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Healthy Kids
Queensland Survey
2006
Full Report
© The State of Queensland, Queensland Health, 2008
Copyright protects this publication. However, Queensland Health has no objection to this material being reproduced with
acknowledgment, except for commercial purposes. Permission to reproduce for commercial purposes should be sought from
the Policy and Quality Officer, Queensland Health, GPO Box 48, Brisbane Q 4001.
The Healthy Kids Queensland Survey 2006 was an initiative funded by Queensland Health, Queensland Government and
contracted to The University of Queensland to undertake.
ISBN No 978-1-921447-18-1
This document is available on the Queensland Health website at www.health.qld.gov.au/healthieryou/default.asp
Suggested citation:
Abbott RA, Macdonald D, Stubbs CO, Lee AJ, Harper C, Davies PSW. Healthy Kids Queensland Survey 2006 — Full Report.
Queensland Health, Brisbane, 2008
Acknowledgments
The HKQ Steering Committee provided advice guidance and support relating to all aspects of the survey.
The HKQ Steering Committee members were:
Ms Jacky Dawson, Education Queensland
Ms Di Farmer, Department of Local Government & Planning, Sport and Recreation Queensland
Ms Maureen Fletcher, Child & Youth Health Unit, Queensland Health
Dr Vicki Gedge, Population Health Branch, Queensland Health
Ms Catherine Harper, Population Health Branch, Queensland Health
Mr Tony Kitchen, Queensland Catholic Education Commission
Dr Amanda Lee, Population Health Branch, Queensland Health (QH Project Sponsor)
Ms Jenene Rosser, Independent Schools Queensland
Ms Kirstine Sketcher-Baker, Health Information Branch, Queensland Health
Ms Christina Stubbs, Population Health Branch, Queensland Health (QH Project Manager)
Mr Jeff Wood, Department of Local Government & Planning, Sport and Recreation Queensland.
The University of Queensland Healthy Kids Queensland Project Committee was instrumental in the design, and the successful
implementation of the survey. The members of the Project Committee were:
Dr Rebecca Abbott, School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland.
Ms Karen Bucholz, Children’s Nutrition Research Centre, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland
Dr Terry Coyne, School of Population Health, The University of Queensland
Associate Professor Peter SW Davies, Children’s Nutrition Research Centre, School of Medicine, The University
of Queensland
Mr Robert Hughes, School of Population Health, The University of Queensland
Ms Zoe Lawrie, Children’s Nutrition Research Centre, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland
Professor Doune Macdonald, School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland.
Ms Jane Paterson, Children’s Nutrition Research Centre, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland.
The Project Committee is appreciative of the dedication and commitment of the Project Director, Jane Paterson,
and the Project Coordinator, Karen Bucholz.
The valuable contribution of the following people to the HKQ survey is acknowledged:
Ms Rachel Baudistel, Children’s Nutrition Research Centre, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland
Professor Tim Cole, University of London, UK
Ms Pamela Dodrill, Children’s Nutrition Research Centre, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland
Mr Simon Forsyeth, School of Population Health, The University of Queensland
Ms Marea Fox, Children’s Nutrition Research Centre, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland
Dr Barry Maher, IT Services, The University of Queensland
Dr Megan McCrory, Bastyr University, Seattle, USA
Ms Margaret Miller, Marg Miller Health Consulting, WA (Consultant)
Ms Deborah Noon, School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland
Mr Robert Shandga Li, School of Population Health, The University of Queensland
Professor Gail Williams, School of Population Health, The University of Queensland
Ms Rebecca Williams, Children’s Nutrition Research Centre, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland.
The Steering and Project Committee are very grateful to the school systems, schools, teachers, students and their families who
so enthusiastically embraced this project.
2
Contents
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Outline of the Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Key Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Weight and waist circumference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Diet
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Physical activity behaviours. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Policy implications and recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.0 Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.1 Importance of physical activity in childhood and adolescence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
1.2 Importance of nutrition in childhood and adolescence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
1.3 Why Healthy Kids Queensland? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
2.0 The Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.1 Demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
2.2 Survey tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
2.3 Survey Logistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
3.0 Anthropometric assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.1 Height, body weight and BMI of sample population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
3.2 BMI categories (underweight, healthy weight, overweight and obese) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
3.2.1
Comparison of overweight and obesity between Queensland children and children in WA and NSW . . . . 29
3.2.2
Trends in overweight and obesity over time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.3 Waist circumference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
3.3.1
Trends in waist circumference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.4 Body size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
4.0 Dietary assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4.1 Energy and macronutrients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
4.1.1
Energy intake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.1.2
Critical evaluation of energy intake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.1.3
Macronutrients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4.2 Micronutrients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
4.3 Food categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
4.4 Consumption of foods of interest from the 24-hour food record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
4.5 Food habits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
4.5.1
Fruit and vegetables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.5.2
Meal habits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4.5.3
Beverages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4.6 All food and drink items from the food frequency questionnaire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
5.0 Physical activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
5.1 Pedometer steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
5.2 Physical activities and sports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
5.3 Physical activity patterns and electronic media for entertainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
5.4 Self-reported activity levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
5.5 Active transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
5.6 Perceptions about physical activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
6.0 Concluding comments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
7.0 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
3
Appendix I Classification of Food Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Appendix II Anthropometry Form (Year 10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Appendix III Food Frequency Questionnaire (Year 10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Appendix IV 24 Hour Food and Drink Record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Appendix V Physical Activity Questionnaire (Year 10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Appendix VI Pedometer Diary (Year 10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Appendix VII Adjustment of food intake values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
List of Figures
Figure 1
BMI distributions by age and sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Figure 2
Comparison of the percentage of children who are overweight or obese by State (Queensland, Western
Figure 3
Comparison of the percentage of overweight and obese children in the current survey with national
Figure 4
Increase in umbilicus waist circumference centiles of 9- and 10-year-old children from 1985 to 2006. . . . . . . . 33
Figure 5
Increase of umbilicus waist circumference centiles of 14- and 15-year-old children from 1985 to 2006 . . . . . . . 34
Figure 6
Mean number of steps per day, measured with a pedometer, by Year and sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Australia and New South Wales) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
percentages observed in 1985 and 1995.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Figure 7
Percentage of children by year and gender who reported no involvement outside of school in ‘sport, exercise
or dance’ over the previous year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Figure 8
Percentage of children by year and gender who reported no involvement outside of school in ‘active play’ over
the previous year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
List of Tables
Table 1
Age of the study population (years) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Table 2
Sample sizes according to survey tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Schema:
Distribution of children recruited according to the month of survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Table 3
Height of the children by year and sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Table 4
Weights of the children by year and sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Table 5
BMI of the children by year and sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Table 6
Centiles of BMI for males by age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Table 7
Centiles of BMI for females by age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Table 8
Percentage of children classified as underweight, of healthy weight, or overweight and obese. . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Table 9
Percentage of children classified as overweight or obese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Table 10
Waist circumference (cm) of sample population by age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Table 11
Comparison of umbilicus waist circumference (cm) centiles in 9-year-old children* from 2006 with similaraged children from 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Table 12
Comparison of umbilicus waist circumference (cm) centiles in 10-year-old children* from 2006 with similaraged children from 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Table 13
Comparison of umbilicus waist circumference (cm) centiles in 14-year-old children* from 2006 with similaraged children from 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Table 14
Comparison of umbilicus waist circumference (cm) centiles in 15-year-old children * from 2006 with similaraged children from 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Table 15
Children’s perceptions about their current body weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Table 16
Relation of actual body weight (by BMI cut-off category) to perception of current body weight in Year 1 children . . 35
Table 17
Relation of actual body weight (by BMI cut-off category) to perception of current body weight in Year 5 children . . 36
Table 18
Relation of actual body weight (by BMI cut-off category) to perception of current body weight in Year 10
children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Table 19
BMI Z-Scores by category of child perception of current body weight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4
Table 20
Average daily energy intake (kJ/day) by year and sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Table 21
Average daily macronutrient intakes of children in Year 1 by sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Table 22
Average daily macronutrient intakes of children in Year 5 by sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Table 23
Average daily macronutrient intakes of children in Year 10 by sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Table 24
Average daily micronutrient intakes of children in Year 1 by sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Table 25
Average daily micronutrient intakes of children in Year 5 by sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Table 26
Average daily micronutrient intakes of children in Year 10 by sex. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Table 27
Percentage of children failing to meet the micronutrient EAR by year and sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Table 28
Percentage (%) of males and females consuming foods of selected major food categories by year group and
sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Table 29
Mean daily intake (g) of selected major food categories of males and females for those who consumed each
food group, by year and sex. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Table 30
Median daily intake (g) of selected major food categories of males and females for those who consumed each
food group, by year and sex. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Table 31
Table 32
Mean daily intake (g) of selected major food categories across the entire sample by year and sex . . . . . . . . . . 47
Percentage of study population consuming one serve or more of fruit and vegetables, take-away food and
dietary supplements on the day of the food record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Table 33
Percentage of study population consuming soft drinks and sports and energy drinks on the day of the food
record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Table 34
Frequency of reported fruit consumption in the previous 12 months. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Table 35
Frequency of reported vegetable consumption in the previous 12 months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Table 36
Reported breakfast consumption in the previous 12 months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Table 37
Reported usual type of breakfast cereal consumption in the previous 12 months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Table 38
Reported frequency with which the child prepared, or helped prepare, their own breakfast over the previous
12 months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Table 39
Reported frequency of eating evening meal while watching TV in the previous 12 months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Table 40
Reported frequency of eating evening meal with family in the previous 12 months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Table 41
Reported frequency with which child helped prepare the family evening meal over the past 12 months . . . . . . 52
Table 42
Reported frequency of consuming ‘fast food’ in the previous 12 months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Table 43
Type of milk consumed in the previous 12 months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Table 44
Frequency of reported non-diet soft drink consumption in the previous 12 months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Table 45
Frequency of reported diet soft drink consumption in the previous 12 months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Table 46
Frequency of reported energy drink consumption in the previous 12 months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Table 47
Frequency of reported sports drink consumption in the previous 12 months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Table 48
Proportion of children consuming mince dishes (e.g. bolognaise sauce, rissoles, meatloaf) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Table 49
Proportion of children consuming mixed dishes with meat like beef, lamb, or pork (e.g. stir-fry, casserole,
Chinese). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Table 50
Proportion of children consuming mixed dishes with chicken, turkey, duck, (e.g. stir-fry,casserole, Chinese). . . . 57
Table 51
Proportion of children consuming roast, BBQ or steamed chicken, turkey, duck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Table 52
Proportion of children consuming crumbed fried chicken, nuggets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Table 53
Proportion of children consuming roast meat (e.g. beef, lamb, pork) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Table 54
Proportion of children consuming crumbed steak or chops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Table 55
Proportion of children consuming sausages, frankfurters, cheerios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Table 56
Proportion of children consuming bacon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Table 57
Proportion of children consuming ham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Table 58
Proportion of children consuming salami, luncheon meats (e.g. devon, pressed chicken) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Table 59
Proportion of children consuming liver including pate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Table 60
Proportion of children consuming other offal (e.g. kidneys) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Table 61
Proportion of children consuming canned fish (e.g. tuna, salmon, sardines) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Table 62
Proportion of children consuming fish steamed, baked, grilled. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Table 63
Proportion of children consuming fish fried, battered, crumbed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
5
Table 64
Proportion of children consuming other seafood (e.g. prawns, oysters, calamari) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Table 65
Proportion of children consuming eggs or egg dishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Table 66
Proportion of children consuming soy- based meat substitutes (e.g. TVP, soy burger) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Table 67
Proportion of children consuming nut-based meat substitutes (e.g. Nutolene™, Vegelinks™) . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Table 68
Proportion of children consuming soybean, tofu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Table 69
Proportion of children consuming baked beans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Table 70
Proportion of children consuming other beans/peas/lentils (e.g. kidney, borlotti, chickpeas, dhal, split pea) . . . 62
Table 71
Proportion of children consuming green/ mixed salad (e.g. lettuce, tomato, cucumber, onion, etc) in a
sandwich . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Table 72
Proportion of children consuming green/ mixed salad (e.g. lettuce, tomato, cucumber, onion, etc) as a side
salad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Table 73
Proportion of children consuming stir-fried and mixed cooked vegetables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Table 74
Proportion of children consuming mixed vegetables in a casserole or stew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Table 75
Proportion of children consuming vegetable soup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Table 76
Proportion of children consuming potato cooked without fat (e.g. boiled, mashed, dry baked). . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Table 77
