We have to sit down folding our legs crosswise, holding our body erect or straight and
your face must be also straightforward and put right hand on the left hand and you have to be
breathing in and out slowly, gently, deeply. When you are breathing in and out, you do not
need to follow breathing wind.
You must focus your mind only on the top of the nose or nostril or at the top of the
upper lip where breathing wing touches. You must be mindful and aware of touching the
place on the top of the nose or nostril or upper lip by breathing wind. While you are training
your mind or, your mind may be going somewhere or imagining or thinking about what you
experienced good or bad and happy or unhappy in the past. Sometime, anxiety may be
coming. At that time you do not need to reject your thinking or imagining.
Don’t try to stop your thinking. Don’t fight against your mind. You need to accept
whatever you are thinking. You have to be in touch with what you are thinking about pain or
pleasure or frustration or stress in your heart. But you need to know that “I am thinking, I and
thinking, I am thinking.” You need to know or to be aware of former mind or thought by later
mind or thought constantly. Do not expect what would be happening. Just keep breathing in
and out mindful. This is a very important aspect. Our thought or thinking does not exist for
very long but temporary.
After that, your mind returns to the place where breathing wind is touching. And then,
you need to ardently mindfully keep knowing the touching the top of the nose or nostril or
upper lip by breathing wind. If your mind is going out of your original object which is
touching place by breathing wind you must do, train or practice as researcher mentions
before. Why do we practice like this? Practicing or training like this looks like fastening a
wild cow by rope.
Practicing to know the touching place by breathing wind is like fastening our wild
mind by mindfulness. Just as if a wild cow is tied, the cow will try to go away so too if our
mind also is tied by mindfulness it will try to go away from the original object which is
touching place.
When the wild cow tries to go away he goes around the pillar where he was tied. The
rope also becomes shot gradually. Finally, the cow cannot try to go and then he calms down
at the foot of the pillar. Similarly, if you practice every day, our mind which is going or
thinking or imagining every moment also becomes calm down.
At that time your mind becomes clear or fresh without any complicated thought. After
that, you can make a decision rightly about what you face problems. If you can make a
decision you can reduce problems or frustration or stress. Your mind is also ready to do new
things and happy to work or study Seventy-five percents of the problems start with the
repeatedly thinking about what you face in the past. Therefore we need to train to stay our
mind in the present moment.
Relaxation Meditation Technique to Reduce Negative Emotion
It is very important to be able to get good relaxation of mind and body in case of
handling emotional management. Relaxation meditation technique was revealed by
Venerable Oxford Sayādaw, D.r Dhammasāmi. Relaxation meditation uses the mindfulness
and coordinates exhausted mind and body. If we do not make coordination the mind and
body, we cannot make our mind feel relax or refresh although our body takes a rest. If our
body is restless we cannot make our mind take a rest or fresh. If both of mind and body are
able to be taken a rest simultaneously we would be filled with energy.
We can take meditation training in anywhere; on the bus, on the flight, in the office,
etc. Sit down squat, keep your body straight, keep face forward and put right hand on left
hand. In this point, we need to register or accept our exhausted body. Do not blame or resist
the exhausted body. Our body is exhausted because you are tired. The muscles are tense and
heavy because over the weeks, over the months and over the years, you have been
accumulating a lot of stress.
Venerable Oxford Sayādaw mentions that ‘Don’t fight with the exhausted body.
People feel tired because they collect the stress chemical daily. Just accept it. Look at it with
compassion like a mother looks at her baby with compassion. Relax mind and body, breath
slowly and deeply. The muscles around your forehead, around your eyes, around your cheek
both left and right, around your chin; all the muscles are tense because you are tired.
(Oxford Sayadaw, 2017)
Please relax, place your tongue on the flow of your mouth; breath in and out slowly
and gently. He also mentions about negative emotion in his book named Emotion
Management and Mindful Compassion that we do not need to judge negative emotion to be
good or bad and right or wrong. We manage negative emotion by mindfulness and
compassion which is non-judgemental mindfulness. What we happen in daily is that we
unnecessarily over-react using our physical and mental energy rather than we face problems
For example, when we hear what we do not like from others the survival instinct will arise in
The scientists said that survival instinct means chemicals occurring in nature in the
matter of life and death. Scientists said that both of fight and flight are called survival
instinct. The fight is for fighting against. Flight is for running away after fighting. We should
use survival instinct in the case of emergency situation.
Do not fight with exhaustion. Just accept it and take gentle breathing for the tired
body. Don’t interfere with the physical process. Just accept it totally without interfering with
the process. Then the body will heal itself. Breath deeply and slowly, slow and gentle breath.
Deep in-breath. Slow out-breath. Don’t force to release from tension and don’t expect about
the future during taking a meditation or training our mind. Next procedure is as the same as
the researcher mention earlier before.
2.3 The Principle of Dependent Origination on Social Context
There are many Suttas dealing with Dependent Origination in the Pāli Canon;
Paṭiccasmuppāda vibhanga Sutta appeared in the Nidānavagga Pāli in Samyutta Nikāya
(according to Myanmar Pitaka association, it appeared two Suttas divided to be
Paticcasamuppāda Sutta and Vibhanga Sutta), appeared in Visuddhimagga Aṭṭhakathā, in
Mahānidāna Sutta appeared in Dīgha Nikāya in Mahāvagga Pāli and appeared in the
Abhidhamma Pitaka in Vibhanga Pāli.
Among them, the Mahānidāna Sutta is dealt with the social scale. The researcher will
present the Dependent Origination on a social scale based on this Sutta. In this Sutta, the
Buddha explained the principle of Dependent Origination both on an individual basis as
occurs within the mind, and also in a social content as it occurs in human relationships. But
here the researcher will present only in social scale.
The researcher would like to show the process of Dependent Origination and
Dependent Cessation of Parābhava Sutta in terms of the story of Kālayakkhinī. At the time of
the Buddha, there was a woman in Sāvatthi. When she gave a birth to a baby, an Ogress
(Kālayakkhinī) named Kāli was in pursuit of the lady with the baby to eat a baby. She went to
the Lord Buddha and placed her son at the Buddha’s feet for protection. The guardian spirit
of the monastery did not give the admission to enter a monastery.
Later, the Lord Buddha called the ogress. The Lord Buddha told them about enmity or
feud in their past lives. The Lord Buddha told them that you both are rival wives of a
common husband. Elder one is barren and another younger one is fruitful. When the younger
one is pregnant, the other wife understood that my husband will love her more than me and
the baby will also inherit all belongings. The elder wife caused abortion of the other one. The
younger wife eventually died with the intention to avenge on her in childbirth.
In the next life, the younger wife was a cat and the elder was a hen. The cat conquered
the hen. In another next life, the elder became a leopard and the younger became a deer. The
leopard conquered the deer. During the Buddha’s time, the younger wife became an ogress
and the elder became a lady in Sāvatthi. Finally, the Lord Buddha gave the Dhamma talk to
them in order to refrain from killing each other in the future; Hatred does not cease by hatred
at any time: hatred ceases by love, this is an old rule. (DhpA, I, Pp.44-53)
2.3.1 Origination of Downfalls
In this story, two wives killed each other four times in many lives. They existed in the
present life. If we observe the story, we need to trace the root of the problems between two
wives. In the present life, the ogress tried to kill a baby of a woman. Why the ogress did so?
As the researcher mentioned, in the third life, the ogress was a deer. It was eaten by a leopard
that is once a woman in the previous life. In second life, the leopard was a hen. It was eaten
by a cat that was a deer in a previous life. In the first life, the hen was an elder wife. The cat
was a young wife. In this life, the elder wife killed the young wife.
Why the elder wife did so? The reason is that she was worried about her husband’s
love as a rival wife of the common husband because she is a barren one while the other
younger one is fruitful. And the elder wife understood human nature that husband loves a
wife who is a fruitful wife rather than a wife who is barren.
She feels isolated dependent on the other wife. The elder wished that husband would
love her more. According to Dependent Origination, the craving which is called Tanhā for
gaining her husband’s love more arises dependent on that feeling. Dependent on the craving,
the clinging to the sensual pleasure which is called Upādāna arises in her.
In the moment of Upādāna, people cannot control their mind because Upādāna is
stronger than the craving. Therefore, the elder one tried to kill the younger one. According to
Pāticcasamuppāda, the act of killing is called existence (Bhava).
Dependent on clinging to sensual pleasure, Upādāna, existence (Bhava) arises in her.
Dependent on existence, Birth (Jāti) arises. As long as we accumulate the new action which is
good or bad, we will be born again and again in the Samsāra. Therefore, the two wives were
born again and again after having done an act of killing each other. They fell into downfall in
many lives, because they did not love the Dhamma. If they did love the Dhamma and
refrained from killing each other, they would not fall into downfall.
2.3.2 Cessation of Downfalls
Fortunately, they arrived at the foot of Buddha. They had a chance to listen to the
Dhamma talk. After listening to the Dhamma, the ogress understood their terrible previous
lives and happened between them. She felt happy on account of the Dhamma. She listened to
the Buddha. She had no desire to kill and eat the baby. If she ceases her desire or craving,
there would not be clinging to sensual pleasure in her. If clinging to sensual pleasure ceases
in her, she would not try to kill a baby. At the same time, there would not be existence in her.
If existence ceases, they will not be born as an enemy from each other in the future life. Their
avenge also will cease. If their avenge ceases, they can live together in peace. They will never
fall into downfall. In this way, Buddhist teachings help people reduce the problems in the
Dependent On
Kammic formations
Mind and Matter
Mind and Matter,
Six sense bases
Six bases
Decay, and Death
3.1 Downfalls or Destruction of Human’s Acts
This chapter will start with the Buddha’s words “Yathāpi nāma jaccando, naro
aparināyako, Ekadā yāti maggena, kummggena pi ekadā” which means that ordinary people
sometimes go through the right way and sometimes go through the wrong way like a blind
man walking in the dark. (VbhA-P-150) The Lord Buddha said these words intending to the
ordinary people because ordinary people sometimes do good things and sometimes do bad
things. The Lord Buddha uses to teach Dhamma dividing what is wrong and what is right or
what should be practiced and what should be avoided. In this chapter, the researcher will
present the immoral conducts that should be avoided based on the Doctrine of Parābhava
Sutta. The Lord Buddha taught this Sutta so that people can understand that these
immoralities can cause the problems and avoid them. It is not easy completely to know what
degenerate a person downfall or destruct from physical and psychological progress and which
develop a person progress for ordinary people.
But the Lord Buddha completely knows about downfall or destruction of people and
progress. Consequently, the Lord Buddha had addressed five destinations of beings and
Nibbāna dealt with decline and progress to his top disciple, Sāriputta in the Mahāsīhanāda
Sutta in Mijjhima Nikāya as follows:
"Sariputta, there are five destinations. What are these five? Hell, the
animal realm, the realm of ghosts, human beings, and gods.
(1) "I understand hell, and the path and way leading to hell. And I also
understand how one who has entered this path will, on the dissolution of
the body, after death, reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy
destination, in perdition, in hell.
(2) "I understand the animal realm, and the path and way leading to the
animal realm. And I also understand how one who has entered this path
will, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in the animal
(3) "I understand the realm of ghosts, and the path and way leading to the
realm of ghosts. And I also understand how one who has entered this path
will, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in the realm of
(4) "I understand human beings, and the path and way leading to the human
world. And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, on
the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear among human beings.
