yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Three Possibilities
the end of human life, perhaps of all life on this earth;
a reversion to barbarism after a disastrous fall in the human population of the earth;
the establishment of a single world-government possessing a complete control over all the
principal weapons of war.
1. The Extinction of the Human Race
 The first possibility, according to Russell, may not materialize as a result of the next world
war, unless that war is postponed for a longer time than now seems probable
 if the next world war is indecisive, and if organized States survive, it, a period of feverish
technical development may begin
 Although the last survivor may then proclaim himself the emperor of the universe, his
reign will be brief and his subjects will all be rotten dead bodies
Too Pessimistic a View
Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
Climate change is an inevitable challenge
This essay was written back in twentieth century and nothing had happened
since in accordance to nuclear war
2. A Reversion to Barbarism
 a reversion to barbarism as a result of a scientific world war in which a large majority of
human beings will be killed, and only a small number of people will be left on the earth
 All civilizations will be destroyed due to nuclear warfare
 Few nations will survive and they too will revert back to the old civilization of humans
 it will cause famine resulting from radio-active spray and pestilence resulting from
bacteriological warfare
 the small number of survivors would revert to a primitive village economy.
A Strong Basis for the Second Possibility
There is nothing absurd or preposterous about the second-possibility also
A scientific world war is sure to reduce the human population to a small number
A scientific world war would annihilate all the progress that mankind has achieved
through centuries of hard work and effort
In that case, a reversion to barbarism would be a certainty.
3. The Third Possibility
 establishment of a single government for the whole world
 This possibility may be realized in different ways
a) by the victory of the United States in the next world war
b) by the victory of the Soviet Russia
c) by means of an agreement among the nations of the world
If world-government is established through an agreement among the nations
another world war may be avoided
A World-Government Not Feasible
The third possibility visualized by Russell seems
the 20th century nationalization boom made it impossible
the establishment of world government by the victory of two superpowers after the
world war seemed impossible as their will be just dead nations.
A World-Government through Agreement Unlikely
arguments that are used against the project of a single government for the whole world
the idea of a world-government is Utopian and impossible
the author accepts it and that the establishment of a world-government by means of a
general agreement is impossible
world-government, if it has to be established, will have to be imposed by force
The Establishment of a World-Government through War
It may be asserted that wars have always been fought and that the human race has survived
in spite of them
wars provide an opportunity for heroism
that people will feel frustrated if there are no wars at all
To this argument Russell replies
a) the much greater destruction caused by modern wars on account of technological
b) if the next world war does not exterminate the human race, it is sure to bring
about a kind of reversion to barbarism which has already been mentioned above.
The Beneficial Results of a World-Government
Whether the United States wins or Soviet Russia wins
successful rebellion will be impossible
winning side will have a monopoly of the armed forces
people of the victorious side will achieve a very high degree of material comfort
will be freed from the tyranny of fear
gradually more good-natured
less inclined to persecute
A Russian Victory in War, an Appalling Disaster
Russell siding with the United States is that there is more respect in that country
he has in mind is freedom
freedom of thought
freedom of inquiry
freedom of discussion
humane feeling
If Soviet Russia wins the victory, all these freedoms would be crushed
Under such a world-government, science, philosophy, art and literature will be fully
controlled by official authorities and will therefore become narrow
The Victory of an Alliance of Nations
A victory for the United States would not have such awful consequences.
an alliance in which the other members would insist upon retaining much of their
traditional independence
there would still be British culture, French culture, Italian culture and so on
Russell’s Unrealistic Approach to the Problem
 This is the only essay in which Russell, the great apostle of reason, himself becomes
 a man of great intellect showing a sign of fatigue or negligence in his reasoning
 it is strange that a confirmed pacifist should advocate the establishment of a worldgovernment through war
 how does Russell assume that the alliance led by the United States is bound to win
the war against Russia and its allies
 when this essay was written, China had not become so powerful as it is today
 Nobody can predict what role China might choose for itself
 If, contrary to Russell’s assessment, Russia were to win the war, it would in
Russell’s own words be an “appalling disaster”
 No, war is not the right means to achieve the ideal of a world-government
 this ideal cannot be achieved
 We must be more realistic
 think of avoiding wars in the future by deciding to live in harmony
 in accordance with the principle of “live and let live”
 o-existence is the only formula for the world today
 the atom bomb, instead of being allowed to destroy the world
 be treated only as a deterrent to war
Related documents