Proportion of children consuming potato cooked with fat (e.g. chips, French fries, gems, wedges, roast) . . . . . . 63
Table 78
Proportion of children consuming carrots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Table 79
Proportion of children consuming pumpkin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Table 80
Proportion of children consuming sweet potatoes and other root vegetables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Table 81
Proportion of children consuming green peas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Table 82
Proportion of children consuming green beans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Table 83
Proportion of children consuming silverbeet, spinach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Table 84
Proportion of children consuming celery, asparagus, or bean sprouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Table 85
Proportion of children consuming broccoli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Table 86
Proportion of children consuming cauliflower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Table 87
Proportion of children consuming brussels sprouts, cabbage, coleslaw, Asian greens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Table 88
Proportion of children consuming zucchini, eggplant, squash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Table 89
Proportion of children consuming lettuce, rocket, endive, other raw salad greens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Table 90
Proportion of children consuming capsicum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Table 91
Proportion of children consuming tomatoes including canned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Table 92
Proportion of children consuming tomato products (e.g. dried, paste, sauce) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Table 93
Proportion of children consuming avocado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Tabel 94
Proportion of children consuming onion or leeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Table 95
Proportion of children consuming sweetcorn, corn on the cob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Table 96
Proportion of children consuming mushrooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Table 97
Proportion of children consuming dried fruit- all types, (e.g. sultanas, prunes, apricots) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Table 98
Proportion of children consuming fruit salad, mixed fruit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Table 99
Proportion of children consuming apple, pear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Table 100
Proportion of children consuming orange, mandarin, grapefruit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Table 101
Proportion of children consuming banana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Table 102
Proportion of children consuming peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Table 103
Proportion of children consuming mango, paw- paw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Table 104
Proportion of children consuming pineapple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Table 105
Proportion of children consuming berries (e.g. strawberries, blueberries) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Table 106
Proportion of children consuming melon (e.g. watermelon, rockmelon) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Table 107
Proportion of children consuming other fruit (e.g. grapes, kiwi fruit) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Table 108
Proportion of children consuming white bread, toast or rolls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Table 109
Proportion of children consuming wholemeal or mixed grain bread, toast, rolls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Table 110
Proportion of children consuming English muffin, bagel, crumpet, foccacia, flat bread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Table 111
Proportion of children consuming dry or savoury biscuits, crispbread, crackers, rice cakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Table 112
Proportion of children consuming muesli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
6
Table 113
Proportion of children consuming cooked porridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Table 114
Proportion of children consuming breakfast cereal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Table 115
Proportion of children consuming rice including white or brown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Table 116
Proportion of children consuming pasta including filled pasta, noodles, lasagne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Table 117
Proportion of children consuming meat pie, sausage roll, other savoury pastries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Table 118
Proportion of children consuming pizza . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Table 119
Proportion of children consuming hamburger with bun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Table 120
Proportion of children consuming cakes, muffins, scones, pikelets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Table 121
Proportion of children consuming sweet pies or sweet pastries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Table 122
Proportion of children consuming other puddings and desserts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Table 123
Proportion of children consuming plain sweet biscuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Table 124
Proportion of children consuming fancy biscuit including jam/cream filled, chocolate, fruit and nut. . . . . . . . . 74
Table 125
Proportion of children consuming chocolate including chocolate bars (e.g. Mars™) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Table 126
Proportion of children consuming other lollies, confectioneries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Table 127
Proportion of children consuming nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Table 128
Proportion of children consuming potato chips, corn chips, (e.g. Twisties™) etc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Table 129
Proportion of children consuming sugar, syrups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Table 130
Proportion of children consuming jam, marmalade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Table 131
Proportion of children consuming peanut butter, other nut spreads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Table 132
Proportion of children consuming butter, dairy blends, margarine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Table 133
Proportion of children consuming Vegemite™, Marmite™, Promite™. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Tabel 134
Proportion of children consuming oil and vinegar dressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Table 135
Proportion of children consuming mayonnaise, other creamy dressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Table 136
Proportion of children consuming milk/soy as a drink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Table 137
Proportion of children consuming flavoured milk/soy drink (e.g. milkshake, iced-coffee, hot chocolate) . . . . . . 77
Table 138
Proportion of children consuming milk/soy on breakfast cereals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Table 139
Proportion of children consuming milk/soy to top up hot drinks (e.g. milk in tea) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Table 140
Proportion of children consuming cream or sour cream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Table 141
Proportion of children consuming ice-cream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Table 142
Proportion of children consuming yoghurt including plain, frozen, flavoured, and fromage frais . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Table 143
Proportion of children consuming cottage or ricotta cheese. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Table 144
Proportion of children consuming cheddar and all other cheeses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Table 145
Proportion of children consuming water including unflavoured mineral water, soda water, tap water . . . . . . . . 79
Table 146
Proportion of children consuming 100% fruit juice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Table 147
Proportion of children consuming fruit juice drinks (e.g. 35% fruit) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Table 148
Proportion of children consuming cordial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Table 149
Proportion of children consuming coffee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Table 150
Proportion of children consuming tea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Table 151
Proportion of children consuming beer- low alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Table 152
Proportion of children consuming beer- full strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Table 153
Proportion of children consuming red wine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Table 154
Proportion of children consuming white wine or champagne/sparkling wine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Table 155
Proportion of children consuming wine cooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Table 156
Proportion of children consuming sherry or port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Table 157
Proportion of children consuming pre-mixed drinks (e.g. Bacardi breezer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Table 158
Proportion of children consuming spirits or liqueurs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Table 159
Proportion of children consuming vitamin and mineral supplements (including tablets, capsules or drops) . . . . 82
Table 160
Proportion of children consuming sports supplements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Table 161
Proportion of children consuming weight control supplements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Table 162
Proportion of children consuming other dietary supplements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Table 163
Proportion of children reporting eating special foods or having a special diet over the previous twelve months . . 83
7
Table 164
Reasons for eating special foods or having a special diet over the previous twelve months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Table 165
Proportion of children who were breast-fed as an infant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Table 166
Length of time children were breastfed (i.e. receiving breastmilk only and no infant formula or other milk as
their main drink) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Table 167
Age when children started eating solid foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Table 168
Mean number of steps per day, per weekday and per weekend day, measured with a pedometer, by year and
sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Table 169
Participation in physical activities* over the previous week for Year 1 males and females. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Table 170
Physical activities* that Year 1 males and females had ‘usually’ participated in over the previous year . . . . . . . 90
Table 171
Participation in physical activities* over the previous week for Year 5 males and females. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Table 172
Physical activities* that Year 5 males and females had ‘usually’ participated in over the previous year . . . . . . . 91
Table 173
Participation in physical activities* over the previous week for Year 10 males and females . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Table 174
Physical activities* that Year 10 males and females had ‘usually’ participated in over the previous year . . . . . . 92
Table 175
Top 12 most frequently participated activities for Year 1 children (averaged across the whole study sample). . . . 92
Table 176
Top 12 most frequently participated activities for Year 5 children (averaged across the whole study sample). . . . 93
Table 177
Top 12 most frequently participated activities over previous week for Year 10 children and time (in minutes)
spent on them (averaged across the whole study sample) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Table 178
Average time (in minutes) spent on physical activities and sports over the previous week by Year 10 children. . . 94
Table 179
Accumulated time over previous week on all physical activities by Year 10 children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Table 180
Self reported frequency of the number of days over the past seven days that children engaged in physical
activity or active play that raised their heart rate or caused them to huff and puff for a total of 60 minutes or
more per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Table 181
Reported time spent and the percentage of children who spent more than two hours on screen-based
electronic media for entertainment, during daylight hours in the previous day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Table 182
Mean (and median) time spent, in minutes, on leisure activities during the previous week for Year 1 children . . . 97
Table 183
Mean (and median) time spent, in minutes, on leisure activities during the previous week for Year 5 children . . . 97
Table 184
Mean (and median) time spent, in minutes, on leisure activities during the previous week for Year 10 children . . 98
Table 185
Self-reported perception of being ‘very active’ in school sports or PE over the previous week. . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Table 186
Self-reported activity during a usual morning or afternoon break at school over the previous week . . . . . . . . . 99
Table 187
Self-reported activity during a usual lunch break at school over the previous week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Table 188
Self-reported frequency of being ‘very active’ in the time straight after school over the previous week. . . . . . . .100
Table 189
Self-reported frequency of being ‘very active’ in the evenings over the previous week. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Table 190
Self-reported frequency of being ‘very active’ over the previous week. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
Table 191
Percentage of children engaging in ‘active transport’ to or from school over the previous week . . . . . . . . . . .102
Table 192
Percentage of children who used a car or public transport to get to school on the day of the survey . . . . . . . . .102
Table 193
Percentage of children who used a car or public transport to get home from school on the day before the
survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
Table 194
Statements about current physical activity; percentage of children who agreed with the following comments
about physical activity and/or sport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Table 195
Statements about future physical activity; percentage of children who agreed with the following comments
about how being physically active might affect them over the next year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
8
Foreword
positions, with incremental investment to over $16
Million per annum. These frontline staff provide
important services including support for parents and
carers through resources such as the Personal Health
Record; Child Information: Your guide to the first 12
months; which is distributed to all new parents in
Queensland, and the Growing Strong, Feeding You and
Your Baby resources for Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander families. The Fun not Fuss with Food workshops
were developed by Queensland Health to assist parents
of children with behavioural eating problems, and have
been shown to effectively improve children’s eating
behaviour. Over 7000 Fun not Fuss with Food parent
resources have been distributed across Queensland
in the last two years. Implementation of Optimal
Infant Nutrition: evidence-based guidelines, and the
Queensland Health Work and Breastfeeding Policy also
support parents to breastfeed, which has been shown
to reduce the risk of overweight in childhood.
ll children need good nutrition and adequate
physical activity to grow to their full cognitive
and physical potential, achieve a healthy weight, and
to be protected against chronic disease in later life.
Poor nutrition and physical inactivity in childhood
are associated with increased risk factors for chronic
disease, including obesity and raised blood pressure,
cholesterol and blood sugar.
A
National surveys of childhood nutrition and body
measurements were undertaken in 1985 and 1995.
Comparison of these studies showed that the
prevalence of overweight doubled and the prevalence
of obesity in children tripled during that period. The
rapid increase in the prevalence of overweight and
obesity worldwide since the 1970s has been described
as a global epidemic. Overweight including obesity
now contributes 8.6 % of the burden of disability
and premature death in Queensland - that’s more
than cigarette smoking. As the current generation of
overweight children become adults, greatly increased
rates of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, certain cancers,
gall bladder disease, osteoarthritis, asthma, endocrine
disorders and other weight-related conditions will occur
in young adult populations, affecting quality of life and
health treatment needs for the rest of their lives.
The Smart Choices: Healthy Food and Drink Supply
Strategy for Queensland Schools was developed in
partnership with Education Queensland to ensure that
children have access at school to foods and drinks
which comply with the national Dietary Guidelines for
children. It has been estimated that this initiative is
responsible for removing 8000 litres of soft drink from
schools each week.
The Queensland Government is committed to working
with the whole community to help promote healthy
weight in children and young people through improved
nutrition and increased physical activity. At the
Queensland Obesity Summit, held by the Premier
in May 2006, more than 90 industry, business,
community and government representatives explored
ways to help more Queenslanders achieve and
maintain a healthy weight. Following the Summit, the
Premier announced a $21 million commitment over
three years for partnerships, grants, facilities and
other resources to help to promote healthier eating
patterns and increased physical activity. The Premier
also established the Queensland Eat Well Be Active
Taskforce.
The Go for 2 & 5™ social marketing campaign
conducted by my Department aims to increase the
fruit and vegetable consumption of all Queenslanders
by one serve a day. Research indicates that since the
campaign began in September 2005, consumption
has already increased by 0.7 of a serve per day, which
represents estimated savings of around $35 Million per
year in health treatment services for chronic disease.
Independent research by Horticulture Australia support
these results, confirming that sales of fresh fruit and
vegetables in Queensland increased by over $9 Million
in the first month of the campaign.
Queensland Health has developed the Physical
Activity and Nutrition out of School Hours (PANOSH)
resources to assist Outside School Hours Care services
to provide healthy food choices, and to keep children
active during afternoon and vacation care. Evaluation
indicates that the proportion of Queensland centres
with nutrition and physical activity policies, provision
These initiatives build on the work within my
Department. Since 2002, Queensland Health has
employed 119 new nutritionists and health educators to
strengthen services that prevent illness by promoting
improved nutrition and physical activity throughout the
State. By 2009, this will have increased to 148 new
9
However, there is still much more to be achieved.