(5) "I understand the gods, and the path and way leading to the world of the
gods. And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, on the
dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a happy destination, in the
heavenly world.
(6) "I understand Nibbana, and the path and way leading to Nibbana. And I
also understand how one who has entered this path will, by realizing it for
himself with direct knowledge, here and now enter upon and abide in the
deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that is taintless with the
destruction of the taints. (MN, I. P. 74)
The Parābhava sutta appears in the Sutta Nipāta in Khuddaka Nikāya. This sermon
consists of twelve pairs of questions and answers composing twenty-four verses. This sutta
was translated by Venerable Nārada Thera. Although there are many translators to this sutta,
the researcher chooses the Venerable Nārada Thera’s translation to this sutta because his
translation is very easy to understanding and very clear. The Venerable Nārada Thera
mentions the whole Sutta in terms of the questions and answers orderly. But the researcher
will present it one by one according to the context.
The Venerable Nārada mentions the first question as follows: Having come here with
our questions to the Blessed One, we ask you, O Gotama, about man’s decline. Pray, tell us
the cause of one’s downfall! (Sn. P, 19)
Since questions are all the same, the researcher will not mention the questions in the
later session. The Venerable Nārada Thera mentions the first answer to this question as
follows: Easily known is the progressive one, easily known he who declines. He who loves
Dhamma will progress. He who is averse to it will decline.
Here, we need to know what Dhamma is according to Buddhist teachings. The
commentary of Parābhava Sutta in Suttanipāta Aṭṭhkathā of Khuddaka Nikāya said that
Dhamma here means ten kinds of access to Merits (Kusalas) or wholesome action
(kusalakammapatha). In each verse, there are many aspects of downfall. The researcher will
not focus on everything. It will be emphasized in some particular aspects only. It is intended
to present how terrible opposition to the Dhamma is, for those who are averse to the Dhamma
by pointing the story of Devadatta appeared in the Dhammapada Aṭṭhakathā of Khuddaka
Nikāya. The researcher will present about Devadatta who is averse to the Dhamma
3.1.1 Opposition to the Dhamma
Devadatta is one of Buddha’s disciples. In early days, when Devadatta became a
monk, he was a good monk and was known for his elegance and psychic power. But later, he
became quite arrogant and desired worldly fame, honor, and gain. When he was unable to be
Arahat, his desire for worldly fame and jealousy of Buddha grew even more and began
thinking that he should be the leader of the order of the monks.
One day he asked Lord Buddha to retire from the Order and made him the leader to
take over the running of Sangha (a group of monks). But the Lord Buddha denied
immediately and said that he was not worthy of letting him take over the Order.
And that was the main reason that started his anger, ill will, and jealousy toward Lord
Buddha and became Buddha’s enemy. He made several attempts to kill Lord Buddha. After
failing in every attempt to take revenge on Lord Buddha, he organized the younger monks
and novices to leave from Lord Buddha to establish a new schism. (DhpA, I. P,133)
Not long after he left, The Lord Buddha addressed Acirapakkanta Sutta in
Nidānavagga Pāli of Samyutta Nikāya to the monks with reference to the Devadatta.
"Bhikkhus, Devadatta's gain,, honor, and praise arose to his own downfall
and destruction. Just as a plantain tree, a bamboo, or a reed yields fruit to
its own downfall and destruction, so Devadatta's gain, honor, and praise
arose to his own downfall and destruction. Just as a mule becomes pregnant
to its own downfall and destruction, so Devadatta's gain, honor, and praise
arose to his own downfall and destruction. So dreadful, bhikkhus, are gain,
honor, and praise...Thus should you train yourselves."(Bodhi, 2003, p. 692)
Finally, His psychic powers disappeared due to his evil kamma and he ended his life
badly without becoming a leader of Order and fell into the hell suffering a lot of troubles.
Here, some people may criticize why the Lord Buddha did not save the Devadatta and why
the Lord Buddha permitted him to be ordained. If the Lord Buddha was omniscient, He
should not permit him to be ordained. About this critique, the researcher will present the
discussion on this argument between Nāgasena and King Milinda in the book of the Debate
of King Milinda written by Bhikkhu Pesala. The King Milinda asked the followings:
“If the Buddha was both omniscient and full of compassion why did he
admit Devadatta to the Order, since by causing a schism he was thereby
consigned to hell for an aeon? If the Buddha did not know what Devadatta
would do then he was not omniscient and if he knew then he was not
The Venerable Nāgasena replied that:
“The Lord Buddha was both omniscient and full of compassion. It was
because he foresaw that Devadatta’s suffering would become limited that
he admitted him to the Order (to be ordained) As a man of influence might
have a criminal's sentence mitigated from execution to the cutting off of
hands and feet but would not thereby be responsible for the pain and
suffering that that man had to undergo, or as a clever physician would make
a critical disease lighter by giving a powerful purgative, so did the Buddha
reduce the future suffering of Devadatta by admitting him to the Order.
After he has suffered for the rest of the aeon in purgatory Devadatta will be
released and become a solitary Buddha by the name of Aṭṭhissara.”
(Pesala, 2001, p. 80)
The Venerable Nārada Thera continues the next verse dealing with the laziness and
fondness of the company as follows: Being fond of sleep, fond of company, indolent, lazy
and manifesting anger— this is a cause of one's downfall. Although there are many aspects of
downfalls or destructions in this verse, the researcher will present how terrible the laziness
and fondness of the company are, by pointing the story of Mahādhana Setthi. This story
appeared in the Dhammapada in Suttanipāta of Khuddaka Nikāya.
3.1.2 Laziness and Finding the Pleasure with the Assembled Company
This story shows how the laziness to study, to earn a living and to search for
Dhamma can lead to the destruction of worldly riches and spiritual progress (Dhamma
progress). In this story, there was a son of Mahādhana, a rich man in Bārānasī city while the
Lord Buddha was residing at the Migadāya wood. The son of Mahādhana did not study
anything while he was young.
He was enjoyed going to festivals and dissipating all the time with his friends. When
he came of age he married the daughter of another rich man, who, like him, also had no
education. They could not manage their business. They could not lead their employees. They
spent their valuable time by dissipating. When the parents on both sides died, they inherited
eighty crores (eight hundred million) from each side and so were very rich. But both of them
were ignorant and knew only how to spend money finding the pleasure their friends and not
well understood how to keep it or to earn more money.
They just ate and drank and had a good time, squandering their money. In the course
of time, they became very poor and helpless. One day, the Buddha saw the rich man's son
leaning against a wall of the monastery, taking the leftovers given him by the sāmaneras;
seeing him, the Buddha smiled. The Venerable Ānanda asked the Buddha the reason why he
smiled. The Buddha replied to the followings:
Ānanda, look at this son of a very rich man; he had lived a useless life, an aimless life
of pleasure. If he had learned to look after his wealth in the first stage of his life he would
have been a top-ranking rich man; or if he had become a bhikkhu (monk), he could have been
an Arahat, and his wife could have been an Anāgāmī.
If he had learned to look after his wealth in the second stage of his life he would have
been a second rank rich man, or if he had become a bhikkhu he could have been an Anāgāmī,
and his wife could have been a Sakadāgāmī. If he had learned to look after his wealth in the
third stage of his life he would have been a third rank rich man, or if he had become a
bhikkhu he could have been a Sakadāgāmī, and his wife could have been a Sotāpanna.
However, because he had done nothing in all the three stages of his life and he spent his
valuable time by being drowsy, being fond of society, dissipation in luxurious life, being
lazy, he had lost all his worldly riches, he had also lost all opportunities of attaining any of
the Maggas and Phalas. (Tin, D. M, 1990, p. 314)
The researcher would like to present about how to make progress of wealth in terms
of Buddhist perspective. The Vyaggāpajjha Sutta is dealt with the condition for worldly
progress. This Sutta was taught to the Dīghajānu in order to progress the wealth and
happiness in this life and in the future.
According to this sutta, there are four conditions conducive to wealth and happiness in
this very life; 1. the accomplishment of persistent effort (Uṭṭhāna sampadā), 2. the
accomplishment of watchfulness (Ārakkha sampadā), 3. the accomplishment of a good
friendship (Kalyāṇamittatā), 4. balance livelihood (Samajīvitā). Commenting on this sutta,
the Venerable Nārada Thera says as follows:
In this sutta, the Buddha instructs rich householders how to preserve and
increase their prosperity and how to avoid loss of wealth. Wealth alone,
however, does not make a complete man nor a harmonious society.
Possession of wealth all too often multiplies man's desires, and he is ever in
the pursuit of amassing more wealth and power. This unrestrained craving,
however, leaves him dissatisfied and stifles his inner growth. It creates
conflict and disharmony in society through the resentment of the
underprivileged who feel exploited by the effects of unrestrained craving.
Therefore the Buddha follows up on his advice on material welfare with
four essential conditions for spiritual welfare: confidence (in the Master's
enlightenment), virtue, liberality, and wisdom. These four will instill in
man a sense of higher values. He will then not only pursue his own material
concern but also be aware of his duty toward society. To mention only one
of the implications: a wisely and generously employed liberality will
reduce tensions and conflicts in society. Thus the observing of these
conditions of material and spiritual welfare will make for an ideal citizen in
an ideal society. (Nārada Thera, 1997)
3.1.3 Manifesting Anger
Here, the researcher would like to present a story of Phandana from Jataka Aṭṭhakathā
referring to the downfall or destruction out of anger. Once upon a time, there was a Brahmin
carpenter in a village. He earned by bringing wood from the forest and making carts. At that
time, there was a great plassery tree (Kyoet pin in Myanmar) in the forest. A black lion used
to go and lie at its root when a hunting for food. One day the wind blew the tree, and a dry
branch fell down upon lion’s shoulders. That made him painful, and he ran away out of fear;
then he looked on the path he came by and seeing nothing thought, “There is no other lion or
tiger, nor any.
The lion thought that this maybe perpetration of the deity of the tree and he got angry
with deity and cried “I did not eat a leaf from your tree, I did not break a branch; you. What is
wrong with me? Wait a few days, and I will destroy your tree and branches.” One day, the
lion saw the Brahmin carpenter coming to find the wood for making cart in the forest and
suggested him that the plassery tree is very good for making a cart.
The lion lets him cut it down. While the Brahmin is cutting down the tree, the deity of
the tree came up to the Brahmin and told him, “Oh man! What will you do with it? The
Brahmin replied that I am cutting this tree to make a cart. The deity asked “Has anyone told
you that this tree is good for a cart? “Yes, a Lion.” The deity got angry with the lion and he
said “Well, you can make a fine cart out of that tree and suggested that if you cover off the
skin from lion’s neck, and put it around the outer edge of the wheel, the wheel will be strong.
The Brahmin also killed the lion and took off the skin and did so the deity said. The Brahmin
killed the lion, cut down the tree and went away. (Cowell, 1990, vol; iv p. 129)
In this story, their malice or anger started from the branch of the tree falling down on
the lion. The lion made a judgment with the improper intention towards the deity (Ayoniso
manasikāra). Deity contends with lion and the lion also contends with deity. They tried to
destroy each other through anger. Here, if the lion could understand in this incident or think
properly, he will not get angry with deity. If so they would not destroy each other, they can
live together in peace.
In Myanmar history, there had been an incident similar to this story in 1947. At that
time, the people of Myanmar was fighting against British for independence. General Aung
San, father of Aung San Suu Kyi, current state counselor of Myanmar and his group lead his
army and drove the British Army out of the country.
