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Malawi Government ISTANBUL PROGRAMME OF ACTION REPORT OF IMPLEMENTATION National Focal Point for Least Developed Countries Ministry of Economic Planning and Development P.O Box 30136 Capital City Lilongwe 3 Malawi. 12th October, 2012 1 PROGRESS REPORT ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ISTANBUL PROGRAMME OF ACTION FOR MALAWI 1.0 INTRODUCTION The Istanbul Programme of Action (IPoA) for Least Developed Countries (LDCs), for the decade 2011-2020, provides a specific set of goals and targets in eight key priority areas namely: (1) Productive Capacity; (2) Agriculture, Food Security and Rural Development; (3) Trade; (4) Commodities; (5) Human and Social Development; (6) Multiple Crisis and other Emerging Challenges; (7) Mobilizing Financial Resources for Development and Capacity Building; and (8) Good governance at all levels. The commitments undertaken and the actions identified in the IPoA, if fully and effectively implemented, will improve the difficult social and economic conditions faced by LDCs including Malawi. Despite the efforts of the Government of Malawi and the Development Partners, Malawi is still an LDC and is ranked 171 out of 187 countries on the 2011 Human Development Index (HDI). Efforts to reduce poverty and meet the MDGs are facing a number of challenges including insufficient resources. According to the 2012 Malawi Millennium Development Goals Report, Malawi is likely to meet only four of the eight MGD goals. the goals likely to be met are those relating to (i) Reducing child mortality; (ii) Combating HIV and AIDS, Malaria and other diseases; (iii) Ensuring Environmental Sustainability; and (iv) Develop Global Partnership for Development. Malawi is, however, facing difficulties in attaining the goals relating to (i) Eradicating Extreme Poverty and Hunger; (ii) Achieving Universal Primary Education; (iii) Promoting Gender and Empower Women; and (iv) Improving Maternal Health. In order to fast-track attainment of the MGD Goals on which Malawi is lagging behind, Government is developing an MDG Acceleration Framework. Malawi is aware that poverty reduction and empowerment of the local population depends on increased resources, strengthened national policies and institutions, and on protecting the most vulnerable. It is against this background that Malawi is committed to implementing the Istanbul Programme of Action. 2.0 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ISTANBUL PROGRAMME OF ACTION The Government of Malawi is implementing the IPoA through the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy II (MGDS II) whose key priority areas are linked with the IPoA critical areas as indicated in Annex 1 below. The MGDS II has a five-year implementation period (2011-2016). It is an overarching medium term development strategy designed to attain Malawi’s long term aspiration of becoming a middle income economy by the year 2020 as it has been articulated in the Vision 2020. The main objective of the MGDS II is to reduce poverty through sustainable economic growth and infrastructure development. 2 Formulation of MGDS II was very consultative to ensure ownership and effective implementation. In this regard, various stakeholder including the three arms of the Government (the Executive, Parliament and Judiciary); civil society and faith based organisations; the private sector and the general public are actively participating in the implementation of the MGDS II. Government of Malawi is leading the implementation through technical consolidation and its coordinated national budget. MGDS II identifies 6 thematic areas namely: Sustainable Economic Growth; Social Development; Social Support and Disaster Risk Management; Infrastructure Development; Improved Governance and Cross Cutting issues. In addition, the MGDS II has nine key priority areas drawn from the six themes and these are: (1) Agriculture and Food Security; (2) Transport Infrastructure; (3) Energy, Industrial Development, Mining and Tourism; (4) Education, Science and Technology; (5) Public health, Sanitation, Malaria and HIV and AIDS Management; (6) Integrated Rural Development; (7) Green Belt Irrigation and Water Development; (8) Child Development, Youth Development and Empowerment; and (9) Climate Change, Natural Resources and Environmental Management. Successful implementation of these Themes and Key Priority Areas is expected spur economic growth in Malawi and contribute to poverty reduction. In view of this, the Malawi Government is using the existing structures to implement the Istanbul Programme of Action (IPOA). As already noted, the MGDS II has incorporated the IPOA’s eight priority areas; thereby simplifying its implementation. The Ministry of Economic Planning and Development, which is coordinating implementation of the IPoA in Malawi, has also developed an implementation plan to ensure that IPoA activities are implemented in a coordinated and systematic manner. The implementation plan has clearly outlined the activities that need to be implemented in the short, medium and long terms. This is important because the success of some activities will depend on effective implementation of other activities hence the need to properly sequence these activities. 2.1 Malawi’s Experiences In 2001, Malawi started implementing the Brussels Programme of Action (BPoA), which was a ten year programme for the LDCs i.e. 2001-2010. The BPoA contained multiple sets of actions and commitments including social, economic, political and environmental issues. It was anticipated that successful implementation of these pillars would achieve the ultimate goal of accelerated and sustained poverty reduction as a means of attaining sustainable development of the LDCs. In addition, the BPoA was seen as framework for partnership based on mutual commitments by LDCs and their development partners in order to accelerate LDCs’ economic growth and development and end their marginalisation in the global economy. 