Our children are still eating too little fruit, vegetables
and milk products, and too much sugar and fat. Many
children are not active enough, and boys particularly
spent too much time on television and computer
games.
of healthy foods and average time allocated to physical
activity increased significantly.
The 10,000 Steps program was a two-year research
project funded by Queensland Health to successfully
increase physical activity participation in the
Rockhampton community. Over 600 registered
providers are now implementing the 10,000 steps
program in a wide range of communities, workplaces
and other settings to promote physical activity.
The Queensland Government is committed to continued
improvements to help make healthier choices easier
choices for all Queenslanders. The results of this study
will inform public health policy and practice throughout
Queensland, and help to evaluate the impact of
Queensland Government initiatives to promote healthy
weight, nutrition and physical activity, to improve the
future health of our children and young people.
The Queensland Government is also currently
implementing the Eat Well, Be Active—Healthy Kids
for Life Action Plan 2005-2008, which aims to achieve
healthier weight in Queensland children and young
people through the collective work of six government
agencies in progressing over 100 initiatives addressing
physical activity and nutrition. The Healthy Kids
Queensland survey is a key part of this initiative.
The study shows that the prevalence of overweight and
obesity amongst Queensland school-aged children
in 2006 was about the same as it was nationally in
1995, and lower than in recent surveys in some other
states. This is very good news and indicates that the
Queensland Government’s investment in this area is
on the right track. Positive evaluation of individual
programs suggests that our initiatives over the last five
years have contributed to this encouraging finding.
Stephen Robertson MP
Minister for Health
10
Executive Summary
Introduction
Outline of the Report
T
After outlining the background to the Survey and its
demographics and survey tools, each section provides
more detail of the assessment tools, significant
results and key points. Individual sections address
the anthropometric assessment, dietary assessment,
and physical activity patterns measured in this sample
of Queensland children and where appropriate,
comparisons are made to other data sets.
he Healthy Kids Queensland Survey was
commissioned by Queensland Health as part of
the Queensland Government’s ongoing commitment
to promoting healthy weight, nutrition and physical
activity for Queensland’s children and young people.
This survey provides important data to help plan,
develop and implement effective policies and programs
to improve young Queenslanders’ dietary and physical
activity behaviour, and to achieve healthy weight. This
summary report is complemented by a full report that
provides more detailed methodological information
and data sets.
Key Findings
Weight and waist circumference
• 77.5% of Queensland children aged 5–17 were of
healthy weight.
• 1.4% of Queensland children aged 5-17 were
underweight,
• 14.6% of boys and 17.7% of girls aged 5–17 were
overweight, 4.8% of boys and 5.1% of girls were
obese.
• Overall, 21.1% of Queensland children aged 5–17
were overweight or obese; 16.2% were overweight
and 4.9% were obese.
• The prevalence of overweight and obesity generally
increased with age, although the prevalence was
highest in Year 5 girls.
• Overall, and within most age groups, the prevalence
of overweight and obesity was slightly lower in
Queensland children compared with children of
similar ages in NSW and WA in recent surveys.
• Comparison with national data from 1985 and
1995 shows that the prevalence of overweight and
obesity for Queensland 5-17-year olds has continued
to increase; within most age groups the prevalence
is twofold greater than national rates of 1985, but
results suggest that the rate of increase has slowed
in Queensland since 1995.
• Waist circumference has also increased from 1985
to 2006 in Queensland children aged 9-11 and 14-16
(No comparative data were available for children
of Year 1 age in the 1985 data set). The largest
increases have occurred at the upper end of the
waist circumference distribution. The data suggests
that over time there has been a relative increase
in abdominal obesity at the upper end of the
distribution.
Methods
Data were collected throughout Queensland from April
to September 2006. A total of 3691 children aged 5-17
undertaking years 1, 5 or 10 at school participated in
the survey. Government and non-government schools
(n = 112) were selected to participate using a random
cluster design and the data were weighted to ensure
the equal probability of inclusion of all children in
the target population. The following information was
collected:
Anthropometric assessment to indicate the proportion
of Queensland children who are underweight, of a
healthy weight, overweight or obese:
• height, weight (to determine Body Mass Index)
• waist circumference
Dietary assessment to understand the eating patterns
and nutrient intake of Queensland children:
• food-frequency
• 24-hour dietary record
Physical activity assessment to understand the
physical activity behaviours and exercise patterns of
Queensland children:
• physical activity questionnaire
• pedometer study.
11
• In the older age groups the BMI distribution is
stretched towards the upper end, i.e. as the age
group increases, the proportion of children or young
people who are obese or very obese increases.
• No consistent differences in the prevalence of
overweight or obesity were observed between
children in urban centres and children in rural areas.
a third of Year 10 boys and a quarter of year 10 girls
consumed soft drink.
Over the past year:
• On average, three in five Year 1 and Year 5
children reported consuming two pieces of
fruit or more per day, exceeding their minimum
daily recommendations for fruit consumption,
but only one in six Year 10 children met the
recommendations for daily fruit intake.
• On average one-half of Year 1 children, one-third
of Year 5 children and just over one-fifth of Year 10
children reported consuming the recommended
amount of vegetables, for their age, per day.
• Over 90% of children in years 1 and 5 ate breakfast
every day, however this dropped to three quarters of
Year 10 boys and just over half of Year 10 girls.
• Three in ten Year 1 children reported drinking
soft drink once a week or more and this rose to
seven in ten of Year 10 boys and just under half
of Year 10 girls.
• No consistent differences in dietary intakes or
behaviours were observed between children in
urban areas and children in rural areas.
Diet
On the day of survey:
• The mean daily energy intake was within the
recommended levels for boys and girls in Years 1
and 5, and boys in Year 10. Year 10 girls’ intake was
about 15% lower than expected, which may reflect
greater under-reporting in this age group.
• On average, Queensland children aged 5-17
consumed diets in which 50% of the energy intake
was derived from carbohydrate. Nearly half of this
(22-25% of energy) was derived from sugars.
• On average, Queensland children aged 5-17,
consumed diets in which 32.5% of the energy intake
was derived from fat, and 14.5% was derived from
saturated fat. This compares to current NHMRC
dietary guidelines recommending approximately
30% of energy intake as fat and no more than 10%
coming from saturated fat.
• One in ten Year 10 girls had diets inadequate in iron.
• One in twenty Year 1 boys and girls, half of all
children in Years 5 and half of Year 10 boys and
six in seven Year 10 girls had diets inadequate in
calcium. Diets low in calcium, were more common
in girls than in boys at all ages. This is matched by
lower intakes of milk and other dairy foods amongst
girls.
• In contrast to the recommendation that children
aged over 2 years should choose low fat milk, most
children drank whole milk. Only one in five of Year
1 children reported drinking low fat milk, and this
increased to one in three amongst Year 10 girls.
• Approximately two-thirds of Year 1 and just over
half of Year 5 boys and girls met recommendations
for fruit consumption, but Year 10 children fell
significantly short.
• The average Year 1, Year 5 and Year 10 child failed to
meet recommendations for serves of vegetables and
legumes: with half of the sample consuming less
than one serve on the day of the survey.
• Approximately 1 in 5 of Queensland 5-17-year-olds
had take-away food on the day of the survey.
• Soft drink consumption (diet and non-diet)
increased with age. On the day of the survey,
12
Physical activity behaviours
Furthermore:
• Boys on average took more steps than girls at all
ages, and this difference was greatest (by more than
2,000 steps) in Year 10.
• Year 1 children were more active on weekends than
during the week; this pattern was reversed in Years
5 and 10.
• Time spent on screen-based electronic media for
entertainment increased with age; more than two
in five Year 10 boys and one in four Year 10 girls
exceeded the current daily recommendations.
• School-based sports and physical education were
consistently ranked in the top two of reported forms
of physical activities.
• Participation in active transport increased with age;
more than one-third of Year 10 children participated
in active transport at least once a week and one in
ten either cycled or walked to and from school daily.
• Use of public transport to get to school increased
with age with more than one in three Year 10
children using some form of public transport on the
route to or from school.
• No consistent differences in physical activity
behaviours were observed between children in
urban areas and children in rural areas.
The proportion of children who were meeting national
physical recommendations varied according to the
measure used:
• Using suggested international targets for daily
steps, three in ten Year 1 boys and four in ten Year 1
girls met physical activity targets. This increased to
four in ten of Year 5 boys and just over half of Year 5
girls.
• For self–reported time spent in sports and physical
activities, just under two thirds of Year 10 boys were
reaching daily physical activity targets of 60 minutes
per day, compared to two fifths of Year 10 girls.
• On direct questioning of whether national activity
recommendations were being met, only one in six
Year 1 boys self reported being moderately active for
60 minutes seven days per week and this dropped
to one in eight by Year 10. Only one in 15 Year 1
girls self reported meeting the physical activity
recommendations and this decreased to one in 20
by Year 10.
13
Policy implications and recommendations
Recommendation 1:
More services are required to treat obesity and its
The rate of increase in the prevalence of overweight
and obesity amongst children appears to have slowed
in Queensland since the last national nutrition survey
in 1995. The prevalence of unhealthy weight amongst
Queensland children appears to be lower than that of
other Australian States where data are available. These
results suggest that the significant investment by the
Queensland Government and the broader community
over recent years to address the epidemic of childhood
obesity and prevent chronic disease though improved
nutrition and increased physical activity is beginning to
have an impact in Queensland.
health consequences in children and young people,
and greater efforts need to be made to prevent
overweight children gaining more weight.
Recommendation 4:
Just under half of Year 1 and 5 children met physical
activity guidelines based on international step targets.
Based on self-reported time spent in sports and
physical activities, two thirds of Year 10 boys and
two fifths of Year 10 girls reported accumulating the
recommended 60 minutes per day of physical activity.
When directly questioned, fewer than one in six boys,
and one in 15 girls reported meeting the physical
activity guidelines of at least one hour of moderate
activity every day in the week before the survey, and
the proportion decreased with age.
The Queensland Government’s investment in
promotion of nutrition, physical activity and healthy
weight must be sustained in order to capitalise on this
improvement and to make further gains to achieve
better health for our children and young people
Just over half the children achieved an hour or
more of activity on three days a week, although the
proportion was higher in Year 10 boys and lower in Year
1 girls. School-based sports and physical education
contributed significantly to children’s and young
people’s physical activity. The majority of children had
not participated in active transport to school in the
week before the survey. Children in Year 1 were more
active on weekend days, while those in Years 5 and 10
were less active on weekends than on weekdays.
throughout their lives.
Recommendation 2:
The prevalence of unhealthy weight in this survey was
highest amongst girls aged around 10 years, but one in
five girls and one in six boys are already overweight in
their first year at school.
Interventions to promote nutrition, physical activity
and healthy weight must begin early in life to assist
parents and carers to raise healthy children and young
Efforts to increase children’s physical activity should
people.
continue to be a high priority. Increasing participation
in active transport to school, active recreation and
sports provide potential opportunities to increase
Recommendation 3:
children’s physical activity, particularly at weekends
Comparison of Queensland children in 2006 with
national data from 1985 shows waist circumference has
increased across all waist circumference centile levels,
but the greatest increase has occurred in the heavier
categories. In the older age groups the BMI distribution
is stretched towards the upper end, i.e. as the age
group increases, the proportion of children or young
people who are obese or very obese increases. Not
only are there more children today who are overweight,
the overweight children have more central obesity,
and there are more severely obese children and young
people today than 20 years ago.
for older children.
Recommendation 5:
Use of electronic media for entertainment (eg computer
games, television and Internet) was more prevalent
amongst boys and increased with age. More than
one third of boys and one quarter of girls in Year 10
exceeded the guidelines of less than two hours of
screen-based activity during daylight hours in the day
before the survey.
14
were available to allow for the development of valid
instruments and over sampling to achieve reliable
separate data representative of Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander children in this survey.
Interventions to decrease use of electronic media
for entertainment should be encouraged, especially
for boys and young people, to reduce sedentary
behaviour.
The Queensland Government should invest in a
Recommendation 6:
targeted survey to assess nutrition, physical activity
The survey results indicate that few children met the
dietary guidelines recommended by the National Health
and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). Dietary quality
decreased with age. Over half the younger children,
but less than two in five of the adolescents reported
consuming the recommended minimum serves of fruit
per day. Less than half the younger children and just
over a fifth of the adolescents reported achieving the
recommended serves of vegetables per day. On the
day of the survey, approximately half of all children
consumed less than one serve of vegetables.
and body measurement in Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander children. If feasible, consideration should
be given to including other children of culturally and
linguistically diverse backgrounds.