General Aung San became a leader of the people of Myanmar. After ending the war,
while he was demanding independence from the British government, he and his cabinets were
assassinated by U Saw who wanted to take control of the power. U Saw killed them because
he suspected that members of a group led by General Aung San shot at him in case of loss of
one of his eyes on account of shooting by another group.
As the result of this assassination, people of Myanmar fell into a lot of trouble with
the civil wars and there had been a great conflict between ethnic armed groups and army. At
the same time, the country failed to progress or develop. If U Saw tried to understand this
incident rightly or think properly he would not kill them. He would also not be punished.
Myanmar would not fall into a bad situation. Here, the proper intention or thinking (Yoniso
manasikāra) is very important to everyone. We should not make a judgment too quickly
about what we experience without careful consideration.
We need to put away malice when it arises in us. About putting away malice in us, In
Pancaka Nipāta of Anguttara Nikāya the Lord Buddha gave five ways of putting away
malice: We can put away malice by loving-kindness, compassion,
unmindfulness or inattention to it, and we should think that this is of one’s own making, the
heir to deeds, deeds are the matrix, deeds are the kin, deeds are the foundation; whatever one
does good or bad one will become heir to that. In this way, malice can be put away.
(AN, III. P, 163)
The Nārada Thera stated the next cause of downfall dealing with the failure to support
to old parents as follows: “Though being well-to-do, not to support father and mother who are
old and past their youth — this is a cause of one's downfall.” The researcher would like to
present the story of Bodhisatta in one of the past life in order to avoid failure to support
parents and to take responsibility for them.
People ignore to take care or support their parents while they are alive. But when
parents are dead, children feel so sad because they would not have supported their parent.
They feel regretted. But being regretted is useless. The Buddha himself supports his parent in
this story as follows.
3.1.4 Support to Old Parents Praised by the Buddha
The Lord Buddha taught to support old parents. He himself made a lot of supports
toward his blind parents when he was Boddhisatta, Suvaṇṇaṣāma in his one of the previous
life. The Buddha was role model for people in the present day. The Lord Buddha praises in
favor of support to parents. We are social beings. We cannot stay away from society. Our
inner life is revealed for better or worse through all of our relationships. We will now have
the opportunity to examine the nature and quality of our relationship in six different
categories. The Buddha delivered a discourse especially to help lay people make their
relationships harmonious. It is called the Siñgāla Sutta (DN, III. P.180).
This Sutta appeared in the Pāthikavagga Pāli in Dīgha Nikāya. In this sutta, the Lord
Buddha instructs a layperson called Siñgāla on how to “honor the six directions”. In ancient
India, (some places even today) a daily devotional practice included honoring the sixdirections: east, south, west, north, below, and above.
The Lord Buddha uses the pattern to invite reflection or wholesome action in six types
of relationships: those between (1) parents and children, (2) teachers and pupils, (3) husband
and wife or spouses, (4) friends and colleagues, (5) employers and employee, and (6) holy
people and seekers. In each case, particular duties are mentioned for both sides in the
relationship. if you adopt the Buddha’s guidance on how to behave, maximum possible
benefits will accrue to all concerned. Among these relationships, the researcher focuses on
relationship between parents and children.
According to Sigālovāda Sutta, mother and father as the eastern direction should be
respected by a child: ‘I will support and take care of them back who support and take care of
me when I was young; I will do my duties to serve them; I will maintain my family lineage
and tradition; I will be worthy of my inheritance, and I will make merits on behalf of dead
ancestors.’ And the mother and father so respected reciprocate with compassion in five ways:
‘by restraining you from wrongdoing; guiding you towards good action; training you in a
profession; sharing properties with you and making you a choice of suitable spouse.’
In this way, the eastern direction is protected and made peaceful and secure. The
following story is very popular in Myanma tradition. It is related to supporting old parents.
The researcher would like to present the story dealt with the support of parents. The Burmese
proverbs “Kyway Thit Cha, Kyway Haung Set” and “Shwe Oh Myhoke” are very popular.
The word ‘Kyway Thit’ means new debt. The word ‘Cha’ means performing the duty. So
parents have to perform their duties toward their children.
And the word ‘Kyway Haung’ means old debt. The word ‘Set’ means repaying old
debt. So, children have to repay or perform back duty toward their old parents. And the word
‘Shew Oh’ means a pot of treasure. The word ‘Myhoke’ means to bury. So, the children have
to support the old people in the society. This proverb comes from the Jātaka story called
Sālikedāra. This story appeared in the Khuddhaka Nikāya.
In his previous life, the Bodhisattva was born among the flock of the parrots. When its
parents were getting old, the parrot did not permit his parents to look for food. He flew to
Himalaya Mountain to look for food for his parents every day with the companies of parrot.
On his return home or net, he brought food sufficient for his mother and father and fed them
with it. One day, he and his companies went to another farm in Māgadha. The farmer drove
off the birds, but he could not drive off away from the field.
One the next day, the farmer set the snare in order to catch the parrots. Finally, he was
captured into the snare. The farmer took the parrot out of the snare and brought to the master
Brahmin who is the owner of fields. The Brahmin asked him where you put the rice that you
brought. Do you have a granary? The parrot replied that I have no granary to store the rice. I
repay the old debt. I pay the new debt. There I store a treasure. The Brahmin did not
understand what the parrot said. The Brahmin asked again to the parrot that what you mean
by repaying of old debt and paying new debt and what is a treasure that you store. The parrot
explained the meaning to the Brahmin that “O! Brahmin, (1) repay of old debt means taking
care of parents. They took care of me by feeding the food when I was younger. Now that they
are getting old, they are not able to fly to look for food. I am responsible to take care of my
parent in return, and (2) pay of new debt means taking care of the children.
They are not able to fly to look for food because their wings are not strong enough to
fly. I am also responsible to take care of my children, and (3) restore treasure means taking
care of old parrots who are helpless rather than the parents. I am responsible to take care of
old parrots that are helpless. The Brahmin was pleased when he heard this pious discourse
from the parrot. He gives a thousand acres to the parrot, but the parrot accepted only eight
acres. (Cowell, Vol, iv, 1990, pp. 175–178)
We can observe the parent’s hopes to see their children’s future in accordance with
the five factors in Putta Sutta in Pancaka Nipāta of Anguttara Nikāya as follows:
What five? Kids who we cared for, will care of us again when we are
getting old; Our kids will perform family affairs as their duty when we are
getting old; Our kids will keep up our traditions (cultures, customs, and
religions etc) very long; Our kids will worthily possess his heritage; Our
kids will make an offering to the petas when we are dead. (An, III, P.35)
3.1.5 Discrimination in Birth and Caste
Another cause of downfall or destruction is dealing with the discriminating someone
in birth or wealth and caste. This evidence bad happened during the Buddha time. The
venerable Buddhaghosa who wrote the Sutta Nipāta Aṭṭhakathā points out the story of
Vitaḍhūbha in connection with the discrimination. This story appeared in the Dhammapada in
Khuddaka Nikāya. The story will illustrate how dangerous discrimination is.
While the Buddha was dwelling at the Jetavana monastery in Sāvatthi, King Pasenadi
of Kosala, wishing to marry the clan of the Sakyans, sent some emissaries to Kapilavatthu
with a request for the hand of one of the Sakyan princesses. Not wishing to offend King
Pasenadi, the Sakyan princes replied that they would comply with his request, but instead of a
Sakyan princess, they sent a very beautiful girl born of King Mahānāma and a slave woman.
King Passenadi made that girl be one of his chief queens and subsequently she gave birth to a
This son was named Viṭatūbha. When the prince was sixteen years old, he was sent on
a visit to King Mahānāma, his grandfather, and the relatives, Sakyan princes. There he was
received with some hospitality. But all the Sakyan princes who were younger than Viṭatūbha
had been sent away to a village so that they would not have to pay respect to Viṭatūbha
because Viṭatūbha’s mother belongs to slave (Shudras) (sudda in Pāli). The clan of Viṭatūbha
is half of king and half of slave (Shudra).
After staying a few days in Kapilivatthu, Viṭatūbha and his company left for home.
Soon after they left, a slave girl was washing with milk the place where Viṭatūbha had sat;
she was also curing him, shouting, “This is the place where the son of a slave woman had
sat”. At the moment, a member of Viṭatūbha’s entourage returned to fetch something which
he had left at the place and heard what the slave girl said.
The slave girl also told him that Viṭatūbha’s mother, Vāsabhakhattiyā was the
daughter of a slave girl belonging to Mahānāma. When Viṭatūbha was told about the above
incident, he became wild with rage and declared that slave woman washed the place where I
sat with the milk and one day, I will wash that place where I sat with their blood of throat.
True to his word, Viṭaṭūbha became a great king of Sāvatthi. When he became king, he
marched to fight against the Sakyan clan and massacred them all as he declared when he was
a prince, with the exception of Mahānāma and a few people.
He washed the place where he sat with the blood of throat of Sakyan people. Many
Sakyan people were killed by Viṭaṭūbha. Actually, this conflict starts from the discrimination
based on clan or birth. The discrimination rooted by the arrogance (Māna) is the main cause
of Sakyan’s downfall. About this discrimination or arrogance in birth, wealth, and caste, the
Venerable P.A. Payutto wrote the concept of cause and effect in his book, Buddhadamma as
A woman or man is stubborn and unyielding, proud, arrogant and
disrespectful to those who should be respected. At death, on account of that
kamma, developed and nurtured within, that person goes to a woeful born,
neither worlds, to hell or if not reborn in hell but as a human being, he or
she will be born into a low class of family. (Payutto, 1996, p-190)
At the time of the Buddha, the caste system was firmly established in India.
According to this system, a person's position in society was determined from the time he was
born and there was no way to change his lot in life. There were four castes, or classes, of
people in society:
1. The Brahmins or priests, who claimed to be the highest caste and the purest of peoples
2. The warriors 3. The merchants and traders 4. The Untouchables, who were considered the
lowest class. They became workers and servants who did all the menial jobs and were treated
as slaves. The Buddha condemned the caste system, which he considered unjust.
He pointed out that there existed wicked and cruel people as well as virtuous and kind
people in every caste. Any person who had committed a crime would be punished
accordingly by his karma no matter what caste he belonged to. He said a person may be
considered to have come from a high or low caste according to his good and bad deeds.
Therefore, according to the Buddha, it is the good and bad actions of a person and not
his birth that should determine his caste. The Buddha introduced the idea of placing a higher
value on morality and the equality of people instead of on which family or caste a person is
born into. This was also the first attempt to abolish discrimination and slavery in the history
of mankind. In Vasala Sutta, The Buddha said to the Brahmin, Aggikabhāradvāja as follows:
By birth one is not an outcast,
By birth one is not a Brahmin;
By deeds alone one is an outcast,
By deeds alone, one is a Brahmin (Sn, pp, 21-25)
The Venerable Nārada Thera goes to the next stanza that to be a rake, a drunkard, a
gambler, and to squander all one earns — this is a cause of one's downfall. There are many
problems in case of intoxicant and gambling. There are many worldly pleasures around us.
People want to enjoy worldly pleasures and follow the worldly amusement. They lose their
control of spending money on enjoyment. They carelessly spend their money too much in the
enjoyment. Later, their properties become lesser and lesser and they try to make money by
shortcut ways like making money by gambling. The researcher presented about destruction
due to this kind of vice in order to be avoided according to Singālovāda Sutta.
