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Transcript
WHAT IS YOUR
SPORTS
NUTRITION GAME
PLAN?
Ashley Armstrong, MS., RD. Sport Dietitian, Canadian Sport Institute Pacific
A Bit About Me…
What A Sport Dietitian Can do
for YOU
 Develop nutrition strategies to
complement annual training
schedules
– Recovery
– Travel
– Competition
– Off season challenges
 Speed Recovery – surgery, injury,
training, competition
 Develop hydration plans and
schedule
 Assist with body composition/weight
management
– Timing matters!
– Methods matter!

Evaluate dietary supplements and
sports foods for efficacy, safety and
quality

Nutrition counseling for athletes with
medical conditions:

Diabetes, Cardiovascular Risk,
Comprised Bone Health,
Abnormal Iron Status, Disordered
Eating/ED, Gastrointestinal
Problems; Gluten sensitivity
 Teach athletes how to choose,
store and prep foods
– Grocery Store Tours
– Cooking Classes
What We are NOT….
TESTING YOUR SPORTS
NUTRITION IQ &
DEBUNKING SOME COMMON
MYTHS
Multiple Choice
What are the key nutrients needed for young
female athletes?
A. Vitamin C
B. Iron
C. Beta-Carotene
D. Calcium/Vitamin D
E. Both B and D
ANSWER: E. Both B and D
WHY?
- Iron?
- Calcium and Vitamin D?
- Food sources?
Multiple Choice
 A good meal to eat before training or
competition should contain mostly:
Carbohydrate
B. Protein
C. Fat
D. All of the above
A.
• A good meal to eat before training or
competition should contain mostly:
ANSWER : A. Carbohydrate
Why?
– Provide you with a quick energy source
– Choose a meal closer to training and competition that is low
in fibre and fat as these are often difficult to digest and can
cause gut upset
– Some protein may be tolerated depending on how soon
training is
– CHOOSE WHOLE FOODS FIRST
– Don’t forget about fluid
Pre-Fueling 2-4 hours prior
Pre-Fueling 1-2 hours prior
Pre-Fueling 30-60 min prior
How to build a winning snack…
1. Start with a source of carbohydrates…
– Vegetables and Fruits
– Grain Products
2. Choose carbs low in sugar and
high in fibre
Less than 8 grams of sugar
(1 tsp of sugar = 4 grams)
• 2 thumbs up
– More than 4 grams of fibre
• 4 fingers
3. Add a source of protein
– Milk and Alternatives
– Meat and Alternatives
Portable Snack Ideas
Carbohydrates +
(Grains/Fruit/Vegetables)
Protein
(Milk Prod/Meat & Alt.)
• Dried Fruit and Nuts/Soy nuts
• Whole grain crackers and Babybel cheese/Cheese
Strings/Laughing cow cheese
• Sport Bars (>10 g protein): Luna, Cliff, Vega, Elevate
Me!, Simply bars (Simply chips)
• Granola bars (>5 g protein): Taste of Nature, Nature
Valley Sweet & Salty, Kashi Bars
• Trail Mix (dried fruit + nuts/seeds)
• Home made smoothies
• Tuna and whole grain crackers
• Milk/Soy drink boxes and fruit (note: almond, coconut
and rice beverages contain little protein)
• Nut butters and crackers
Multiple Choice
 How soon should you start to ‘refuel and recover’
after a practice?
A.
B.
C.
D.
60 minutes
40 minutes
90 minutes
15-30 minutes
ANSWER = D: 15-30 minutes
WHY?
- It is most important to recover immediately
(i.e. within 30min) to replace depleted
glycogen stores
- Timing is essential if you have another training
session in less than 8 hrs
- Use REAL FOOD FIRST for Recovery
Immediate Recovery Snack/Meal
TRUE OR FALSE?
• Adolescence is
when bone mass
is built for life.
TRUE OR FALSE?
• Adolescence is when bone mass is built for
life.
TRUE:
- At least 90% of peak bone mass is acquired
by age 18
- During the teen years, athletes should
ensure they are getting balanced nutrition,
to make AND keep their bones strong
throughout their lifetime!