Recommendation 8:
The results of the survey are a valuable tool to inform
policy and practice.
The Healthy Kids Queensland survey should be
repeated in 2009-2010 to help assess the impact
One in ten Year 10 girls had inadequate iron intake and
half the children in Year 5, half the Year 10 boys and
four out of five Year 10 girls had inadequate calcium
intakes. This is reflected in inadequate intakes of milk
products, particularly for girls, and excessive intakes
of nutrient-poor “extra” foods such as soft drinks and
takeaways. Less than one in five children usually drank
low-fat milk, which is recommended by the NHMRC for
all children aged over two years. Intakes of saturated fat
were about 45% higher than that recommended in all
age and sex groups.
of Queensland Government initiatives to promote
nutrition, physical activity and healthy weight.
Initiatives to promote improved nutrition, including
provision of accurate, consistent nutrition information
and environmental interventions promoting
availability of and access to healthy foods for all
children must be a high priority for the Queensland
Government and all organisations involved with
children. Current efforts to promote fruit and vegetable
consumption should be continued. Greater efforts
should be made to promote the consumption of ironrich foods, and low fat milk products for children aged
over two years.
Recommendation 7:
All available evidence suggests that poor nutrition
and physical inactivity contribute significantly to the
poorer health outcomes experienced by Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander people compared to the
general Queensland population. Insufficient resources
15
1.0 Background
Obesity is a major health concern because it is a
contributing factor to many diseases and disorders
including heart disease, stroke, hypertension,
dyslipidaemia, type 2 diabetes, some forms of cancer
(e.g., bowel and reproductive system), osteoarthritis,
and sleep apnoea. In 2005, obesity was estimated to
cost Australia $3.7 billion in direct health care costs.13
“Health and well-being underpins the economic,
social and cultural structures of society and
contributes to the prosperity and growth of the whole
community. Healthy young people are a critical
resource for the future of Queensland .”
Queensland Health 2005 3.
G
ood health is important for everyone, especially
children, whose growth, development and
maturation depend on optimal physical, social and
emotional well-being. A healthy diet and regular,
adequate physical activity are essential to promoting
and maintaining good health from infancy and through
the entire life course.4 Patterns of physical activity and
healthy food habits are, to a large extent, acquired
during childhood and adolescence, and these patterns
are likely to be maintained throughout the lifespan.5
Thus, establishing these patterns early provides the
basis for an active and healthy adult life.
Furthermore, whilst overweight and obesity are
important considerations for children, there are many
other benefits of a healthy diet and active lifestyle
beyond the achievement and promotion of healthy
weight.
1.1
Importance of physical activity in
childhood and adolescence
From a health perspective, there are three main
rationales for encouraging young people to take
part in regular physical activity: to optimize physical
The recent worldwide trend of an increasing prevalence
of overweight and obesity in children is well
documented 6 and Australia is no exception. A recent
review of data on Australian children aged 5-15 years,
which went as far back as 1901 7 together with more
recent data 8 9 show that the prevalence of overweight
and obesity in children has increased dramatically
in the past 30-40 years. Obesity in childhood and
adolescence is cause for concern because of the shortterm detrimental health effects in children and because
obese children have a much higher risk of becoming
obese adults and experiencing the myriad adverse
chronic health effects associated with obesity. 10-12
fitness, current health and well-being, and growth and
development, to develop active lifestyles that can be
maintained throughout adult life and to reduce the
risk of chronic diseases of adulthood.”
Biddle, Sallis & Cavill 1998 2
A positive attitude towards physical activity and
adoption of a physically active lifestyle are important
components of preventive medicine that should begin
in childhood.14 Both physical activity and physical
inactivity have a tendency to track into adulthood 15 16
and it is important to establish healthy activity habits
while young.
• Children who are physically active are less likely to
be overweight.17 18
• Children who engage in weight-bearing activities
have greater bone density and better skeletal health
in both the short- and long-term.19
• Physically active children are more likely to have
a higher level of self-esteem, more positive body
image, and lower levels of stress and anxiety.20
• Learning by doing at an early age is fundamental
to the quality of skill acquisition.21 The best time
to begin teaching motor skills fundamental to a
physically active lifestyle is in the pre-primary and
primary years, especially in the ‘years of readiness’
at age 5-6 years.22
Historical data show clearly that the percentage of
children categorised as overweight or obese, based on
body mass index, was relatively stable at about
7-8% from the early 1900s to the early 1970s.7 Since the
early 1970s, however, this percentage has increased
in an almost exponential manner until 2003, when the
most recent data were published. Although much of the
data were not analysed separately for boys and girls,
the overall figures indicate that, at present, between
20% and 30% of Australian children and adolescents
are overweight or obese.
This is consistent with trends in many developed
countries, in particular the USA and UK.
16
1.2
Importance of nutrition in
childhood and adolescence
1.3
Why Healthy Kids Queensland?
In Queensland, as in the rest of Australia and most
developed countries, overweight and obesity,
especially in children, has and will have enormous
public health consequences. These include both shortand long-term influences on the risk of cardiovascular,
metabolic, musculoskeletal and renal diseases, and
possible impact on mental health, and the costs
associated with these diseases or disorders.
“Nutrition is a fundamental pillar of human life,
health and development across the entire life span.
From the earliest stages of fetal development, at birth,
and through infancy, childhood, adolescence and
on into adulthood, proper food and good nutrition
are essential for survival, physical growth, mental
development, performance, productivity, health and
well-being.”
The most recent reliable data on diet behaviours and
the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Australian
children (including a Queensland sample) were
collected in 1995 and showed that slightly more than
20% of children aged 7-15 years were overweight or
obese.9 The 2007 national children’s nutrition and
physical activity survey will not provide adequate
estimates of the prevalence of or the relevant risk
factors for overweight and obesity in Queensland
children.
World Health Organisation 1
Childhood and adolescence are periods of substantial
growth and development, and are an important time
to shape and consolidate healthy eating behaviours.
Establishing healthy eating early is essential to
preventing or postponing the onset of nutrition-related
chronic diseases in adulthood.23
• Adolescence is a critical period for calcium
absorption and the optimum period for gaining
bone density, particularly for girls.24 The efficiency
of calcium absorption increases during puberty, and
the majority of bone formation occurs at this time.
• Vitamins and micronutrients are essential to help
regulate the body’s metabolism and assist in the
formation of bone and tissue. With the high growth
demands of childhood and adolescence, adequate
consumption of fruit and vegetables is as important
for children and adolescents as at any other stage of
life.23
• A child’s rate of growth is a fundamental indicator
of dietary adequacy and health; too little or too
much over a period can alter the natural progress of
physical growth.23
To inform policy and practice for promoting nutrition,
physical activity and healthy weight for children and to
prevent chronic disease, the Queensland Government
and other stakeholders need reliable objective
current data on the prevalence of healthy weight,
overweight and obesity, and data on dietary intake
and physical activity patterns in Queensland children.
This information is vital to the ongoing development,
targeting and evaluation of health promotion programs
to improve children’s nutrition and physical activity
behaviour throughout the state. Queensland Health has
funded the Healthy Kids Queensland Physical Activity
and Nutrition Survey to provide the data needed to
plan, develop and refine programs to address the
alarming rise in the prevalence of overweight and
obesity seen in Australian children from 1985 to 1995.
This survey and other multi-sector strategies aimed at
making it easier for children to chose healthy foods and
be more physically active are part of Eat Well Be Active
— Healthy Kids for Life: the Queensland Government’s
first action plan 2005-2008. 3
17
2.0 The Survey
T
An equal number of boys and girls took part. Overall:
3.8% of the study population identified themselves as
being of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin, 8.4%
were born in a country other than Australia and 6.9%
spoke a language other than English at home. Whilst
these proportions are representative of the Queensland
population, the numbers of children are too small
to provide separate reliable estimates of the survey
outcomes in these groups.
he Healthy Kids Queensland Survey took place
throughout Queensland from April to September
2006. A random sample of 112 schools from all primary
and secondary schools from government and nongovernment sectors were invited to take part. These
schools were chosen using a random cluster design.
The school setting was chosen since children in the
target age groups spend the majority of their time
during the week at school. Further, to maximise the
statistical power of the survey, three key age groups
were chosen: 5 to 7 years (the first year of compulsory
schooling), 9 to 11 years (just prior to puberty) and 14 to
16 years (the last year of compulsory schooling). These
years are also critical times in growth and development.
The data arising from the survey were weighted and all
results shown in this report relate to these weighted
data. The data were weighted because the sampling
did not achieve an equal probability of inclusion of all
children in the target population for two reasons.
The survey aimed to recruit children across Queensland
and, to this end, 59 schools in urban areas and 53 from
rural areas were chosen randomly. Of these, 72 agreed
to take part — a response rate of 65%. The sample
represented a mix of 39 schools in urban areas and
33 schools in rural areas. The definition of an urban
school was that the school was based in a location
with an Accessibility-Remoteness Index of Australia
Plus (ARIA+) 25 category of 1 and was deemed highly
accessible. A rural school was defined as a school in a
location with an ARIA+ category of 2-4 that was deemed
accessible through to remote.
First, the number of classes varied by school, as did
the number of classes selected from a given school.
For example, a child in a school with two classes would
have a one in two or 50% chance of selection (one class
selected), whereas a child in a school with five classes
would have two chances in five (or 40% chance) of
selection (two classes selected). In addition, for various
reasons, the sampling protocol was not followed strictly
in all situations. For example, if a school insisted
that all classes be included, children at that school
would have a 100% probability of selection, and the
probabilities would also vary between schools.
Insufficient resources were available to allow for the
development of valid instruments and over sampling to
achieve reliable separate data representative of Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander children in this survey.
Second, not all selected children responded, leading to
potential response bias. To correct, as far as possible,
for selection and response bias and to obtain unbiased
estimates, the probability of a child being included
in the analysis (that is, selected in the first place and
then responding) was multiplied by the probabilities
of inclusion at each successive stage; these were the
probabilities of school selection, class selection and
child inclusion. These probabilities were converted
to weights (as the inverse of the probabilities) and
applied to the weighted analyses.
The only exclusion criteria were schools with fewer
than 25 students, special schools and schools that
were classified as ‘very remote’ according to ARIA+.
The exclusion criterion was used primarily for logistic
reasons and to ensure as far as possible that the
recruitment and measurement of salient data were
feasible within the timeframe and budget of the survey.
2.1
Demographics
The effect of a weighted analysis is to produce
estimated prevalences that would correspond to the
estimates seen if each child in the target population
had the same probability of inclusion.26
A total of 3691 children and adolescents from years 1,
5 and 10 participated in the survey. The mean ages of
the children participating in the survey are shown in
Table 1.
18
Table 1
Age of the study population (years)
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
n
568
550
718
804
480
571
Mean
6.2
6.1
10.2
10.1
15.2
15.2
SD
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
Median
6.2
6.1
10.2
10.1
15.2
15.2
5.4-7.6
5.0-7.4
9.0-12.2
9.4-11.9
14.2-16.6
14.2-17.4
Minimum-maximum
2.2
Survey tools
Table 2
The survey used accepted methods to assess the
participants’ body dimensions, dietary intake, and
physical activity. Some of the survey tools have been
used previously in other Australian State surveys of
physical activity and nutrition.27 28 These measures
allow us to compare the results across time and
location (e.g., with previous surveys or surveys in
other States or countries). The particulars of each tool
are addressed at the start of their respective results
section. Tools for Year 10 are enclosed in the Appendix
as an example. Coding and data entry procedures will
be included in the subsequent technical report.
Sample sizes according to survey tools
Survey tool
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
total n
Anthropometry
1,102
1,487
1,012
3,601
24-hour food record
235*
1,397
933
2,565
Food frequency
948
1,349
946
3,243
PA questionnaire
944
1,400
956
3,300
Pedometer
915
1,397
933
3,245
PA = physical activity
* 25% of year 1 classes were selected to be asked to complete the 24-hour
food record based upon the more intensive nature of collecting, evaluating and
processing 24-hour dietary records in children of this age.
The data were analysed by standard procedures and,
unless otherwise indicated, all data presented have
been weighted to take into account the sampling
framework (i.e., recruitment of certain schools and
certain children), as discussed above. Table 2 shows
the samples sizes for each survey tool for each age
group.