3.1.6 Indulging in Intoxicants and Gambling
The researcher will emphasize the consequences of womanizing, to get drunk and
gambling. The man who is a drunkard, a gambler, and one who squanders whatever he
possesses – this is also the cause of one’s downfall. The researcher would like to present the
process of conflict or problems with the gambling and indulging in intoxicants in our society.
When a gambler lost his possessions he will steal what is not given. If he could not
steal, he will use weapons. He will kill people and also lie abounds, slander abounds and
other criminals.
In Singālovāda Sutta, the Buddha taught the six evil consequences in
indulging in intoxicants which cause infatuation and heedlessness;
(1) lost of wealth, (2) increase of quarrels, (3) susceptibility to diseases, (4)
earning an evil refutation, (5) shameless exposure of the body, (6)
weakening of intellect.
There are also the six evil consequences in indulging in gambling: (1) the
winner begets hate, (2) the loser grieves for lost wealth, (3) loss of wealth,
(4) his word is not relied upon in a court of law, (5) he is despised by his
friends and associates, and (6) he is not sought after for his matrimony; for
people would say he is a gambler and not fit to look after his wife.
(DN, III. P, 180)
About livelihood, the researcher will discuss in the fourth chapter.
The Venerable Nārada Thera goes to the next verse dealing with the sexual
misconduct: Not to be contented with one's own wife, and to be seen with harlots and the
wives of others — this is a cause of one's downfall. This sexual misconduct is one of the
biggest problems in the world. Most of the people lose their control of the sexual misconduct
in their society. They researcher highlights how awful the problem of adultery is.
3.1.7 Committing Adultery
This destruction or downfall is dealt with sexual misconduct or adultery. When a man
who is not contented with his own wife, he used to make sexual relationship with someone
other than his spouse, including prostitutes. If someone commits sexual misconduct or
adultery in a family, the family would lose unity. Family members would feel disappointed
and separate from each other. They would suffer a lot of troubles in this life as well as the
next life. Therefore the Lord Buddha pointed out that adultery is one of the causes of one’s
downfall. In connection with this, the following story will illustrate how the adultery is awful.
This story appeared in the Dhammapada in Khuddaka Nikāya.
During the Buddha’s time, Passenadi Kosala was the king of Sāvatthi. One day, the
king saw a beautiful young woman. He instantly fell in love with her. But she is already
married. So the king planned to get her. The king made her husband serve at the palace.
One day, the king sent her husband to a place far away from Sāvaṭṭhi on an impossible duty.
The king’s intention was to kill the husband if he failed his duty. Moreover the king planned
to take the wife for himself. But the husband succeeded in performing the assigned duty.
King Passenadi could not sleep and kept thinking how he could punish the husband in the
morning by taking his wife. At about midnight, he heard four frightening sounds which are
Du, Sa, Na, So from each of them. Hearing those weird voices, the king was terrified. Early
in the morning, he went to the Lord Buddha to ask about terrible voices.
The Lord Buddha explained to the king that those were the voices of four men
suffering in Lohakumbhī (hell). They were the sons of rich men during the time of Kassapa
Buddha, and that now they were suffering in the hell because they had committed sexual
misconduct or adultery.
Then, the king came to realize the depravity of the deed and the severity of the
punishment. So he decided that he would no longer continue his plan of taking another man’s
wife. He reflected “after all, it was on account of my intense desire for another man’s wife
that I was tormented and could not sleep the whole night” (COMMITTEE, 1990, p. 210)
In Myanmar society, the word Du Sa Na So is standing as a warning about
committing an adultery for people not to commit it. People in Myanmar use to warn people
who are willing to commit adultery that: “Don’t commit adultery. If you do so, you will
suffer in the hell like a Du Sa Na So.
3.2 Relationship between Parābhava Sutta and Mangala Sutta and Its Philosophy
After hearing the Mangala Sutta from the Lord Buddha, deities thought that “the
Lord Buddha taught Mangala Sutta in which only the way of life conducive to progress and
happiness was taught by the Buddha for the sake of human beings. The Buddha has not
taught yet the way of life conducive to cause of one’s downfall and worry.
The next day, deities from ten thousand of heaven gathered in the same place in order
to listen to Parābhava Sutta. One of the deities asked the questions concerning the cause of
one’s downfalls. With great compassion, the Lord Buddha taught this Sutta in terms of
questions and answers. This Parābhava Sutta comes from Khuddaka Nikāya, Suttanipāta Pāli.
Mangala Sutta is dealing with the way of life conducive to progress and happiness for
the welfare of beings. On the next day, The Lord Buddha taught Parābhava Sutta dealing with
causes of downfall so that people can avoid them. Therefore the Parābhava Sutta is the
supplement of the Mangala Sutta.
In Myanmar tradition, the word ‘Mangalar Bar’ is very popular. People of Myanmar
used to greet other people by saying Mingalar Bar when they meet each other. Mingalar Bar
is similar to the word ‘Sawatdee Krup’ in Thai. Mangalar Bar is derived from Pāli word
‘Mangala’. The commentary said that “Mangalanti mahanti imehi sattāti Mangalāni”
(KhupA, P. 123) which means that all beings gain the progress through the Blessings.
According to this, Mangalar Bar means gaining material and mental progress for all beings.
It directly refers to a belief in traditional society that before an episode of a significant
event, there is usually a sign that foretells an incidence. This belief is common even in
modern lives. Each tradition has its own way for interpretation of “Mangala”. For example, in
a society, some people emphasize the specific color of the dress a person is wearing.
They feel blissful on account of the color of the dress they are wearing. Some people
emphasize the specific foods a person is eating. They feel blissful on account of food they are
eating. For some people, the appearance of the body parts is blissful. For some people,
location, and appearance of a house influence the future of the owner and so on.
Mangala also connects social ethics, such as the responsibility of parents, children,
spouses, friends, and relatives. Hence, the connection of each member of the society is also
observed. Since the meaning of omen links the present to the proximate future, we can see the
relationship between social and personal ethics related to the common good of society. In
another word, individuals in the Mangalasutta are not isolated but are bound to one another
by the morality when practiced will bring the common good to everyone.
Through the lens of the Mangalasutta, vice in society is a bad omen. It will corrupt the
society, and cause a spiral of decay. It is the responsibility of every member of the society to
take action and reverse the bad omen. The interpretation is also based on the model of
Dependent Origination (Paticcasamuppada).
Our lives are conditioned by others, and our success or failure comes from conditions
associated with our moral actions. Once one Mangala is performed it also conditions another
Mangala to come into existence. And when all Mangalas are practiced, happiness and success
in life are assured. Therefore, the aphorism is a systematic teaching of social ethics in
Buddhism and provides a social dimension of society where happiness and success in life
depend upon an individual’s morality. The collective good of individual members of society
assures the common happiness and success of everyone.
4.1 An Application to the Dependent Origination in Buddhist Meditation
The researcher is going to briefly focus on how the teaching of the Dependent
Origination (Paṭiccasamuppāda) can be applied in meditation practice according to Moegok
Sayādaw, Baddant Vimala Thera. The Dependent Origination is mainly studied by
theoreticians. Here he wishes to draw your attention how this fundamental teaching may be
used as a guide in meditation practice. In the attempt to be delivered from suffering, of the
sixty-two wrong views, the wrong view of self or soul (sakkāyadiṭṭhi), along with doubt
(vicikicchā), is to be dispelled first. To dispel the wrong view of self, and doubt (concerning
the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Saṅgha), the cause and effect of the five aggregates are to be
studied.In the doctrine of the Dependent Origination, knowing that it is khandha or the five
aggregates arising in the present moment, wrong view perceiving aggregates as man,
individuals, or beings, is dispelled. Khandha arising in the present period being known to be
the result, its cause must be looked for.
Looking for the cause of the five aggregates (khandha) or mind-matter complex
(nāma-rūpa) in the present moment, the past is contemplated. In the past, there were
ignorance and conditional activities that were responsible for the five aggregates taking place
in the present. Knowing the cause in the past to be ignorance and conditional activities, doubt
(vicikicchā) wondering if beings are created by the eternal God, the Almighty, or by Vishnu
or by Allah, is dispelled.
Then there will be no need to wonder if one had been a king in the past existence, or a
deity, or a man. Be it what is conventionally called a man, or a deity, or a king in the past, it
was definitely ignorance and conditional activities that were the causes for the five
aggregates in the present.
Understanding the cause and effect of aggregates, wrong views and doubts are
theoretically dispelled. After this, it is continued to dispel the wrong view of eternalism
(sassata diṭṭhi) and the wrong view of annihilation (uccheda diṭṭhi). Not being mindful of the
constant flux of mind and matter, we forgetfully think ‘it is the same ‘I’ that woke up this
morning, and it is the same ‘I’ that came into the hall some moments ago, and think it is the
same ‘I’ that is here at this moment’. Not being mindful of the continuous flux of mind and
matter, we forgetfully think ‘it is the same ‘I’ as a young child, and the same ‘I’ as a teenager,
and the same ‘I’ that is here’. Many Buddhists, with the wrong view of eternalism, do
meritorious deeds, thinking ‘it will be the same ‘I’ in future existences that will enjoy the
fruits of the good deeds done in this life’.
With the wrong view of annihilation, evil deeds are committed believing no debt
needs be paid back in the saṃsāra for the wrongdoings committed in this life. To dispel the
wrong view of eternalism and the wrong view of annihilation, the arising and passing away of
aggregates (khandha) is to be studied. In the doctrine of the Dependent Origination,
ignorance and conditional activities of the past arose in the past and passed away in the past.
Knowing that ignorance and conditional activities arose and passed away in the past, it is
understood that they are not permanent; thus the wrong view of eternalism is dispelled.
If passing away alone is contemplated, it tends to go toward the wrong view of
annihilation. Ignorance and conditional activities of the past did not arise and completely
cease in the past. Because of the potential of the ignorance and conditional activities of the
past, there arises resultant khandha in the present. Arising of aggregates in the present is
proof that ignorance and conditional activities did not completely cease in the past. Knowing
that total cessation did not take place, the wrong view of annihilation is dispelled.
Of the sixty-two wrong views, it is said that when the major wrong views, that are the
wrong views of self, eternalism, annihilation are dispelled, the remaining wrong views are
automatically dispelled. Having theoretically dispelled the wrong views of self, eternalism,
annihilation, it is further practiced to develop knowledge so that wrong view and doubt are
practically dispelled.
Having lived throughout the saṃsāra with the wrong view believing the aggregate of
mind-matter to be ‘I’, it cannot be definitely said how long we should practice so that this
wrong view is eliminated. Depending on the perfections one has fulfilled in the long saṃsāra,
duration of practice required to gain insight-knowledge. In every existence in the
long saṃsāra, beings have lived with this notion of ‘I, me, my, mine’; and this wrong view of
self is the root of all evil.
4.1.1 The Practice
In actual practice, the five aggregates (khandha) that arise due to the contact of sensebase and its corresponding sense-object are to be contemplated. Apart from these six sensebases and their objects, there is nowhere where insight meditation can be practiced. Of
course, it is well understood that there are the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, mind bases.
The impingement of eye-base and visible object gives rise to eye-consciousness. Eyebase and visible object are matter, eye-consciousness is mind. The impingement of ear-base
and sound gives rise to ear-consciousness. Ear-base and sound are matter, ear-consciousness
is mind. The impingement of nose-base and scent gives rise to nose-consciousness. Nosebase and scent are matter, nose-consciousness is mind.