3 From the Malawi’s perspective, BPoA was a very good programme for LDCs but it faced a number of critical challenges in delivering on many of the intended goals. The following are some of the key challenges that compromised achievement of its objectives: 3.1 The BPOA did not set mid-term targets hence it was not possible to assess the achievements quantitatively in the absence of such targets; Facilitating implementation of the BPOA was a challenge due to lack of budgetary item in support of coordination activities. Dearth of statistics and statistical capacity to engage in proper monitoring and reporting on national implementation of the BPOA; and Lack or delay of fulfillment of commitments by Development Partners on overseas development aid, debt relief, trade and technology transfer to enable LDCs to achieve the goals of the BPoA. Lessons Learned Addressing the above challenges when implementing the IPoA will be critical in achieving its goals. In view of this, Malawi draws the following lessons from the implementation of the BPoA and the initial implementation of the Istanbul Programme of Action: i) National contact points should be supported to raise the profile of the IPoA at the country level. Political support is very important and implementation of the IPoA should be clear to the country leadership for it to get the necessary support. ii) There is need for active participation of all stakeholders in the implementation process of the IPoA. In this case, it is important to undertake consultations with various stakeholders on how the POA should be implemented. This would improve ownership and ensure effective implementation. iii) Since the IPOA is a ten-year programme, there is need to prioritise implementation of activities because the success of future activities will depend on the outcome of the initial activities. iv) There is need to develop monitoring indicators and targets with clear timelines. These indicators and targets will act as benchmarks on which performance can be assessed. In the current framework, the IPoA don’t have the monitoring tools and it would be difficult to measure progress. v) Development Partners should fulfil their commitments especially on remitting the required development assistance. It should be noted that without resources, implementation of the IPoA will not be possible. 4 3.0 CONCLUSION Malawi has welcomed the Istanbul Programme of Action (IPoA) and has already mainstreamed it into its national development agenda, which is the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy II (MGDS II). The country has also developed an implementation plan for the IPOA. It has been noted, however, that active involvement of all stakeholders is critical for the successful implementation of the programme. In particular, fulfillment of the commitments by the Development Partners will go a long way in ensuring the success of the IPoA. ANNEX 1: LINKAGES BETWEEN THE IPOA AND THE MGDS IPOA PRIORITY MGDS II PRIORITY AREA AND THEMES A. Productive Capacity i. AREAS COMMENT Infrastructure Key priority area 3: Transport Objective is to improve transport Infrastructure and Nsanje World infrastructure through improved Inland Port infrastructure road, rail and water transport infrastructure ii. Energy Key priority area 2: Energy, It is aimed at generating and Industrial Development, Mining and distributing sufficient amount of Tourism. energy to meet national socio economic demands. iii. Science, Key priority area number four: The goal is to enhance access to Technology and Education, Science and technology quality and relevant education and Innovation to enhance the contribution of research, science and technology to national productivity and competitiveness. iv. Private Sector Theme 1, Sub-theme 4: Private In order to develop and promote a Development Sector Development, Industry and conducive environment that will Trade enhance inclusive private sector growth and competitiveness. B. Agriculture, Theme 1, Sub-theme 1: Agriculture The goal of this is to increase Food Security and Productivity and diversification. agricultural productivity and Rural diversification. Development C. Trade Theme 1, Sub-theme four: Private Malawi wants to develop and Sector Development, Industry and promote a conducive environment Trade that will enhance inclusive private sector growth and competitive. D. Human and Social Development i. Education Training ii. Population Primary health and Key priority area 4: Education, Science and Technology. and Theme 2, Sub-theme 1: Population and Key priority area 5: Public Health and Sanitation, Malaria and 5 The aim is to improve access to quality and relevant education The goal is to manage population growth for sustainable socio economic development. The other HIV and AIDS management goal is to control and prevent occurrence and spread of diseases. iii. Youth Key priority area 8: Youth This seeks to enhance effective Development Development and Empowerment. youth participation in economic activities. iv. Water and Key priority area 5: Public Health The goal is to ensure use of Sanitation and Sanitation, Malaria and HIV improved sanitation facilities and and AIDS management adoption of safe hygiene practices. Key priority area 7: Green Belt The goal is to improve access to Irrigation and Water Development water through an integrated water management v. Gender Equality Theme 6, Sub-theme 1: Gender Under this theme, the goal is to and Empowerment reduce gender inequalities and of Women enhance participation for all gender groups in socio economic development. vi. Social Protection Theme 3: Social Support and The goal of the theme is to improve Disaster Risk Management resilience and quality of life for the poor to move out of poverty and vulnerability. E. Good Theme 5: Improved governance in The goal to promote transparency Governance at all three areas i.e. economic and accountability at all levels. level governance, corporate governance and Democratic governance. F. Multiple crises and other emerging challenges i. Economic shocks Theme 5, Sub-theme 1: Economic Governance ii. Climate change and environmental sustainability Key priority area 9: Climate Change, Natural Resources and Environmental Management. iii. Disaster risk reduction Theme 3: Social Support and Disaster Risk Management. 6 The goal is to sustain and accelerate the positive economic growth within a stable macroeconomic environment The goal is to enhance resilience to climate change risks and impacts The goal is to reduce social, economic and environmental impact of disasters.