The following information was collected about the
survey participants:
• Age and date of birth
• Anthropometric assessment to indicate the
proportion of Queensland children who are of a
healthy weight, overweight or obese:
• height
• weight
• waist circumference
• Dietary assessment to understand the eating
patterns and nutrient intake of Queensland
children:
• food-frequency
• 24-hour dietary record
• Physical activity assessment to understand the
physical activity behaviours and exercise patterns of
Queensland children:
• physical activity questionnaire
• pedometer study.
The sample sizes varied slightly between survey tools
because some children did not consent to participate
in all measures. Overall the average response rate
for each survey tool was 54%, and the response rates
ranged from 39% to 68%, according to the Year group
and the survey tool in question.
19
2.3
Survey Logistics
Recruiting and measuring 3691 children from
112 schools over a 6 month period was a complex
logistical exercise that involved a full-time project
manager and study co-ordinator, and a team of
25 research assistants. Prior to the main survey
that started in April, 4 pilot schools were chosen in
February 2006 to help refine both the survey tools and
scheduling of visits that had been developed. The pilot
schools were an invaluable part of the HKQ project
and the lessons learnt shaped the visit schedules for
the main survey. Prior to the school visits, telephone
contact with the school confirmed the visit date and
organised for all consent forms to be sent to the school
in advance of the arrival of the HKQ survey team. It was
requested that the consent forms be sent home with
the children a few weeks prior to the scheduled school
visit. Children were to have brought their consent forms
back to the school prior to the first visit of the HKQ
research team.
Year level being visited. Children were encouraged to
put their pedometers on at this point. On this day, the
majority of height, weight and waist measurements
were also taken. This was only done on a subsequent
visit if the child had not returned a completed consent
form by visit 1 or had been absent at visit 1.
Visit 2
The purpose of this visit was to collect and review for
completeness the food frequency questionnaire, the
24 food hour food and drink record and the physical
activity questionnaire and was scheduled, where
possible, to be two days after visit 1. The food and
drink record measuring equipment were also collected.
Physical measurements were taken on any children who
had been absent at Visit 1 or had not had a consent
form signed by visit 1.
Visit 3
Scheduled a week after visit 1, the purpose of this
visit was to collect and review the pedometer and
pedometer diary. Any remaining equipment or
questionnaires were also collected. The students were
given a certificate in appreciation of their help, a sunhat and some health brochures.
Visits
Teams of four or five personnel visited each school. For
the larger schools, more than one team was required.
The visits were scheduled to fit in within a seven to ten
day timeframe.
Visit 1
For some schools, a maximum of two catch-up visits
were scheduled post visit 3. This was to collect any
remaining uncollected questionnaires or items of
equipment that had been handed in late. The visits
were spread across Terms 2 and 3 of the 2006 school
calendar. The schema below presents the distribution
of recruitment across the months of the survey.
At this visit, the HKQ survey packs, containing
the questionnaires, pedometers, food measuring
equipment and instructions were distributed. Detailed
instructions on each survey tool (food frequency
questionnaire, 24 hour food and drink record, physical
activity questionnaire and pedometer diary) were
provided; the extent of the detail depended on the
Schema:
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Distribution of children recruited according to the month of survey
n
April
May
June
July
August
September
Male
471
1.3
30.9
12.3
18.9
25.3
11.3
Female
466
0.2
28.4
15.3
22.5
20.4
12.7
Male
611
0
22.7
18.3
22.2
27.7
9.1
Female
703
0.7
30.3
14.3
18.3
25.7
10.3
Male
414
0.3
30.0
11.1
24.9
30.7
3.0
Female
524
0
27.2
8.4
23.5
29.3
11.6
20
3.0 Anthropometric assessment
The following variables were measured:
• height
• body weight
• waist circumference.
•
Height, weight and waist circumference at the level of
the umbilicus were measured as described by Davies
et al, 2001.29 A brief summary of the equipment and
protocol for each physical measurement is included
below.
•
Height
•
Equipment
• A Seca 2200 Stadiometer was used.
• The floor surface used was even and firm.
• The stadiometer was calibrated before leaving the
project base, and again in situ at each school site.
A one metre calibrated rod was provided to each
survey team for calibration.
•
perpendicular to the vertical back piece of the
stadiometer. This is best viewed and aligned when
the examiner is directly to the side and at eye level
with the child.
The HKQ team member asked the participant to
focus straight ahead (and not up or down) and
breathe in deeply before the measure was taken.
The HKQ team member applied gentle upward
traction to the skull behind the ears to ensure the
body was fully stretched (ensured the head was not
tilted backwards).
The head board/platform was lowered lightly but
firmly to the top of the person’s head until it made
firm contact with the top of the skull (and not on top
of the hair).
The height measurement was taken at maximum
inspiration.
Recording
• Two measurements, to the nearest 0.1 cm
(1 millimetre), were taken.
• A third measurement was taken if the measures
differed by 0.5cm (5 millimetres) or more.
• The mean of the two closest measures was included
in the analysis.
• Measurements that fell between two millimetres
were recorded to the nearest even millimetre.
Procedure
• The measuring slide was engaged in the horizontal
position for measuring.
• The measuring slide was moved upwards according
to the height of the person being measured.
• For measuring from 130.5cm – 200cm, the HKQ
team member read off mark (1). For measuring a
height below 130.5cm, the lock was released, the
measuring slide was pushed downwards, and the
HKQ team member read off mark (3).
• Participants were requested to undo or adjust hair
styles and remove hair accessories that were likely
to interfere with the measurement.
• The participant stood erect under the measuring
slide, in bare feet with buttocks and shoulders
pressed against the stadiometer.
• The heels were together with the arms hanging
freely by the side (palms facing the thighs).
• The HKQ team member ensured the participant’s
heels were not raised and that weight was evenly
distributed on both feet.
• The participant’s head was positioned in the
Frankfort Plane. (The Frankfort Plane is the
imaginary line from the hole in the ear to the bottom
of the ‘orbit’, i.e. bone, of the eye.)
• When aligned correctly, the Frankfort Plane
is parallel to the horizontal headpiece and
Weight
Equipment
• Tanita (model HD316) digital bathroom scales were
used.
• The scales were placed on an even and firm surface.
• The scales were calibrated using standard weights
before leaving the project base each time. They were
also calibrated in situ at each school site, using the
pre-measured weights held by each HKQ survey
team.
Procedure
• The participant was asked to be barefoot and to
wear only light clothing (t-shirt and shorts/skirt).
Heavy jewellery and heavy items (eg. coins) were
removed and participants were also asked to
remove heavy clothing items (jackets etc).
• The scales were then zeroed.
21
• The participant was then asked to stand evenly on
the scale, feet together, arms hanging loosely at
their side and head facing forward, remaining still
until asked to move off the scales.
• The HKQ team member stood at the side of the
participant to take the measurement.
• Participants were asked to breathe in and
breathe out naturally and the measurement was
taken at the end of expiration without the tape
compressing the skin (each measurement was
taken at the side of the participant’s body).
Recording
• One single measure was taken to the nearest 0.1 kg.
Waist
2. Waist circumference – Last Rib and Iliac Crest
• As per above, participants were asked to stand
comfortably with their weight evenly distributed
on both feet with their arms hanging loosely at
their side.
• This measurement was taken midway between
the inferior margin of the last rib and the crest of
the ilium, in a horizontal plane. Each landmark
was palpated and marked with lipstick. The
midpoint was determined using a measuring
tape and mark.
• The HKQ team member stood on the side of the
participant and passed the tape around their
body (ensuring that the tape was in a horizontal
position and not twisted).
• The participants were asked to breathe in and
breathe out naturally, with the measurement
taken at the end of expiration without the tape
compressing the skin.
Equipment
• A Luskin Steel Measurement Tape was used.
Procedure
Measurements were taken using two protocols:
1. Waist circumference – Umbilicus (measurement
taken at the level of the umbilicus).
2. Waist circumference – Last Rib and Iliac Crest
(measurement taken midway between the last rib
and the iliac crest). The latter waist measurement
is the preferred protocol for research studies as
specified by the World Health Organisation,30
whereas the measurement taken at the umbilicus
enables direct comparison with previous national
waist data.
• Participants were asked to shift their clothing
being worn to gain access to the necessary parts
of the waist area (i.e. shirts lifted up to a certain
height).
• If clothing had to be worn, participants were
asked to assist by undressing to a light layer of
clothing, if possible.
• Measurements were taken against the skin. For
those participants who were uncomfortable with
this procedure, the measurement was taken over
a single layer of clothing.
Recording
• For each protocol two measurements, to the nearest
0.1 cm (1 millimetre), were taken.
• A third measurement was taken if the measures
differed by 0.5cm (5 millimetres) or more.
• The mean of the two closest measures was included
in the analysis.
• Measurements that fell between two millimetres
were recorded to the nearest even millimetre.
BMI
1. Waist circumference – Umbilicus
• The participants were asked to stand
comfortably with their weight evenly distributed
over both feet and with their arms hanging
loosely at their side.
• The measurement was taken at the level of the
umbilicus at the side of the participant’s body.
• The tape was passed around the participant’s
body (ensuring that the tape was in a horizontal
position across the back of the participant and
not twisted).
Height and weight were used to calculate body mass
index (BMI) according to the equation:
BMI =
weight in kg
(height in m)2.
BMI is expressed in kg/m2 and was used to determine
the number and percentage of the sample population
who were underweight, overweight or obese.
22
Underweight was defined as a BMI less than the third
centile for sex and age according to the CDC 2000
growth data.32 Healthy weight was defined as not
underweight, overweight or obese, as classified by the
BMI.
Overweight and obesity were defined using the
international BMI cut offs described by Cole and
colleagues.31 These cut offs were derived from
measurements of more than 190,000 individuals aged
from birth to 25 years. Centile curves were drawn that,
at age 18, passed through the adult accepted cut offs
of 25 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2 for overweight and obesity,
respectively. This produced the different cut off values
for children in six-monthly groups, as published.
Throughout the subsequent analyses, no consistent
differences were observed between children in urban
areas and children in rural areas.
23
3.1
Height, body weight and BMI of sample population
The demographics of height, weight and BMI of the
study sample are shown by Year and sex in Tables 3-5.
In these tables, “n” differs according to sex and survey
Table 3
outcome measures because of variation in the number
of children consenting to each measure.
Height of the children by year and sex
Height (m)
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Mean
SD
Median
Min-max
Male
556
1.188
0.054
1.191
0.980-1.340
Female
531
1.168
0.053
1.169
0.870-1.370
Male
706
1.410
0.066
1.411
1.140-1.600
Female
774
1.416
0.069
1.411
1.040-1.680
Male
472
1.729
0.076
1.734
1.502-1.986
Female
536
1.632
0.064
1.636
1.151-1.813
n
Mean
SD
Median
Min-max
Male
556
23.1
3.8
22.5
14.2-42.7
Female
540
22.1
3.7
21.4
13.4-47.9
Male
705
36.4
8.2
34.8
19.9-69.9
Female
776
37.3
9.0
35.5
21.9-88.6
Male
471
64.8
12.2
63.2
34.9-118.9
Female
536
57.6
10.8
56.5
31.1-110.0
n
Mean
SD
Median
Min-max
Male
554
16.3
1.8
16.0
11.5-27.0
Female
529
16.1
1.8
15.7
12.3-28.4
Male
704
18.2
3.0
17.5
12.2-44.2
Female
769
18.5
3.6
17.6
12.7-50.8
Male
471
21.6
3.4
20.9
13.6-38.7
Female
534
21.6
3.7
21.1
13.6-48.5
Min-max = minimum to maximum
Table 4
Weights of the children by year and sex
Weight (kg)
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Min-max = minimum to maximum
Table 5
BMI of the children by year and sex
BMI (kg/m2)
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Min-max = minimum to maximum
24
Centiles were calculated for BMI for both males and
females using the LMS method 33 and using the
software LMSChartmaker
Table 6
(www.healthforallchildren.co.uk).
These data are shown in Tables 6 and 7.
Centiles of BMI for males by age
Age (years)
n
3rd
10th
25th
50th
75th
90th
97th
5-6
194
13.6
14.3
15.0
15.9
17.0
18.1
19.4
6-7
348
13.7
14.3
15.0
16.0
17.3
18.8
20.9
9-10
230
14.2
15.0
16.0
17.4
19.4
22.1
26.4
10-11
441
14.5
15.3
16.2
17.5
19.4
21.8
25.8
14-15
153
17.0
18.0
19.3
20.9
23.0
25.4
28.6
15-16
297
16.3
17.6
19.1
21.0
23.4
26.0
29.2
* Centiles were calculated for each age group independently. There was no attempt to smooth centiles across age groups because of significant missing data for
ages 7.00 to 9.00 years and 12.00 to 14.00 years.