The impingement of tongue-base and six types of taste – sweet, sour, spicy hot, salty,
astringent, bitter – gives rise to tongue-consciousness. Tongue-base and six types of taste are
matter. Tongue-consciousness is mind. The impingement of body-base and tangible objects
gives rise to body-consciousness. Tangible objects are hardness, softness – earth element;
heat, cold – fire element; support, thrusting, motion – air element. Body-base and tangible
objects are matter, body-consciousness is mind. The impingement of mind-base and mindobject gives rise to mind-consciousness called thought. Mind-base and mind-object are
matter; upon mental-objects, thinking as a man, individuals, beings, is mind.
If at the six sense-doors there only arises mind and matter or the five aggregates, why
is it called man, deities, Brahma, beings? From the beginning of the saṃsāra, unless a
Buddha appears in the world after an interval of innumerable aeons, the arising of
consciousness at the contact of sense-door and sense-object is never heard of. The nāmarūpa that really exists is not cognized, but instead, man, deities, beings that do not actually
exist are believed to exist because from the very beginning it has been taught through
innumerable generations that these are men, deities, beings. As these are taught, it is wrongly
only men,
saññāvippāllāsa or remembering wrongly.
4.1.2 Wrong Perception (Saññāvippāllāsa)
For example, take a group of siblings into a jungle where they do not see any other
human being except themselves. Therein this isolated jungle, bring them up. Every time they
are given a piece of lime, say it is sugar. Every time they taste sour taste, say it is sweet.
Every time they see a man, say it is a cow. Repeatedly this is done and
their saññā ‘perception’ will start to work and remember things wrong.
Then take these children, who have been brought up in isolation, back to the civilized
world. When they see what is conventionally called a man, ask them; and they may answer it
is a cow. Give them what is conventionally called lime; ask them, and they may say it is
sugar. Likewise, saññā has made an impression upon beings that they wrongly remember
things that do not exist in reality, such as man, woman, sons, daughters, riches, individuals,
beings, etc. The aggregate of mind-matter that really exists is never cognized. The aggregate
of Mind-matter or khandha is the absolute truth (Paramattha Sacca) that really exists. Man,
woman, individuals, beings, sons, daughters, riches, are conventional truth sammuti Sacca.
4.1.3 Discussion on the Theory of Two Truths
For example, put onto the tongue of a six-month-old baby a teaspoonful of pure
concentrated lime juice. The baby will grimace its little face. Ask him why and he will not be
able to say it in words that it is sour. Though there may be no words to describe it, the truth or
the essence is evident in the way the baby grimaces its little face. In the absolute truth, there
are no words to say, there are no words to describe it, only its essence or nature is there.
But for the sake of communication and description, names and concepts are used, but
theses names do not exist at all. What exists is only the absolute truth – paramattha. Here
sour taste and tongue-base are matter, tongue-consciousness is mind. Mind and matter arise.
Mind-Matter is the absolute truth - paramattha. When the researcher says that Mind
and Matter are absolute, some people may get confused with the Cartesian Dualism proposed
by Rene Descartes, the French philosopher. Rene Descartes believes that irrespective of any
field of inquiry this theory reduces the variety of its subject matter to two irreducible
principles. For example, noumena and phenomena, good and evil, determinism and
indeterminism, appearance and reality, form and content, cause and effect, subject and object,
mind and matter, etc. According to him, the mind, whose important attribute is thought, can
exist independent of the body or the matter, whose important attribute is an extension.
Actually, the absolute truth in Buddhism is different from absolute truth in Dualism
proposed by Rene Descartes. The researcher said that mind and matter are absolute because,
according to Buddhism, there are four kinds of realities; mind, mental states associated with
mind, matter and nibbāna (Nirvāna in Sanskrit). According to Buddhist Abhidhamma, There
are two realities—apparent and ultimate. Apparent reality is the ordinary conventional truth
(sammuti-Sacca) Ultimate reality is the abstract truth (paramattha-sacca).
For example, the table we see is an apparent reality. In an ultimate sense, the socalled table consists of forces and qualities. For ordinary purposes, a scientist would use the
term water, but in the laboratory, he would say H2O. In the same way, the Buddha in the
Sutta Pitaka resorts to conventional usage such as man, woman, being, self, etc., but in the
Abhidhamma Piṭaka, He adopts a different mode of expression. Here He employs the
analytical method and uses abstract terms such as aggregates (khandha), elements (Dhātu)
bases (Āyatana), etc. The word “Paramattha” is of great significance in Abhidhamma. It is a
compound formed of Parama and Attha. “Parama” is explained as immutable (aviparita),
abstract (nibbaṭṭita; ‘”attha’ means “thing”. Paramattha, therefore, means an immutable or
abstract thing. Abstract reality may be suggested as the closest equivalent.
Although the term immutable is used here it should not be misunderstood that all
Paramatthas are eternal or permanent. A brass vessel, for example, is not a Paramattha. It
changes every moment and may be transmuted into a vase. Both these objects could be
analyzed and reduced into fundamental material forces and qualities, which, in Abhidhamma,
are termed Rūpa Paramatthas. They are also subject to change, yet they distinctive
characteristics of these Rūpas are identically the same whether they are found in a vessel or a
vase. They preserve their identity in whatever combination they are fond –hence the
commentarial interpretation of Parama as immutable or real. Attha exactly corresponds to the
English multi-significant term “thing”. It is not used in the sense of meaning here. There are
four such Paramatthas or abstract realities.
These four embrace everything that is mundane and supramundane. The so-called
being is mundane, Nibbāna is supramundane. The former is composed of Nāma and Rūpa.
According to Abhidhamma “Rūpa” connotes both fundamental units of matter and material
changes as well. As such Abhidhamma enumerates 28 species of matter. “Nāma” denotes
both 89 kinds of consciousness and mental properties which are 52 in number. One of these is
“Vedanā” (feeling). Another is “Saññā” (perception). The remaining 50 are collectively
called “Sankhāra” (volitional activities). According to the above analysis, the so-called being
is composed of five Groups or Aggregates (Pañcakkhandha); Rūpa (matter), Vedanā
(feeling), Saññā (perception), Sankha (volitional activities), and Viññāṇa (consciousness).
Consciousness, mental properties (with the exception of 8 types of supramundane
consciousness and their adjuncts), and matter are Mundane (Lokiya), and Nibbāas is
Supramundane (Lokuttara). The supramundane Nibbāna is the only the best reality, which is
the summum bonum of Buddhism. The other three are called realities in that they are things
that really exist as qualities (vijjamāna dhamma).
Besides, they are irreducible, immutable, and abstract things. They deal with what is
within us and around us. The first Paramattha or reality is Citta. It is derived from the root
“citi”, to think. According to the commentary, Citta is that which is aware of
(Cinteti=vijānāti) and object. It is not that which thinks of an object as the term implies. From
an Abhidhamma point of view, Citta may better be defined as the awareness of an object
since there is no agent like a soul. (Thera, 1968, p.6)
All realities have their own characteristics. They never deviate from their own
characteristics. For example, the characteristic of Phassa one of the mental states in
Abhidhamma is mentally touching or connecting with something. It never changes from its
own characteristic into another. And the characteristic of matter is perishing and constantly
changing. It does not exist forever. It never changes its nature of perishing into eternally
existing. Therefore, the researcher said that mind and matter is absolute truth. The Buddha
always uses the theory of two truth; conventional truth and ultimate truth when he teaches the
dhamma. But, there are many different views on this theory of two truths between Theravāda
Buddhism and Mahāyānist Buddhism like Abhidharmikas (Sarvāstivāda/ Vaibhāsika).
The researcher would like to present the view of Sarvāsativādin on the theory of two
truths. According to the Sarvāstivādin, the theory of the two truths makes two fundamental
claims: (1) The claim that the ultimate reality consists of irreducible spatial units (e.g. atoms
of the material category) and irreducible temporal units (e.g. point instant consciousnesses) of
the five basic categories, and (2) The claim that the conventional reality consists of reducible
spatial wholes or temporal continua.
According to Sarvāsativādin, an entity or concept which does not arise when it is
destroyed and, mentally divided, is conventionally existent like a pot and water. Ultimate
existence is otherwise. Sarvāsativādin defined the reality by means of existence.
A pot and water are designated as conventionally existent therefore conventionally
real for the concept “pot” cease to exist when it is destroyed physically, and the concept
“water” no longer arises when we conceptually excluded from its shape, color etc.
On the Sarvāsativādin definition, for an entity to be real, it does not need to be
ultimately real, exclusively. A thing to be ultimately real needs to be foundationally existent
in contrast with being compositely existent. By foundationally existent the Sarvāstivādin
refers to the entity which is fundamentally real, the concept or the cognition of which is not
dependent on conceptual construction nor a composition of the aggregative phenomena.
In the case of foundational existence, there always remains something irreducible to
which the concept of the thing applies, hence it is ultimately real. A simple entity is not
reducible to conceptual forms, or conventional designations, nor is it compositely existent
entity. Pot and water are not the foundational entities. They are rather composite entities it
means an entity which is not fundamental, primary or simple, but is rather a conceptually
constructed, composition of various properties, and is thus reducible both physically and
According to Sarvāstivādin, conventional reality, composite existence, and the lack of
intrinsic reality are all equivalents. According to this, a conventional reality is characterized
as a reducible conventional entity on three grounds: (1) conventional reality is both
physically and logically reducible, as it disintegrates when it is subjected to physical
destruction and disappears from our minds when its parts are separated from it by logical
analysis: (2) conventional reality borrows its identity from other things including its parts,
concepts etc., it does not exist independently in virtue of its intrinsic reality; (3) conventional
reality is a product of mental constructions, like that of conventionally real wholes, causation,
continuum etc, and it does not exist intrinsically.
Ultimate reality is regarded as ultimately existent. It is both physically and logically
irreducible. According to Sarvāstivādin, ultimate reality is both physically and logically
irreducible, as it does not disintegrate when it is subjected to physical destruction and that its
identity does not disappear when its parts are separated from it under logical analysis; and
ultimate reality does not borrow its nature from other things including its parts. Rather it
exists independently in virtue of its intrinsic reality; and it is not a product of mental
constructions, like that of conventionally real wholes, causation, continuum etc. it exists
The words or conceptualization of lime is the conventional truth. It is a named
concept - paññatti. Tongue-consciousness is the absolute truth - paramattha. The word or
conceptualization of baby is the conventional truth, a named concept - paññatti. That which
cognizes sour taste is tongue-consciousness (jivhāviññāṇa), that which thinks of the object as
is nāmarūpaparicchedañāṇa. Tongue-base and sour taste are of causes. The contact of
tongue-base and sour taste gives rise to tongue-consciousness. Tongue-consciousness is the
result. Discerning cause and result is paccayapariggahañāṇa.
After some time, put some drops of sugar juice onto the baby’s tongue, and the baby
will no more grimace its little face. The baby will be seen contentedly enjoying the sweet
taste. Mind-Matter that cognized sour taste has arisen and has passed away. It is replaced by
mind-matter that cognizes sweet taste. Therefore the absolute truth exists in the form of
impermanence, this impermanence is suffering, this suffering will not follow any one’s liking
– this is non-self. What cognizes sweet taste is tongue-consciousness. That which thinks of
the object as sugar is mind-consciousness (manoviññāṇa).