TRUE OR FALSE?
• It is normal for an
athlete’s menstrual
periods to stop or
not start at all.
TRUE OR FALSE?
• It is normal for an athlete’s menstrual
periods to stop or not start at all.
FALSE:
- For all female athletes, a healthy body
includes having regular menstrual cycles
- Months without menstruation is NOT
normal for female athletes and can mean
weak bones, potential injury and even
osteoporosis.
TRUE OR FALSE?
• Girls can expect to gain 3 to 5 lbs. a
year from age 9 to 16.
TRUE OR FALSE?
Girls can expect to gain 3 to 5 lbs a year
from age 9 to 16.
FALSE: Girls can expect to gain 5 to 10 lbs
a year from 9 to 16 and grow up to 10
inches.
TRUE OR FALSE
• You should avoid carbohydrates
to lose weight?
• FALSE
– Our bodies need carbohydrates for energy and
optimal brain function
– Carbohydrate foods contain vitamins and minerals
like iron, calcium, vitamin C, folic acid, potassium and
magnesium, along with fibre.
– Strictly avoiding carbohydrates puts you at risk for
nutrient deficiencies and low energy balance
– Leads to poor training sessions and poor recovery
– Lead to glycogen depletion causing fatigue, delayed
recovery and possibly reduction in lean mass and
immune function
TRUE OR FALSE
• High-performance Canadian athletes
generally meet their energy needs for
health and performance?
• High-performance Canadian athletes
generally meet their energy needs for
health and training?
FALSE: High-performance Canadian
athletes: Not consuming adequate energy or
carbohydrates to meet their training needs
(Lun, Erdman & Reimer, 2009)
Multiple Choice
 If you do not eat enough to fuel your body
for a practice or training, which of the
following is true?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Will not be able to perform at your best
You will be more likely to get injured
You will be more likely to get sick
All of the above
ANSWER: D. all of the above
WHY?
- Reduced energy during training
- Only can perform at 60-75% of physical and
mental capacity
- Energy Intake below that needed for energy
expended from exercise AND that needed for
other metabolic processes in the body =
susceptible to injury, illness and
impaired performance
Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport
(RED-S)
• Previously known as the “Female Athlete
Triad”
• Centres around energy deficiency relative to
the balance between Energy Intake (calories)
and Energy Expenditure (exercise) caused
by:
– Reduction in energy intake
AND/OR
– Increased exercise load
Mountjoy., M. et al. (2014)
RED-S (Relative Energy Deficiency
in Sport)
Immunity
INADEQUATE
ENERGY!!!
Menstrual
Function
Endocrine
TRIAD
Hematological
Bone
Health
REDS
GI
Metabolic
Growth/D
evelopme
nt
Psychological
CV
Mountjoy M et al. Br J Sports Med 2014;48:491-497
Copyright © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine. All rights reserved.
Potential Performance Effects of Relative Energy Deficiency in
Sport (*Aerobic and anaerobic performance).
Mountjoy M et al. Br J Sports Med 2014;48:491-497
Copyright © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine. All rights reserved.
Energy Deficiency in Athletes
Nattiv, et al (2007)
• Obsessive
eating
disorders
• Clinical Mental
illness
• AN/BN/EDNOS
• Intentional and
rational but
mismanaged
efforts to
reduce body
size and
fatness for
athletic
competition
• Includes:
fasting, diet
pills, laxatives,
diuretics,
enemas, and
vomiting
• Inadvertent
failure to
increase
energy intake
to compensate
for the energy
expended in
exercise
Disordered Eating Continuum
Who’s at Risk?
Predisposing Factors in Sports:
Judging criteria
Aesthetic sports or those where a low body
fat is desired
Weight classifications, restrictions,
standards
Coach, family and peer pressure
Sociocultural factors
This is not just
MEDIA
Performance demands
ED. It is not
getting the fuel
the body
needs!