Table 7
Centiles of BMI for females by age
Age (years)
n
3rd
10th
25th
50th
75th
90th
97th
5-6
238
13.6
14.2
14.9
15.8
17.0
18.3
20.1
6-7
293
13.5
14.1
14.8
15.8
17.0
18.4
20.4
9-10
307
14.2
15.0
16.1
17.7
19.9
22.8
27.7
10-11
444
14.0
15.0
16.2
17.9
20.1
23.0
27.1
14-15
199
16.4
17.6
18.9
20.6
22.7
24.9
27.6
15-16
321
16.8
18.0
19.4
21.2
23.5
26.2
29.5
* Centiles were calculated for each age group independently. There was no attempt to smooth centiles across age groups because of significant missing data for
ages 7.00 to 9.00 years and 12.00 to 14.00 years.
The distribution of BMI within each age and sex
grouping is presented in Figure 1. As expected, this
figure shows clearly that as children get older, the mean
BMI increases and the range of BMI increases.
Furthermore, in the older age groups (Years 5 and 10),
the spread of BMI becomes stretched towards the
higher end. As the age group increases, the proportion
of children or young people who are obese or very
obese increases (this is seen in the figure by the
appearance of more coloured bars on the right hand
side of the individual distribution charts).
KEY POINTS
• In the older age groups the BMI distribution
is stretched towards the upper end, i.e. as the
age group increases, the proportion of children
or young people who are obese or very obese
increases.
25
Figure 1
BMI distributions by age and sex
Males aged 5.00-5.99
Males aged 6.00-6.99
Males aged 9.0-9.99
12%
12%
8%
8%
8%
4%
0%
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
Percent
Percent
Percent
12%
4%
4%
0%
0%
35.00
15.00
20.00
BMI
25.00
30.00
15.00
35.00
20.00
BMI
Males aged 10.0-10.99
Males aged 14.0-14.99
35.00
Males aged 15.0-15.99
12%
8%
8%
8%
Percent
Percent
12%
Percent
30.00
BMI
12%
4%
25.00
4%
4%
0%
0%
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
35.00
0%
15.00
20.00
BMI
25.00
30.00
15.00
35.00
20.00
BMI
Females aged 5.0-5.99
30.00
35.00
BMI
Females aged 6.0-6.99
Females aged 9.0-9.99
12%
12%
8%
8%
8%
Percent
Percent
12%
Percent
25.00
4%
4%
4%
0%
0%
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
0%
15.00
35.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
35.00
15.00
BMI
20.00
BMI
Females aged 10.0-10.99
30.00
35.00
BMI
Females aged 14.0-14.99
Females aged 15.0-15.99
12%
12%
8%
8%
8%
Percent
Percent
12%
Percent
25.00
4%
4%
4%
0%
0%
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
0%
15.00
35.00
15.00
BMI
20.00
25.00
BMI
26
30.00
20.00
25.00
35.00
BMI
30.00
35.00
3.2
BMI categories (underweight, healthy weight, overweight and obese)
Table 8 shows the percentage of children classified
as underweight, of healthy weight and ‘overweight
and obese’. Table 9 shows the percentage of
children classified as ‘overweight but not obese’ and
obese, separately. In both tables, the values are the
percentage of children in each category according to
Year level and sex.
Table 8
Fewer than 2% of the children in any age group were
underweight, which was less than expected from the
definition of underweight (< 3rd centile). Overall, about
77% of all children were of healthy weight: 81.7% of
boys and 78.3% of girls in Year 1, 79.6% of boys and
72.2% of girls in Year 5, and 75.7% of boys and 78.4%
of girls in Year 10. In the younger two groups, slightly
more boys than girls were of healthy weight, but the
opposite was seen in the older age group. On average,
21% of all children and young people were overweight
or obese.
Percentage of children classified as underweight, of healthy weight, or overweight and obese
n
Underweight
mean (95% CI)
Healthy weight
mean (95% CI)
Overweight and obese
mean (95% CI)
Male
554
1.6 (0.6-2.6)
81.7 (78.5-84.9)
16.7(13.6-19.8)
Female
529
2.0 (0.8-3.2)
78.3 (74.8-81.8)
19.7 (16.3-23.1)
Male
704
0.8 (0.1-1.5)
79.6 (76.6-82.6)
19.6 (16.7-22.5)
Female
769
1.4 (0.6-2.2)
72.2 (69.0-75.4)
26.4 (23.2-29.5)
Male
471
1.7 (0.5-2.9)
75.7 (71.8-79.6)
22.6 (18.8-26.4)
Female
534
1.1 (0.2-2.0)
78.4 (74.9-81.9)
20.5 (17.1-23.9)
Male
1729
1.3 (0.8-1.8)
79.2 (77.3-81.1)
19.5 (17.6-21.4)
Female
1832
1.5 (0.9-2.1)
75.8 (73.8-77.8)
22.7 (20.8-24.6)
3561
1.4 (1.0-1.8)
77.5 (76.0-78.8)
21.1 (19.8-22.4)
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
TOTAL
All
CI = confidence interval
Underweight was defined as a BMI less than the third centile for sex and age according to the CDC 2000 growth data. 32
Healthy weight was defined as not underweight, overweight or obese, as classified by the BMI.
Overweight and obesity were defined using the international cut offs described by Cole and colleagues. 31
27
Table 9
Percentage of children classified as overweight or obese
n
Overweight but not obese
mean (95% CI)
Obese
mean (95% CI)
Male
554
12.2 (9.5-14.9)
4.5 (2.8-6.2)
Female
529
15.3 (12.2-18.4)
4.4 (2.7-6.1)
Male
704
13.4 (10.9-15.9)
6.2 (4.4-8.0)
Female
769
19.9 (17.1-22.7)
6.5 (4.8-8.2)
Male
471
19.4 (15.8-23.0)
3.2 (1.6-4.8)
Female
534
16.8 (13.6-20.0)
3.7 (2.1-5.3)
Male
1729
14.6 (12.9-16.3)
4.8 (3.8-5.8)
Female
1832
17.7 (16.0-19.4)
5.1 (4.1-6.1)
3561
16.2 (15.0-17.4)
4.9 (4.2-5.6)
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
TOTAL
All
CI = confidence interval
Overweight and obesity were defined using the international cut offs described by Cole and colleagues. 31
In boys, the prevalence of overweight increased with
age, from 12.2% in Year 1 to 13.4% in Year 5 to 19.4% in
Year 10. In girls, the prevalence of overweight increased
from Year 1 to Year 5 (15.3% to 19.9%) and then
declined to 16.8% in Year 10.
More girls than boys were overweight in years 1 and 5,
but this trend reversed in Year 10. The prevalence of
obesity was similar in boys and girls at each Year level.
In boys, the prevalence of obesity increased from Year
1 to Year 5 (4.5% to 6.2%) and then declined slightly in
Year 10 (to 3.2%). A similar pattern was seen for girls;
the prevalence of obesity increased from Year 1 to
Year 5 (4.4% to 6.5%) and then decreased in Year 10
(to 3.7%).
28
3.2.1 Comparison of overweight and obesity
between Queensland children and
children in WA and NSW
New South Wales (NSW) in 2004.27 28
The comparison is shown in Figure 2.
In the WA survey of children aged 7-16 years,
overall, 21.7% of boys and 27.8% of girls were
overweight or obese. In the NSW survey of
children aged 5-16 years, overall, 25% of boys
and 23.3% of girls were overweight or obese.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity
from this survey was compared with data from
recent comparable State surveys
in Western Australia (WA) in 2003 and
Figure 2
Comparison of the percentage of children who are overweight or obese by State (Queensland,
Western Australia and New South Wales)
Males
Females
30
35
QLD
25
QLD
30
WA
WA
25
20
NSW
NSW
20
% 15
%
15
10
10
5
0
5
year 1 (aged 6)*
year 5 (aged 10)*
0
year 10 (aged 15)**
year 1 (aged 6)*
year 5 (aged 10)*
year 10 (aged 15)*
Values are mean percentage within each category.
No 6-year-olds were available for comparison with WA.
Values for NSW are estimates from tables because numbers were not presented in their report.
* Year 1 QLD boys and girls compared with NSW kindergarten boys and girls of similar age (6 years), and Year 5 QLD boys and girls compared with Year 4 NSW boys
and girls of similar age (10 years).
** Year 10 boys and girls in NSW were approximately 16 years old, up to one year older than Year 10 boys and girls in QLD.
Comparisons were not possible for each
Year group across all three states. Overall,
the percentage of overweight and obesity
in Queensland children fell within the range
of 15% to 30% seen across States within
Australia. For boys, Queensland had the lowest
prevalence of overweight and obese children
in Year 5 and Year 10, but slightly higher than
NSW in Year 1. For girls, Queensland had a
lower prevalence of overweight and obesity
in children of Year 1 and 5 ages, and for Year
10, Queensland rates were lower than WA but
similar to NSW.
Representative data on the prevalence of
overweight and obesity in 4 to 5 year old
children (mean age of 56.9 months) in 2004
from the Longitudinal Study of Australian
Children have recently been published. The
percentage of children who were overweight
or obese was 20.7% nationally and 17.9% in
Queensland children.34 The Queensland rate
of overweight and obesity from this national
study is similar to the rate found for 5-year-olds
in Healthy Kids Queensland (17.4% for 437
children aged 5.0 to 5.99 years).
29
3.2.2 Trends in overweight and obesity over
time
were not available for 1985. However, available
data suggests that the rates of overweight and
obesity in Queensland children in 1985 may
have been lower than national rates, at least
in boys aged 7-11 (unpublished data). Further
analysis of trend data for Queensland will be
undertaken in 2008.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity from
this survey was also compared with data from
previous national surveys: the 1985 Australian
Health and Fitness Survey (AHFS)35 and the
1995 National Nutrition Survey (NNS).36
Detailed individual state data for Queensland
were not available for 1995, and weighted data
Figure 3
The increasing trend in overweight and obesity
is shown in Figure 3.
Comparison of the percentage of overweight and obese children in the current survey with national
percentages observed in 1985 and 1995.
Males
Females
30
%
30
1985
25
1995
25
20
2006
20
15
% 15
10
10
5
5
0
year 1*
year 5*
0
year 10***
1985
1995
2006
year 1*
year 5*
year 10***
Values are mean percentage within each category.
There were no available data for 1985 children of an age comparable to Year 1 children in QLD
* Year 1 QLD children (aged 5-7) were compared with NNS children (aged 4-6)
**Year 5 QLD children (aged 9-12) were compared with AHFS children (aged 7-11) and NNS children (7-11).
*** Year 10 QLD children (aged 14-17) were compared with AHFS children (aged 12-15) and the averaged value of NNS children (for the groups aged 12-15 and 16-18).
Since 1985, for children of Year 5 and Year
10 age, on average there has been a twofold
increase in the prevalence of overweight and
obesity. The percentage of children who were
overweight or obese in the current survey was
higher than the national averages observed in
the respective 1995 surveys for Year 1 and Year
5 boys, and Year 5 and Year 10 girls. For Year 10
boys the prevalence of overweight and obesity
is still more than double that of 1985, but was
less than that observed nationally in 1995,
while for Year 1 girls the prevalence is similar to
the national prevalence in 1995.
However, compared to the national increase
in prevalence of overweight and obesity from
1985 to 1995, the rate of increase for the
period 1995 to 2006 is lower in all age and
sex groups for which data is available, except
for year 5 boys. Further analysis of trend data
will be undertaken once individual data for
Queensland from 1985 and1995 are available.
Separate data for Queensland children
in 1995 were not available for analysis.
30
KEY POINTS
• Comparison with national data from 1985 and
1995 shows that the prevalence of overweight
and obesity for Queensland 5-17-year-olds has
continued to increase; with most age groups the
prevalence being twofold greater than national
rates of 1985. However, the rate of increase
appears to have slowed in Queensland since
1995.
• No consistent differences in the prevalence of
overweight or obesity were observed between
children in urban areas and children in rural
areas.
• Less than 2% of Queensland children aged 5-17
were underweight.
• 77% of Queensland children aged 5-17 were of
healthy weight.
• 19.5% of boys and 22.7% of girls aged 5-17 were
overweight or obese.
• Overall, 21% of Queensland children aged 5-17
were overweight or obese.
• The prevalence of overweight and obesity
generally increased with age, although the
prevalence was highest in Year 5 girls.