Mind-Matter is the absolute truth - paramattha. Sugar is the conventional truth; it is a
name-concept - paññatti. Why is it called the absolute truth? It is so called because it is
unchangeably true. How is it unchangeably true? Call it sugar, call it lime.
But nāmarūpa remains nāmarūpa only, it does not become lime, nor does it become sugar.
Call it man, call it woman, but it remains nāmarūpa. Just by giving it names, it cannot
be made to become man, or woman, or beings. The absolute truth exists in the form of
is yathābhūtañāṇa.
called saccānulomikañāṇa. Mind-Matter is paramattha, man, woman, beings, are paññatti.
The researcher would like to explain more about the theory of two truth.
Buddhism, it is taught that suffering comes from our ignorance. We are ignorant because
misconceive the reality. There is always a gap between what reality is and what we perceive
the reality. The whole teaching of Buddha is to bridge this gap by telling our understanding
of the nature of reality. What really is and what we perceive the reality present two levels of
realities. In order understand these two levels, we have to understand two kinds of truth as
taught in Theravāda Buddhism: the conventional truth and ultimate truth. The researcher
would like to present how the theory of two truths emerged in Theravāda Buddhism is and
why are there two kinds of truth in Buddhism and what relationship between them is and is
one superior to the other and why are they important in understanding Buddhist Teachings.
Theory of Dhamma
Buddhism is empirical and pragmatic. A guiding map is necessary for us to
understand the phenomena of existence in order to see things as they really are as bear
phenomena. In Buddhism, the building blocks of experience are called Dhammas.
The Dhamma theory is the basic philosophical foundation of Buddhism. The earliest
version of Dhamma Theory is found in the Pāli Abhidhamma Pitaka.
It is systematization of the Buddha’s teaching as found in the Sutta Pitaka. The
Theravāda school’s interpretation is found to be closest to the original teachings of early
Buddhism. The theory of Dhamma is the basic philosophical principle and the ontological
foundation of Buddhist teachings as it deals with what they really exist. All phenomena of
empirical experience are broken down into a number of ultimate elementary constituents
called Dhammas until no further of analysis can be made. Only Dhamma is real or ultimate. It
bears its own characteristic which is peculiar and unique to itself and it truly exists
independently in our cognitive act. A Dhamma does not undergo any modification of its
intrinsic nature which is phenomenologically not distinguishable even when it associates with
other dhammas. Each dhamma becomes a condition for the arising of another dhamma. There
are multiplicities of inter-connected but distinguishable coordinate factors. They are in a
process of the interplay of different conditions. Hence, Dhammas are the fundamental
components of the reality. It is through the methodology of analysis-synthesis that empirical
phenomena are understood.
The qualities of Dhammas are ultimate existence with no possibility of further
reduction. They are the irreducible data of existence. They are the objects of highest
knowledge. They are irreversible, unalterable, and nontransferable. Their existence is allowed
by their own intrinsic nature. The fact that they exist means that they are real. Irrespective
dhammas have their own characteristic. They never deviate from their won characteristic into
another. Hence, the word “Paramattha” represents the ultimate datum of cognition.
It denotes the real existence in terms of characteristic. Dhammas have their own
nature (Sabhāva). They are cognizable in an ultimate sense. In early Buddhism, the term
“Paramattha” is used in a psychological sense. It is used to describe Nibbāna, the highest
ideal. In Abhidhamma, it is used in an ontological sense, meaning the ultimate and absolute
reality. Hence, it denotes not only the unconditioned Nibbāna but also all mental and material
elements that cannot be further analyzed.
Dhamma is a description of the nature of reality through a series of the proposition. It
has to be described with the help of Paññatti. Paññatti means name and conceptualization. All
conditioned phenomena are mere designation and concept. Everything is denoted with words
and provisional naming. The differentiation of different phenomena is through Paññatti and
thus all phenomena only exist nominally. Things exist in mere name with no inherent
existence. Names are designated to thing so as to fulfill a specific function that corresponds
with the meaning of the name. Hence, everything just exists as mere imputation from the side
of the conceptual mind and not from the side of the objective condition. In this sense, there is
no objective reality to be found except dhammas. What can be called the “reality” is just
something created by the perceived mind and conveyed through names, labels, words, and
concepts with the tool of language?
There are two kinds of Paññatti. One is a concept as naming called nāma paññatti in
Pāli. It is an agency definition and a designation. It is objective and static with some kind of
relative permanence. Therefore, it is easily crystallized into an entity. The other is a concept
as meaning. It is an idea. It is subjective and dynamic. Both of them have a psychological
origin and are devoid of objective reality. They are mutually interdependent and logically
They are the two processes of verbalization and conceptualization through the
symbolic medium of language. They are the two separate aspects of the same objective
reality. Hence, there is a duality in Paññatti.
Paññattis are not empirical reality but objects of cognition. They are not dhammas in
their truest sense. They can only be described as dhammas without own nature to be
manifested in the three instances or moments of arising, presence, and ceasing. They are not
brought about by conditions. A paññatti is just a thing being conceptualized. A paññatti must
have a dhamma as its base and all dhammas lead to the pathway of paññatti. Dhammas can
exist without designation and conceptualization while paññatti themselves verbalized and
The researcher would like to explain about an emergence of two truths. The theory of
dhamma and theory of paññatti lead to the necessity to distinguish between two levels of
reality, the real and the conceptual. It is a distinction between the reality that exists
independently of the operation of mind and the reality that dependents on the operation of the
mind. The former is an objective reality and later is subjective existence. The two truths
(samutti sacca and paramattha sacca) thus emerge.
In Theravāda school, sammuti refers to the convention or relative truth. Sammuti has
the root meaning of “to think” in a consensual, conventional and general agreement.
Paramattha refers to the use of technical terms to describe what is ultimate. Sammuti refers to
any phenomena that are analyzable and paramattha refers to those that are not analyzable.
Sammuti is always the object of conceptual thought as a result of mental construction and
interpretation. It is a product of the synthesizing function of the mind. Paramattha represents
the ultimate datum of cognition.
The researcher would like to present relationship between two truths. It is generally
agreed through all schools of Buddhism that Parramatta is more superior than sammuti as the
former is ultimate. However, in Theravāda Buddhism, there is no virtually value judgment on
the two kinds of truth. This can be traced back to the teaching of early Buddhism.
In early Buddhism as found in Anguttara Nikāya, there is a distinction between
nītattha and neyyattha. The former denotes those statements that have their meaning already
drawn out. That is direct, clear, explicit, and definitive with no further interpretation is
needed. The later denotes those statements that require their meaning to be drawn out. That is
indirect with further elaboration and explanation needed. These two kinds of statement are of
equal status and are a point to the same teachings of the Buddha. They are just two ways of
presenting the Buddha’s teachings because the audience is different or has a different
disposition. Both kinds of statement are equally valid. The validity of sammuti-sacca
(conventional truth) is based on its corresponding phenomena as understood by the
convention and validity of paramattha-sacca (the ultimate truth) is based on the ultimate data
empirical reality.
Therefore, the two truths are actually two sides of the same coin. Statements which
refer to the convention are valid because they are commonly agreed. Statements which refer
to the ultimately real existence are also valid because they point to the true nature of reality.
The Sutta Pitaka taught in conventional terms the Abhidhamma Pitaka is taught in absolute
terms. Nevertheless, the content is the same. (An, I. P, 60)
The Buddha is skillful in expression. He can use conventional language and technical
language to convey his teachings. In this sense, both sammuti-sacca and paramattha-sacca
have to be expressed through paññatti.
Sammut is objects of conceptual thought and paramattha is ultimate reality. The later is
objectively real and exists without need of being designated and conceptualized.
Thus, paññatti and paramattha are mutually exclusive. Understanding of the Buddha’s
teachings requires not to adhere dogmatically to the mere superficial meaning of the words.
Paññatti is only the means helping us to know about paramattha. The researcher concludes
that there are two kinds of truth; the conventional truth and the ultimate truth developed from
the theory of dhamma and theory of paññatti.
They are equally valid in expressing what the real existence is. There is no one
superior to the other. The understanding of the two kinds of truth is important and confusion
should be avoided. Otherwise, we would dogmatically hold on the Buddha’s words without
getting what is real.
4.1.4 Realization (Pariññā)
are ñāta pariññā. Eye-consciousness, after seeing, passes away. Ear-consciousness, after
hearing, passes away. The characteristics of mind-matter or the five aggregates are
impermanence, suffering, nonself. Discerning this is tiraṇapariññā.
Getting to know the impermanent nature of all phenomena, there is boredom with this
state of continuous arising and passing away. This is nibbindañāṇa. Mind and matter arises
and passes away, to be replaced by another, which in turn passes away. This state of arising
and passing away of mind and matter, the replacement by the next, which again passes away,
goes on continuously.
As this is observed, at one time there is no more arising and passing away of
aggregates. There is a cessation of mind and matter, this is pahānapariññā. When there is no
arising of aggregates, there will be no arising and passing away. When there is no arising and
passing away, there will be a cessation of suffering. Realizing it is magga ñāṇa – the path of
4.2 Discussion the Buddhist Perspective on the Moral Problems
This chapter will start with the Buddha’s word “Buddho loke samuppanno hitāya
sabbapāninam” “The appearance of the Lord Buddha in the world is for the sake of welfare
for all being” (SnA, II, P. 578). Unless the Lord Buddha arises, no one can distinguish right
from wrong. As the researcher mentioned in the early chapter, sometimes, we go through
right way and sometimes go through wrong way like a blind person walking in the dark.
The Lord Buddha, the Awakened One taught us the Dhamma and had clearly shown
how to classify good and bad or right or wrong. In this research, the Lord Buddha had shown
how the wrong way could be avoided by pointing the Parābhava Sutta and shown us the right
way to be followed through the Noble Eightfold Paths.
When we summarize the immoral conducts in Parābhava Sutta, there would be three
kinds of bodily immoralities; killing living being, stealing what is not given and sexual
misconduct, and four verbal immoralities; telling lies, slander, harsh speech, and useless
speech, and three mental immoralities; covetousness, ill-will, and wrong view. We called
these immoralities ten unwholesome courses of action (Akusalakammapatha).
Now, the researcher will discuss how to reduce these immoralities or defilements
occurred in our society. This research aims to reduce physical and mental problems in society
and to get the root cause of them off in mankind.
People have searched for the Noble Truth (Ariya Sacca), the meaning of life, ways,
and means to obtain happiness, the right way of living and many answers to the philosophical
questions. Philosophers, sages, saints and spiritual teachers have been propounding their
respective perspectives in a different manner to help people reduce the problems. Today,
mankind is beset with many problems and conflicts; the problem of economic depressions,
drug abuse and addiction, violation, social, political problem and many others.
The root causes of downfalls or defilements are nothing but lobha (greed), dosa
(hatred), and moha (delusion). According to Buddhism, these are the “Three Fires” of the
human mind. Out of greed, there grows exploitation of man by another man, nation by
another nation, unequal competition and distribution of wealth, inflation, unemployment,
poverty, etc. Out of hatred and ill-will, there arises fear, misunderstanding, mistrust, tension,
conflict, aggression, and war. From delusion, there accrues false views, false notions, false
pride, false values, prejudice, and discontent, etc.
What cause these moral problems or one’s downfall in society? Improper thinking or
negative thinking (Ayoniso manasikāra) is the closed cause of these downfalls or defilements.