We Live in a Body Obsessed World
THE FACTS
Up to 30% of athletes experiencing subclinical
eating disorder (ED) symptoms: 3% in refereed
sports vs. 13% in judged sports (Zucker et al, 1999)
Female athletes in aesthetic sports found to be at
the highest risk for ED (Sungot-Borgen & Torstveit,
2004)
ED higher in adolescent elite athletes compared to
controls (Martinsen & Sundgot-Borgen, 2013)
More young female athletes report improvement of
appearance rather than improvement of
performance as a reason for dieting (Martinsen et
al, 2010)
Warning Signs & Symptoms of
Inadequate Energy or ED
• Loss of or irregular periods
(failure to start
menstruating by 16 years
of age)
• Fatigue or overall low
energy
• Poor performance and
slow recovery times
• Repetitive injury, stress
fractures
• Poor immunity
• Cold hands and feet
• Sleep difficulties
• Nutrient deficiency; weak or
brittle hair, nails; poor skin
integrity
• Drastic changes in weight in
a short period of time
• Excess body fat despite high
volume of training or activity
(especially abdominal wt.)
Deutz, et al. (2000)
• Mood changes, depression,
lack of ability to concentrate
• Drive to be thin at all costs!
What the athlete may say….
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Headaches
Constipation
Diarrhea
Sleeping difficulties
Breathing difficulties
Dizziness
Sadness
Fatigue
Prevention
• Know the importance of fueling properly
throughout the day
• Be aware of the media…and then ignore it!
• Explore your own believes & attitudes around
weight, dieting and body image
• Watch for signs and symptoms and track
menstrual cycles to ensure they are regular
• If warning signs are present and/or weight
change is desired ALWAYS consult a health
professional and sport dietitian
SUMMARY: Fueling for Performance
• Eat every 2-4 hours
– Snacks and meals should occur at regular intervals
• Balance your plate
– Both meals and snacks should contain carbohydrates, protein and
fat
• Bring snacks to practice
– Athletes should have a carbohydrate rich snack/meal within 3 hours
before exercise and a balanced snack with both carbs and protein
right after exercise
• Plan ahead
– Find easy, portable foods that can be packed, stored, or carried
along
• Eat on the run
– Eating can be done in the car, in the change room, on the
sidelines…whenever…wherever!
PERFORMANCE NUTRITION FOUNDATIONS SUMMARY
IRON (845mg/day)
Adequate
Protein (1.21.8g/kg
BM/day)
Vitamin D
10002000IU/day
Calcium
minimum
10002500mg/day
(dependent
on age &
gender)
Adequate
Energy (3045kcal/kg
FFM)
Performance
Nutrition
Adequate
Carbohydrate
(3-10g/kg
BM/day)
Healthy Fats
(1-2g/kg
BM/day)
Recommended Number of Food Guide
Servings Per Day
Food Group
Super Foods
Vegetables & Fruit
General
Guidelines
Athletes
Endurance
Sports
6-8
8-10+
10-14+
6-7
8-14+
15+
3-4
4
4-6
1-2
2-3
3-4
2-3
3-4
4-5
CARBOHYDRATE
Energizers/Fuel
Grain Products
CARBOHYDRATE
Bone Builders
Milk & Alternatives
CARBOHYDRATE &
PROTEIN
Recovery/Builders
Meat & Alternatives
PROTEIN
Essentials
Fats & Oils
FAT
Finding a Sport Dietitian & Quality
Information on Sports Nutrition
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sport Med BC
College of Dietitians of British Columbia
Coaching Association of Canada - www.coach.ca
Dietitians of Canada – www.dietitians.ca
Canadian Sport Institute Pacific http://www.csipacific.ca/content/home.asp
SCAN - http://www.scandpg.org/sports-nutrition/
Sport Dietitians of Australia http://www.sportsdietitians.com.au/
http://www.powerbar.com/training
http://www.nestlenutritioninstitute.org/pages/default_us.aspx
Questions?
AARMSTRONG@CSIPACIFIC.CA
Special thanks to Nicole Springle, MAN., RD CSI ONTARIO & Jorie Janzen, RD CSC MANITOBA