• The percentage of overweight and obesity in
Queensland children fell within the range of 15%
to 30%, depending on the age and sex group
studied, seen across States within Australia.
• Overall and within most age groups, the
percentage of boys and girls who were overweight
or obese was lower in Queensland children than
in NSW and WA children of the same age in recent
surveys.
31
3.3
Waist circumference
As expected from normal growth, waist circumference
increased with age in boys and girls. In boys, waist
circumference increased from Year 1
to Year 10 by 21.3 cm at the umbilicus and by
22.4 cm at the iliac crest. In girls, waist circumference
increased by 19.6 cm at the umbilicus and by 17.8 cm at
the iliac crest.
BMI is used widely as a determinant of overweight
or obesity, but other anthropometric indices can be
used to determine risk associated with overweight and
obesity. One such index is waist circumference which
tracks well from childhood to adulthood and provides
information relating to cardiovascular risk factors that
cannot be assessed readily using BMI.37 Table 10 shows
the waist measurements at the umbilicus and halfway
between the last rib and the iliac crest.
Table 10
Waist circumference (cm) of sample population by age
Waist
(cm)
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
3.3.1
n
Mean
SD
Median
Minimum-maximum
Male
Umbilicus
Iliac crest
554
56.2
55.1
5.2
4.8
55.5
54.5
44.5-86.2
44.1-81.2
Female
Umbilicus
Iliac crest
529
56.0
54.2
5.3
4.8
55.0
53.3
44.1-83.8
44.4-79.0
Male
Umbilicus
Iliac crest
699
65.5
63.6
8.8
8.3
63.7
61.7
43.7-102.7
43.0-99.8
Female
Umbilicus
Iliac crest
778
66.5
63.6
9.6
9.0
64.2
61.6
47.0-108.5
47.6-101.2
Male
Umbilicus
Iliac crest
471
77.5
75.1
8.8
8.1
76.2
73.8
58.0-123.9
56.5-110.5
Female
Umbilicus
Iliac crest
538
75.6
72.0
8.8
8.1
74.9
71.0
56.2-112.8
55.5-114.5
Trends in waist circumference
There are good historical data relating to waist
circumference in Australian children that can
be used to make a robust comparison and thus
indicate changes that might have significant
health implications. The waist measurements
taken at the umbilicus level from children
in years 5 and 10 of the current survey were
compared with the waist measurements of
similar-aged children from the 1985 Schools
Fitness Survey nationally.35 Only children
who were comparable in age between the
two surveys were included in the analysis.
No children in Year 1 were included, but 97%
of the Year 5 and 95% of the Year 10 children
sample populations were.
Children were compared by age; ages 9 and
10 (Year 5) and 14 and 15 (Year 10). These
comparisons are presented in Tables 11 and 12
for Year 5 children and Tables 13 and 14 for Year
10 children. The differences between 1985 and
2006 are presented graphically in Figures 4
(Year 5) and 5 (Year 10).
32
Table 11
Comparison of umbilicus waist circumference (cm) centiles in 9-year-old children* from 2006 with
similar-aged children from 1985
n
5th
10th
25th
50th
75th
90th
95th
2006
237
53.8
56.1
59.1
63.2
68.8
76.1
87.9
1985
406
52.2
53.4
55.6
58.6
62.3
66.6
69.7
2006
308
52.7
55.7
59.3
64.3
70.9
78.8
90.0
1985
432
50.3
51.7
54.2
57.6
61.7
66.5
69.9
Male
Female
* Children aged 9.00 to 9.99 years.
Table 12
Comparison of umbilicus waist circumference (cm) centiles in 10-year-old children* from 2006 with
similar-aged children from 1985
n
5th
10th
25th
50th
75th
90th
95th
2006
441
54.6
56.4
59.8
64.3
70.0
76.7
81.6
1985
501
53.3
54.5
56.9
60.1
64.1
68.8
72.4
2006
449
54.7
56.6
60.3
65.3
71.7
79.4
85.3
1985
494
51.3
52.7
55.4
59.0
63.3
68.3
72.0
Male
Female
* Children aged 10.00 to 10.99 years.
The differences in waist circumference at the umbilicus between 1985 and 2006 for each centile for the respective
age groups are shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4
Increase in umbilicus waist circumference centiles of 9- and 10-year-old children from 1985 to
2006
Children in Year 5 (9.00 to 10.99 yr)
22
male aged
9.0-9.99
20
female aged
9.0-9.99
18
16
male aged
10.0-10.99
Difference (cm)
14
12
female aged
10.0-10.99
10
8
6
4
2
0
5th
10th
25th
50th
75th
90th
95th
Centile
centile groups), it is also clear that the difference
between 1985 and 2006 becomes greater as the centile
increases.
Figure 4 shows that waist circumference in 9- and
10-year-old children increased from 1985 to 2006.
Although this change in waist circumference is evident
across the Year 5 population (i.e., in all
33
Table 13
Comparison of umbilicus waist circumference (cm) centiles in 14-year-old children* from 2006 with
similar-aged children from 1985
n
5th
10th
25th
50th
75th
90th
95th
2006
156
65.0
67.7
70.8
75.1
80.6
87.0
96.0
1985
479
60.9
62.5
65.5
69.4
74.3
79.9
84.0
2006
199
62.6
65.5
68.9
73.3
78.8
85.0
92.8
1985
414
58.1
59.7
62.8
66.8
71.7
77.0
80.8
Male
Female
* Children aged 14.00 to 14.99 years
Table 14
Comparison of umbilicus waist circumference (cm) centiles in 15-year-old children * from 2006
with similar-aged children from 1985
n
5th
10th
25th
50th
75th
90th
95th
2006
297
66.1
68.0
71.5
76.0
81.6
87.9
92.5
1985
468
63.0
64.6
67.7
71.6
76.4
81.7
85.6
2006
324
64.7
66.6
70.2
74.9
80.4
86.4
90.5
1985
423
59.5
61.6
64.2
68.2
73.1
78.4
82.2
Male
Female
* Children aged 15.00 to 15.99 years
Figure 5
Increase of umbilicus waist circumference centiles of 14- and 15-year-old children from 1985 to
2006
Children in Year 10 (14.00 to 15.99 yr)
14
male aged
14.0-14.99
12
female aged
14.0-14.99
10
male aged
15.0-15.99
8
Difference (cm)
Figure 5 shows that waist circumference increased
by an average of 4-6 cm from 1985 to 2006. Although
this change in waist circumference is evident across
the Year 10 population (i.e., in all centile groups), it is
also clear that the difference between 1985 and 2006
becomes greater as the centile increases.
female aged
15.0-15.99
6
4
2
0
5th
10th
25th
50th
75th
90th
95th
Centile
KEY POINTS
• As expected waist circumference increased with
age.
• Waist circumference increased between 1985 and
2006 in both 9- and 10- year-old children and 14and 15- year-old children.
• From 1985 to 2006, the greatest increases in
waist circumference, in absolute terms, occurred
at the higher end of the waist circumference
distribution. The data suggests that over time
there has been a relative increase in abdominal
obesity at the upper end of the distribution.
34
3.4
Body size
The children were asked as part of the second section
of the food frequency questionnaire (see page 121 for
details) about how they would describe their current
weight. Table 15 shows their response. The majority of
Year 1 and Year 5 children were happy with their body
Table 15
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
weight, with only 5% thinking they were too fat and
about 8% thinking they were too thin. This was notably
different by Year 10. One in four Year 10 girls and one in
six Year 10 boys thought they were too fat. One in ten
Year 10 boys thought they were too thin.
Children’s perceptions about their current body weight
n
Too thin
(%)
About right
(%)
Too fat
(%)
Male
467
10.0
85.8
4.2
Female
464
5.5
92.0
2.5
Male
602
9.3
84.8
5.9
Female
683
4.6
88.7
6.7
Male
414
11.8
73.1
15.1
Female
524
3.5
71.7
24.8
Perception of body weight was compared to actual body weight in two ways. Firstly perception of weight status
was compared with BMI categories of underweight/ healthy weight/ overweight and obese.
Table 16
Relation of actual body weight (by BMI cut-off category) to perception of current body weight in
Year 1 children
BMI
Category
Too thin
(n)
About right
(n)
Too fat
(n)
Male
(n=453)
Underweight
Healthy weight
Overweight
Obese
0
36
0
0
5
339
44
12
0
1
6
10
Female
(n= 448)
Underweight
Healthy weight
Overweight
Obese
4
23
1
0
3
328
62
15
1
1
4
6
Year 1
Underweight was defined as a BMI less than the third centile for sex and age according to the CDC 2000 growth data 32. Healthy weight was defined as not
underweight, overweight or obese, as classified by the BMI. Overweight and obesity were defined using the international cut offs described by Cole and
colleagues. 31
35
Table 17
Relation of actual body weight (by BMI cut-off category) to perception of current body weight in
Year 5 children
BMI
Category
Too thin
(n)
About right
(n)
Too fat
(n)
Male
(n=592)
Underweight
Healthy weight
Overweight
Obese
3
50
0
0
3
417
63
16
0
2
19
19
Female
(n= 655)
Underweight
Healthy weight
Overweight
Obese
4
28
1
0
4
454
101
16
0
1
26
20
Year 5
Underweight was defined as a BMI less than the third centile for sex and age according to the CDC 2000 growth data 32. Healthy weight was defined as not
underweight, overweight or obese, as classified by the BMI. Overweight and obesity were defined using the international cut offs described by Cole and
colleagues. 31
Table 18
Relation of actual body weight (by BMI cut-off category) to perception of current body weight in
Year 10 children
BMI
Category
Too thin
(n)
About right
(n)
Too fat
(n)
Male
(n=405)
Underweight
Healthy weight
Overweight
Obese
6
47
0
0
2
238
56
3
0
12
30
11
Female
(n= 490)
Underweight
Healthy weight
Overweight
Obese
2
18
1
0
3
330
29
2
0
53
38
14
Year 10
Underweight was defined as a BMI less than the third centile for sex and age according to the CDC 2000 growth data 32. Healthy weight was defined as not
underweight, overweight or obese, as classified by the BMI. Overweight and obesity were defined using the international cut offs described by Cole and
colleagues. 31
The second comparison of the children’s perception
about weight was compared with their actual
standardised BMI score (Z-score). The Z-score is a
reflection how their BMI compares to age and sex
calculated norms e.g. a Z-score of + 2.0 indicates
that the BMI is 2 standard deviations above what
would be expected for a child of that age and sex, and
approximately only 4% of children would have a value
equivalent to this or higher.
Year 1 boys and girls were comparable in terms of how
their perception of body shape related to weight cutoff categories, with the majority of children perceiving
their body size to be ‘about right’ irrespective of their
BMI. In Years 5 and 10, there were trends of difference
between boys and girls: boys were more likely than girls
to consider themselves too thin, and for the majority
of these boys, their weight, according to BMI cut-offs,
was of a healthy weight. Girls, of healthy weight, were
more likely to consider themselves as too fat, and this
increased with age from less than 0.5% of healthy weight
Year 5 girls jumping to 13.5% of Year 10 girls. A similar
trend was observed in boys, but this was not as marked.
Of those whose BMI placed them in the overweight
or obese category, the proportion who considered
themselves as “about right” in terms of body size
decreased with age: 82% and 88% of Year 1 boys and
girls, 68% and 72% of Year 5 boys and girls and 59%
and 39% of Year 10 boys and girls.
36
Table 19
BMI Z-Scores by category of child perception of current body weight
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Too thin
About right
Too fat
Male
455
-0.51
0.36
1.92
Female
456
-0.59
0.34
1.55
Male
592
-0.77
0.29
1.86
Female
661
-1.08
0.26
1.77
Male
405
-1.01
0.32
1.43
Female
492
-0.96
0.09
1.00
KEY POINTS
• The majority of Year 1 and Year 5 children and
seven in ten Year 10 children were happy with
their body size.
• One in four Year 10 girls thought they were too
fat and one in ten Year 10 boys thought they were
too thin.
• Comparisons of perception of body size with
weight cut-offs showed that by Year 5, boys
of healthy weight are more likely than girls to
consider themselves as too thin and girls are
more likely to consider themselves as too fat.
• Children classified as overweight or obese by
BMI, are quite content with their body size at Year
1 and 5, but by Year 10, one in two would consider
themselves as too fat.
37
4.0 Dietary assessment
• include milks, yoghurts, cheese and/or alternatives
• chose reduced-fat milk varieties (although reducedfat milks are not suitable for children under 2 years)
• choose water as a drink
• avoid alcohol.