People used to make a decision toward what they experienced without knowing the right
reason. As a result of this, they perform the evil actions or defilements and suffer a lot of
To reduce these problems, the venerable Nārada Thera wrote the article named
“Everyman’s Ethics." He wrote it based on the four discourses of the Buddha; Singālovāda
Sutta appeared in Pātikavagga of Dīgha Nikāya (DN,pp.180-194), Mahā Mangala Sutta
appeared in Sutta Nipāta of Khuddaka Nikāya (Sn,p.46), Parābhava Sutta appeared in the
Suttanipāta of Khuddaka Nikāya (Sn, P.19), and Byaggāpajja Sutta appeared in the
Attakanipāta of Anguttara Nikāya.
The Singālovāda Sutta is dealt with the layman’s code of discipline and shows how to
behave or deal with people around us. We can observe the obligations of parents and
children, teachers and pupils, husband and wives, and so on. Commenting on this Sutta, Mrs.
Rhys Davids said:
"The Buddha's doctrine of love and goodwill between man and man is here
set forth in a domestic and social ethics with more comprehensive detail
than elsewhere. And truly we may say even now of this Vinaya or code of
discipline, so fundamental are the human interests involved, so sane and
wide is the wisdom that envisages them, that the utterances are as fresh and
practically as binding today and here as they were then at Rajagaha.
'Happy would have been the village or clan on the banks of the Ganges
where the people were full of the kindly spirit of fellow-feeling, the noble
spirit of justice which breaths through these naive and simple sayings.' Not
less happy would be the village, or the family on the banks of the Thames
today, of which this could be said."
(“Sigalovada Sutta - Layman's Code of Discipline,”)
The Mangala Sutta is dealt with the qualified benevolence, humility, social service,
liberality, domestic felicity, uprightness compelling universal respect, a proper understanding
of kamma-functioning, and mental peace. To reduce the immoralities appeared in the
Parābhava Sutta that cause downfalls or destruction in the society, how are we going to tame
our mind and find the right way of living so that we may not fall into these pitfalls?
In fact, this Sutta is a code of human conduct for every conduct for every person
irrespective of race, creed or nationality. Anybody who desires to achieve success in the
present mundane life or for salvation from defilements will certainly find required principles
to follow and guidance necessary in practice.
Though Buddha’s teachings are primarily religious and spiritual, His teachings also
comprise social, moral, and educational tenets. S. Tachibana also states about Mahā Mangala
Sutta as follows:
The Mahā Mangala Sutta shows that the Buddha’s instructions do not
always take negative forms, that they are not always a series of
classifications and analysis, or concerned exclusively with monastic
morality. Here in this sutta, we find family morality expressed in most
elegant verses. We can imagine the happy blissful state household life
attained as a result of following these injunctions. (Tachibana, 1943)
4.3 The Path Leading to the Cessation of Moral Problems
The Buddha laid down the ten kinds of moralities in the Sangīti Sutta in Dīgha Nikāya
for beings in order to reduce problems in society: 1. Abstinence from killing living beings. 2.
Abstinence from stealing what is not given. 3. Abstinence from sexual misconduct or
adultery. 4. Abstinence from telling lies. 5. Abstinence from slandering speech. 6. Abstinence
from harsh or hate speech 7. Abstinence from frivolous speech. 8. Non-covetousness. 9.
Good-will. 10. Right understanding (DN, III. P. 270). If people practice these qualities, it is
sure that people can live together in peace and harmony in the society.
To have a chance to achieve these qualities we need to have a clear thinking or
positive thinking (Yoniso manasikāra). Yonisomanasikāra is very important to everyone
because Yonisomanasikāra is the proximate cause of wholesome or meritorious.
The venerable P.A. Payutto stated about Younisomanasikāra in his book,
Buddhadhamma as follows:
“Monks, whatever conditions are skillful, are among skillful conditions,
and are on the side of the skillful, they are all without exception rooted in
yoniso manasikāra, they can all be included within yoniso manasikāra;
yoniso manasikāra is said to be the epitome of all skillful
conditions.”(Payutto, 1996, P.334)
The venerable Walpola Rahula points the path leading to the cessation of defilements
or downfalls in his book, What the Buddha Taught as follows:
1. Right understanding (Sammā diṭṭhi),
2. Right thought (Sammā sankappa),
3. Right speech (Sammā vācā),
4. Right action (Sammā kammanta),
5. Right livelihood (Sammā ājīva),
6. Right effort (Sammā vāyāma),
7. Right mindfulness (Sammā sati),
8. And right concentration (Sammā samādhi). (Rahula, 1974, pp. 45–50)
Practically the whole teaching of the Buddha deals in some way or other with this
Path. The Lord Buddha explained it in different ways and in different words to different
people, according to the stage of their development and their capacity to understand and
follow him. We can observe the essence of those many thousand discourses scattered in the
Buddhist Scriptures in the Noble Eightfold Path. We should develop the Noble Eightfold
Paths as far as possible according to the capacity of each individual. They are all linked
together and each helps the cultivation of the others.
These eight factors aim at promoting and perfecting the three essentials of Buddhist
training and discipline: namely: (1) Ethical Conduct (Sīla), (2) Mental Discipline (Samādhi)
and (3) wisdom (Paññā). We need to tame and train our mind through these training.
The Noble Eightfold Path is divided into three groups in terms of the training. The
three factors of the Noble Eight Path: namely, Right Speech, Right Action and Right
Livelihood are included in Ethical Conduct (Sīal). Right speech means abstention from
telling lies, from slander and talk that may bring about hatred, enmity, disunity, and
disharmony among individuals or groups of people, from harsh, rude, impolite, and abusive
language, and from idle, useless and foolish babble and gossip.
When people abstain from these forms of wrong and harmful speech they naturally
have to speak the truth, has to use words that are friendly and benevolent, pleasant and gentle,
meaningful and useful. We should not speak carelessly: speech should be at the right time
and place. If one cannot say something useful, one should keep ‘noble silence’.
Right Action aims at promoting moral, honorable and peaceful conduct. It
admonishes us that we should abstain from destroying life, from stealing what is not given,
from sexual misconduct and that we should also help others to lead a peaceful and honorable
life in the right way.
Right Livelihood means that one should abstain from making one’s living through a
profession that brings harm to others, such as trading in weapons, intoxicating drinks,
poisons, killing animals, trading in man (selling savants or making money as prostitutes), and
we should live by a profession which is honourable, blameless and innocent of harm to
others. Here according to this, one should not support parents with money earned by
prostitution. Buddhism is strongly opposed to any kind of trading in man. That is an evil and
unjust means of livelihood.
The three other factors of the Eightfold Path: namely Right Effort, Right Mindfulness
and Right Concentration are included in Mental Discipline (Samādhi).
Right Effort is the energetic will to prevent evil or causes of downfall and defilements
from arising, and to get rid of such evil or causes of one’s downfall or defilements that have
already arisen within a man, and also to produce good and wholesome states of mind not yet
arisen, and to develop and bring to perfection the good action of mind already present in a
Right Mindfulness is to be mindful and attentive with regard to the activities of the
body, sensations or feeling, the activities of the mind and ideas, thoughts. The practice of
concentration of breathing is one of the well-known exercises, connected with the body, for
mental development. With regard to feeling, one should be clearly aware of all forms of
feelings; pleasant, unpleasant and neutral. Concerning the activities of mind, one should be
aware whether one’s mind is lustful or not, angry or not, deluded or not, waving or not, etc.
In this way, one should be aware of all movements of mind and can develop one’s positive
thinking (Yoniso manasikāra). Mindfulness and positive thinking (Yoniso manasikāra) are
linking each other.
With regards to ideas, and thoughts, one should know their nature, how they appear
and disappear, how they are developed, and so on. These four forms of mental culture or
meditation are taught in detail in the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta.
Right Concentration means being steady or focusing on one point called Jāna
concentration. One can discard sensuous lust, ill-will, languor, worry, waving mind, and
doubt and maintain feelings of joy and happiness by this concentration. Thus our mind can be
trained and developed through Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration.
The remaining two factors, Right Thought and Right Understanding are included in
Wisdom. Right Thought denotes the thoughts of selfless renunciation or detachment,
thoughts of love and thought of non-violence which are extended to all beings. All thoughts
of selfish desire, ill-will, hatred, and violence are the results of a lack of wisdom in all
individual and society.
Right Understanding here means the belief in which beings have own property which
is called Kamma or action. According to this, all acts performed in one existence are
rewarded or punished by an appropriate state in future existences. A good result is certainly
produced by a right action while a bad consequence is certainly produced by a wrong action.
The Lord Buddha taught about all living beings’ actions (kamma) in the
Cūlakammavibhanga Sutta of the Majjhima Nikāya as follows:
Student! All living beings are owners of their actions (kammassakatā), heirs
of their actions (kammadāyāda), they originate from their actions
(kammayoni), are born to their actions (kammabandhu), have their actions
as their refuge (kammapatisarana). It is an action that distinguishes beings
as inferior and superior. (Nānamoli & Bodhi, 1995, p. 203)
4.4 The Result of the Application to the Buddha’s Teachings.
The benefits of the application to the Buddha’s teaching are actually countless. These
cannot be measured how much we get. To gain benefit, we need to follow the ways that the
Lord Buddha granted. We must do the practice ourselves. The Lord Buddha only points the
way. To purify one’s mind, we have to make the purification ourselves. According to
Buddhism, we should promote the basic ethics which is Five Precepts and Four Noble
Sublime States (Brahmavihāra). The five precepts are fundamental Buddhist morality and the
observation of them directly contributes to the peace of the society as individuals become
virtuous people.
To cease the moral problems or causes of downfall in society, we should promote the
five precepts to refrain from killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying and intoxicants
respectively. These precepts are fundamental guidelines for an individual in his daily
behavior for the whole of his life. It appears that the five precepts are limited to individuals
only, but upon deeper analysis, they extend to the whole of the society as well.
It is because when one observes the five precepts, people around him or her will feel
safe regarding their life (not to harm life), property (not to steal), family (not sexual
misconduct or contentment with one’s own wife or partner), community (no lying), and
drunkard (no intoxicants). Therefore, Buddhism calls the observation of the five precepts the
giving of fearlessness.
The practice of the Four Sublime States of Mind, which are loving-kindness (Mettā),
compassion (karuṇā), appreciative-joy (Muditā) and equanimity (Upekkhā), directly
contribute to a harmonious society because they counter hatred, cruelty, jealousy, and
prejudice which are the causes of disturbance in society. If people can curb these emotions
and mental factors, then society would be much more harmonious and have less conflict.
However, these vices of people cannot be controlled by law because they are mental states.
They are only controlled by training and by developing a heart full of lovingkindness, compassion, appreciative joy and equanimity, which are good qualities of the mind
and should always be practiced alongside with the five precepts. Since there is no limit to the
advancement of each state in any individual, these four states hence are also called the four
immeasurable states of mind.
5.1 Conclusion
The Lord Buddha lived his life for eighty years and delivered his teachings to the
world for the sake of Devas and Men. Among his teachings, the Paṭiccasamuppāda Sutta is
one of the most important Sutta because This Sutta is profound and unique teachings in
Buddhism. The Buddha discovered it as a natural law and as a fundamental truth. It would
have been existing whether or not the Lord Buddha teaches.
In that section, the researcher also demonstrates how mental defilement or
immoralities originate and cease according to Dependent Origination based on Parābhava
Sutta. The researcher specialized the Dependent Origination (Paṭiccasamuppāda) in two way
of individual levels based on the way of observation conditionality (Paticcasamuppāda) by
way of causality (Paṭṭhāna) written by Myanmar Buddhist Scholar, Nandamālābhivansa and
social level revealed by Thai Buddhist scholar, Venerable PA. Payutto. He discussed the
theory of two truths; conventional truth and ultimate truth according to the Mahāyānist
tradition and Theravāda tradition.
And also he stated the application of Dependent Origination in the Insight Meditation
Practice according to Moegok Sayādaw to help people to have a better understanding
Paṭiccasamuppāda. The researcher showed how moral problems begin and how to overcome
these if people feel stressful or frustrated when they face these problems. And then, the
researcher presented the moral problems that cause the problems in the society we live in as
appeared in the Parābhava Sutta. The contents of this Sutta were to be avoided. The
researcher explains the subject matters in Parābhava Sutta according to its commentary.
And also he presented how they make a man fall into downfall or destruction as
appeared in the Parābhava Sutta in the Buddhist texts by pointing the stories from Jātaka and
Dhammapada. If a man allows himself to become tarnished by these blemishes of conduct, he
blocks his own road to worldly, moral and spiritual progress
The researcher also demonstrates the connection between Parābhava Sutta and
Mangala Sutta according to Nārada Thera. He points out Mangala Sutta and its philosophy to
extend the knowledge for those who are interested in Buddhism.
After that, the researcher discusses the impact of Buddhist teaching in the
present society. Actually, the Buddhist ideology is not isolated from society because the
Buddha lived in the world, taught in the world, and got support from lay people in the world.
He naturally had to associate with them. So, we find that there are practical teachings for the
individual as well as for society in Buddhism.
Today, people in our society are full of stress or frustration and the moral standard has
also declined day by day. The external tension is rooted in internal feeling or emotion. To
tame and train our mind and to solve the moral problems and to release from frustration,
the researcher has found the solution and discussed his idea based on practice revealed by
Venerable Dhammasāmi known as Oxford Sayadaw and with the various perspectives of
scholars; Venerable Nārada Thera, Ms. Rhys Davides, and Walpola Rāhula, Bhikkhu P.A
Payutto, and the other.
The researcher points out the failure in spiritual progress and mental progress as
suffering. And he pointed point the cause of downfall or defilements as the origin of suffering
or downfalls. And he pointed out that success in spiritual and mental progress as cessation of
suffering or downfall.
And he pointed out the Noble Eight Paths as the path leading to the cessation of
suffering or downfall. The researcher will end up his research paper with the Lord Buddha’s
encouragement as follows:
Yo paṭiccasamuppādam passati, so Dhammam passati. Yo Dhamman
passati, So paṭiccasamuppādam passati” “Whoever sees conditioned
genesis (paṭiccasamuppāda) sees Dhamma. Whoever sees the Dhamma
sees conditioned genesis (paṭiccasamuppāda).” (MN, I, P. 191)
According to the Buddha, we need to see Paṭicca samauppāda in order to see the
Dhamma. In order to see Paṭiccasamuppāda, we need to learn the theory of Dhamma
(Pariyatti) at the first step. At the second step, we need to practice the Dhamma what we learn
(Paṭipatti), and at the final step, we need to realize the Dhamma as they really are (Paṭivedha)
in order to gain emancipation or free from the cycle of Samsāra which is full of suffering, a
cycle of sufferings. (Vimutti)
5.2 Recommendations for Further Research
There are a number of gaps in our knowledge around public involvement in the
research that results from our findings and would benefit from further research including
realist evaluation to extend and further test the theory we have developed here. Further
research is open to all to contribute to the field of knowledge about the cause of one’s
downfall. Buddhist literature can be studied from different perspectives or ideas. The
Buddhist scriptures themselves are a great wealth of wisdom in the monastic culture and in
the philosophical doctrines. The following specific research topics are recommended for
those who are interested in this subject and would like to pursue further studies about the rest
of the fragments of the Parābhava Sutta to extend more knowledge for the future.
An Application of the Dependent Origination in Insight Meditation Practice. Retrieved
November 11, 2017, from
Ariya, U. (1998, February). Paticcasamupad Ayasā, the taste of Paticcasamuppāda. Yangon,
Myanmar: U Myint Kywal.
Bodhi, B. (Ed.). (2003a). A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma (Buddhist Publication
Society, Sri Lanka edition). Seattle: Pariyatti Publishing.
Bodhi, B. (Trans.). (2003b). The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the
Samyutta Nikaya (2nd edition, Vol. 1). Boston: Wisdom Publications.
Bodhi, B. & Lama, H. H. the D. (2005). In the Buddha’s Words: An Anthology of Discourses
from the Pali Canon (First Edition edition). Boston, Mass: Wisdom Publications.
Bodhi, B. & Lama, H. H. the D. (2016). The Buddha’s Teachings on Social and Communal
Harmony: An Anthology of Discourses from the Pali Canon. Somerville, MA:
Wisdom Publications.
Bodhi, B. (Trans.). (2012). The Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: A Complete
Translation of the Anguttara Nikaya (Annotated edition). Boston: Wisdom
Bodhi, B. (2017). The Suttanipata: An Ancient Collection of the Buddha’s Discourses
Together with Its Commentaries. Sommerville, AS Wisdom Publications.
Culakammavibhanga Sutta: Shorter Exposition of Kamma. (n.d.). Retrieved February 25,
2017, from
TIN, D. M (Trans). (1990). Dhammapada: Verses and Stories. Delhi: Sri SatGuru
Devadatta - Greatest Enemy of Lord Buddha | Cousin of Buddha. (n.d.). Retrieved February
2, 2018, from
Dighajanu (Vyagghapajja) Sutta: Conditions of Welfare. (n.d.). Retrieved February 1, 2018,
Maha Kammavibhanga Sutta: The Greater Analysis of Action. (n.d.). Retrieved February 25,
2017, from
Mangala Sutta: Blessings. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from
Maha-sihanada Sutta: The Great Discourse on the Lion’s Roar. (n.d.). Retrieved January 8,
2018, from
Nanamoli, B. & Bodhi, B. (Trans.). (1995). The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A
Translation of the Majjhima Nikaya (59410th edition). Boston: Wisdom Publications.
Nyantiloka. (1997). Buddhist Dictionary: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines. Kandy,
Sri Lanka: Nyanatiloka.
Nandamāla (2011) Observation the way of conditionality (Paṭiccasamuppāda) by way of
causality (Paṭṭhāna): Publication of the International Theravāda Buddhist Missionary
University, Yangon, Myanmar
Oxford Sayādaw, D. D. (2017). Emotion Management and Mindful Compassion. Taung Gyi,
Shan State: U Aung Min.
Parabhava Sutta: Downfall. (n.d.). Retrieved February 22, 2017, from`
Payutto, P.P. (1996), Buddhadhamma: Buddhamma Foundation, Bangkok, Thailand
Pāli text of SN 12.1, “Paṭic­ca­samup­pāda­sutta.” (n.d.). Retrieved January 3, 2017, from
Pesala, B. (2001). The Debate of King Milinda: (n.d.). Retrieved February 22, 2017, from
Rahula, W. (1974). What the Buddha Taught: Revised and Expanded Edition with Texts from
Suttas and Dhammapada (Revised edition). New York: Grove Press.
Rhys Davids. T.W. (n.d.). Dialogues of the Buddha - Part 3. Retrieved from
Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 10: The Dhammapada and Sutta Nipata Index. (n.d.).
Retrieved February 22, 2017, from
Sigalovada Sutta - Layman's Code of Discipline. (n.d.). Retrieved February 1, 2018, from
Sutta-Nipāta | BODHI MONASTERY. (n.d.). Retrieved February 1, 2018, from
Thera, N. (2016). Buddhism in a Nutshell. Buddhist Publication Society, Sri Lanka.
Thera, N. M. (1968). A Manual of Abhidhamma. Colombo: Nanda Amarasinghe.
Thera, V. S. (1995). The Long Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Digha Nikaya.
(M. Walshe, Trans.) (2nd edition). Boston: Wisdom Publications.
The Way of Mindfulness: The Satipatthana Sutta and Its Commentary. (n.d.). Retrieved May
3, 2017, from
What’s Buddhist about Socially Engaged Buddhism? (David Loy). (n.d.). Retrieved February
5, 2018, from
Parābhavasutta in Roman Type Pāli: (Sn, P.18) Translation to Parābhava Sutta:
Thus have I heard. Once the Exalted One was dwelling at Anāthapindika's monastery, in the
Jeta Grove, near Savatthi.
Now when the night was far spent a certain deity whose surpassing splendor illuminated the
entire Jeta Grove, came to the presence of the Exalted One and, drawing near, respectfully
saluted Him and stood at one side. Standing thus, he addressed the Exalted One in verse:
The Deity:
Having come here with our questions to the Exalted One, we ask thee, O Gotama, about
man's decline. Pray, tell us the cause of downfall!
The Buddha:
Easily known is the progressive one, easily known he who declines. He who loves Dhamma
progresses. He who is averse to it declines.
The Deity:
Thus much do we see: this is the first cause of one's downfall. Pray, tell us the second cause.
The Buddha:
The wicked are dear to him, with the virtuous he finds no delight, he prefers the creed of the
wicked — this is a cause of one's downfall.
Being fond of sleep, fond of company, indolent, lazy and irritable — this is a cause of one's
Though being well-to-do, not to support father and mother who are old and past their youth
— this is a cause of one's downfall.
To deceive by falsehood a brahman or ascetic or any other mendicant — this is a cause of
one's downfall.
To have much wealth and ample gold and food, but to enjoy one's luxuries alone — this is a
cause of one's downfall.
To be proud of birth, of wealth or clan, and to despise one's own kinsmen — this is a cause of
one's downfall.
To be a rake, a drunkard, a gambler, and to squander all one earns — this is a cause of one's
Not to be contented with one's own wife, and to be seen with harlots and the wives of others
— this is a cause of one's downfall.
Being past one's youth, to take a young wife and to be unable to sleep for jealousy of her —
this is a cause of one's downfall.
To place in authority a woman given to drink and squandering, or a man of a like behavior —
this is a cause of one's downfall.
To be of noble birth, with vast ambition, and of slender means, and to crave for rulership —
this is a cause of one's downfall.
Knowing well these causes of downfall in the world, the noble sage endowed with insight
shares a happy realm.
This researcher was born in Pate Taw village, Shwe Bo township, Sagaing
division, central of Myanmar. He became a novice when he was eleven under the patronage
of his parents and preceptor, Ven. U Nandimā, in the same village. He was ordained as a
Buddhist monk by receiving the patronage of Upasampadā preceptor, Venerable
Paṇḍhiccābhivamsa (Moe Kaung Taik, Thein Than Yadanar) and supports of U Maung Ko
and Daw Thein Han (Mandalay) in the Khaṇḍha sīma in which the affairs of Buddhist monk
took held for only monks to be ordained in 2003, on March.
He got his monastic graduation of Sāsanadhaja Dhammācariya degree that the
ministry of Religious affairs and culture takes the responsibilities to hold and then he decided
to join the Sītagū International Buddhist Academy for further education. In 2016, he received
his Bachelor degree in Arts majoring in Buddhism from the Sītagū International Buddhist
Academy, Myanmar. He joined Assumption University in 2014 for the Master’s degree in
Philosophy and Religion. He is currently learning English to promote Buddhism in the world.