Childhood and adolescence is a period of substantial
growth and development, and is an important time
to shape and consolidate healthy eating behaviours.
National dietary guidelines 23 recommend that children
and adolescents should be encouraged to:
• eat plenty of vegetables, legumes and fruits
• eat plenty of cereals (including breads, rice,
pasta and noodles), preferably wholegrain
• include lean meat, fish, poultry and/or alternatives
A guide to the number of serves per day from core food
groups and extra foods recommended for children and
adolescents is shown below. 38
Recommended daily food intake for children and adolescents (NHMRC 2003)
Food Groups:
Cereal, bread,
rice, pasta,
noodles
Vegetables,
legumes
Fruit
Milk, yoghurt,
cheese
Lean meat, fish,
poultry, eggs,
nuts & legumes
Extra foods (soft
drink, pie, oil,
chips, sweets,
etc)
A single serve
size is equal to
one of these:
1 cup cereal; or 2
slices bread; or 1
cup cooked rice,
pasta or noodles
½ cup cooked
vegetables or
legumes; or 1 cup
salad
1 medium or 2
small pieces; or
1 cup chopped or
canned
250ml glass;
or200g yoghurt;
40g or 2 slices
cheese
65-100g cooked
lean meat, fish, or
poultry; or 2 eggs;
or ¹⁄³ cup nuts or
½ cup legumes
1 small piece
cake; or just ½
pizza slice; or just
¹⁄³ meat pie; or 1
can (375ml) soft
drink; or just 12
hot chips.
4-7 years
5-7 serves
2 serves
1 serve
2 serves
½ serve
1-2 serves
8-11 years
6-9 serves
3 serves
1 serve
2 serves
1 serve
1-2 serves
12-18 years
5-11 serves
4 serves
3 serves
3 serves
1 serve
1-3 serves
Dietary intakes and food habits were assessed by
24-hour food record and food frequency questionnaire,
similar to those used in the 2003 WA CAPANS Survey28
which were adapted from the 1995 National Nutrition
Survey.36 Although a 24-hour food record is not always
representative of an individual’s usual intake because
of day-to-day variability, it is a valid measure of the diet
of a group or population and is a common method used
in large nutrition surveys.
to the more intensive nature of collecting, evaluating and
processing 24-hour dietary records for young children,
25% of year 1 classes were selected to be asked to
complete the 24-hour food record.
Children were encouraged to eat and drink normally,
and to measure and record the amount of food or drink
as it was served where possible. The record sheet gave
detailed instructions about recording this information,
including pictures to help the children estimate
portion sizes. Each participant was given standard
food-measuring instruments including measuring
cups, measuring spoons and a ruler. Participants also
recorded where the food was prepared (at home, at
a canteen, etc). From the food record, the following
dietary components were assessed:
• energy
• macronutrients: protein, fat (including saturated
fat), carbohydrate (including sugars)
• alcohol
• fibre
• thiamine, niacin, riboflavin
Throughout the subsequent analyses of children’s
diets, no consistent differences were observed between
children in urban areas and children in
rural areas.
24-hour food record
The participants were asked to record the food and drink
consumed for one 24-hour period starting from when they
woke up until they went to bed that same day. Parents of
years 1 and 5 children were asked to complete this and
Year 10 children completed the record themselves. Due
38
•
•
•
•
vitamin C
iron, zinc
calcium
potassium.
4.1
Energy and macronutrients
4.1.1
Energy intake
Table 20 shows the daily energy intake
reported in the 24-hour food record.
The food and drink record was analysed using the
Foodworks database (Xyrus Software, Brisbane).
Although other nutrients e.g. folate, were of interest,
analysis of such nutrients could not be supported
by available dietary analysis software and nutrient
composition data available for use in Australia in 2006.
Table 20
Average daily energy intake (kJ/day) by
year and sex
n
Mean
SD
Median
Male
113
7,590
1,990
7,360
Female
121
6,841
2,145
6,332
Male
648
8,523
2,768
8,345
Female
746
7,718
2602
7,423
Male
404
11,142
4,589
10,237
Female
526
8,072
2,993
7,734
Year 1
Fifty-two percent of the survey population agreed to
complete the 24-hour food record; children in Year
5 had the highest response rate (64%). Of the 3,107
completed records, 553 records were either illegible or
could not be coded because insufficient information
was provided to allow for the coding of either the type
or amount of food. A further 136 participants completed
a repeat record to assess reproducibility and to provide
data on the within-subject variability. These data will be
provided in the technical report.
Year 5
Year 10
Food frequency questionnaire
These energy intake data were compared with
current recommendations for energy intake39.
Current recommendations for estimated
energy requirements are based on a factorial
approach using a prediction of basal metabolic
rate (BMR), which is then incremented to take
into account the levels of habitual physical
activity. Thus, for any age group there are
a number of estimates of estimated energy
requirements depending on how active the
children are.
A food frequency questionnaire, which included a
detailed list of foods organised by food categories
(meat, vegetables, fruit, etc) was given to each child.
Parents of years 1 and 5 children were asked to complete
this and Year 10 children completed the questionnaire
themselves. The parents or participant indicated the
number of times each particular food was eaten on
average, over the previous 12 months. Other questions
asked about the types of foods consumed (e.g., type
of breakfast cereal) and about the dietary habits from
infancy. These questions were chosen for analysis at
this stage because consultation with key stakeholders
revealed that they were issues with specific policy or
health implications. The food habits section reports on
the frequency of consumption of the following variables:
• serves of fruit and vegetables
• breakfast
• evening meal with television
• evening meal with parents
• fast food
• milk
• soft drinks (non-diet and diet)
• energy, electrolyte and sports drinks.
The mean energy intakes reported here for
children in years 1 and 5, and males in Year
10 fall within the range of requirements listed
for children categorised as having light to
moderate levels of habitual physical activity.
The reported mean energy intake for Year
10 females was about 15% lower than that
recommended based on the requirements of
15-16-year-old females classified as having
light to moderate levels of habitual physical
activity. These lower reported intakes by Year
10 females might reflect a greater degree of
under-reporting as detailed below.
Consumption of all remaining items from the food
frequency questionnaire are shown in section 4.6.
39
4.1.2 Critical evaluation of energy intake
Theoretically, energy intake is equal to energy
expenditure plus growth in a healthy child
who is growing normally. When self-reported
intake using a variety of dietary assessment
instruments has been compared against
energy expenditure based on objective
measurements, energy intake is typically
under-reported by up to 25%.42 When reported
energy intake (EI) is divided by predicted BMR,
the result provides an estimate of the degree of
accuracy of food intake reporting.
The quality of individual dietary records can be
examined by comparing the value recorded for
energy intake with a factored increment of the
predicted Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)1 for an
individual, often referred to as the ‘Goldberg
cut off’ approach.40 This method is useful in
providing an estimation of the degree of underreporting of reported food intake. For this
survey, the revised cut offs published by Black
were used to evaluate the reported energy
intakes.41 These cut offs allow the validation
of energy intake at the individual level when
the recording period is less than 14 days.
When energy intake over a single day has been
assessed, the lower 95% confidence limit for
an acceptable energy intake: predicted BMR
ratios is 0.87. This approach has been used in
similar surveys, such as the WA CAPANS 2003
survey.28
For comparisons with other survey data, the
mean ratio of energy intake to predicted
BMR (EI:BMR) is also reported. This measure
provides an estimate of the extent of underreporting of food intake. The means were 1.78
and 1.75 for Year 1 males and females, 1.58
and 1.59 for Year 5 males and females and 1.57
and 1.37 for Year 10 males and females. These
compare with means of 1.75 for 10-15 year
old boys in both the 1985 and 1995 national
surveys, and 1.37 in 1985 and 1.53 in 1995 for
girls aged 10-15 years.43 This suggests that
the EI:BMR in this survey was within the same
range observed nationally in 1985 and 1995
for girls, but was lower for boys. There may
have been a greater degree of under-reporting
amongst Year 5 and 10 boys in Queensland
in 2006 compared with the earlier national
surveys.
Using 0.87 as the cut off for an acceptable
dietary record, the dietary records for 99% and
96% of Year 1 males and females, 93% and
94% of Year 5 males and females, and 86%
and 82% of Year 10 males and females were
valid.
When energy expenditure (EE) is measured
by objective means, the ratio of energy
expenditure to predicted BMR (EE:BMR) gives
an estimate of physical activity level. For an
individual this could range from 1.2 (bed rest)
to 2.2 (vigorous activity).
1
Predicted BMR can be calculated from age, sex, weight and
height.
40
4.1.3
Macronutrients
Tables 21-23 show the average daily intakes,
reported in the 24-hour food record, of various
Table 21
macronutrients by Year level and sex.
Average daily macronutrient intakes of children in Year 1 by sex
Male (n = 113)
Female (n = 121)
Mean
SD
Median
Mean
SD
Median
Protein (g)
68.6
20.3
66.5
62.4
22.5
57.9
Protein (%)
15.8
3.3
15.5
15.8
3.4
15.2
Total Carbohydrate (g)
231.1
65.8
221.6
202.6
67.0
195.0
Total Carbohydrate (%)
52.2
6.6
51.9
51.2
7.4
51.5
Sugar (g)
116.0
49.3
110.1
100.2
45.2
91.7
Sugar (%)
25.4
8.3
24.2
24.4
6.7
23.9
Fat (g)
65.8
23.6
62.4
61.6
25.6
55.4
Fat (%)
32.0
6.1
32.4
33.0
6.7
32.0
Total Saturated Fat (g)
30.1
11.9
29.2
27.1
12.2
25.1
Total Saturated Fat (%)
14.6
3.7
15.3
14.5
3.8
14.2
0
0
0
0
0
0
Alcohol (g)
Alcohol (%)
Fibre (g)
Table 22
0
0
0
0
0
0
18.2
6.5
17.5
15.9
6.5
14.8
Average daily macronutrient intakes of children in Year 5 by sex
Male (n = 648)
Female (n = 746)
Mean
SD
Median
Mean
SD
Median
Protein (g)
80.6
33.5
76.5
73.3
30.8
69.1
Protein (%)
16.3
4.6
15.7
16.4
4.4
15.8
Total Carbohydrate (g)
248.8
86.1
238.8
227.4
80.8
217.6
Total Carbohydrate (%)
50.3
8.4
51.6
51.1
8.8
51.1
Sugar (g)
117.5
57.2
108.6
105.7
52.1
97.6
Sugar (%)
23.1
8.9
22.4
22.9
8.1
22.1
Total Fat (g)
77.4
33.0
72.5
68.8
30.9
64.9
Total Fat (%)
33.3
6.9
33.2
32.6
7.2
32.7
Saturated Fat (g)
34.9
16.1
32.3
30.7
15.0
28.3
Saturated Fat (%)
15.1
4.0
15.1
14.5
4.1
14.5
Alcohol (g)
0
0
0
0
0
0
Alcohol (%)
0
0
0
0
0
0
18.2
8.4
17.2
17.1
7.3
16.1
Fibre (g)
Table 23
Average daily macronutrient intakes of children in Year 10 by sex
Male (n = 404)
Female (n = 526)
Mean
SD
Median
Mean
SD
Median
Protein (g)
112.4
54.4
102.0
79.4
35.8
74.5
Protein (%)
17.4
4.8
16.9
17.1
5.6
16.5
Total Carbohydrate (g)
320.5
137.2
301.8
232.4
92.7
224.2
Total Carbohydrate (%)
50.0
9.5
49.9
49.7
9.5
49.5
Sugar (g)
147.2
86.7
127.8
110.3
58.7
102.4
Sugar (%)
21.9
8.4
21.6
22.8
9.0
22.9
Total Fat (g)
99.7
54.1
85.6
73.0
36.1
67.1
Total Fat (%)
32.5
8.0
32.4
33.1
8.3
32.9
Saturated Fat (g)
43.9
4.6
14.5
31.9
17.5
28.6
Saturated Fat (%)
14.3
4.6
14.5
14.4
4.6
14.3
Alcohol (g)
0.5
5.3
0
0
0
0
Alcohol (%)
0.2
1.7
0
0
0
0
Fibre (g)
23.4
12.1
20.8
18.4
9.3
17.2
41
The mean weight of all macronutrients intakes
increased with age, and boys consumed more
macronutrients than girls at all ages. Mean protein
intake increased from an average of 65g per day in
Year 1, to 78g per day in Year 5, and 95g per day in
Year 10 (though the difference between males and
females in Year 10 was large). This is comparable with
the 1995 National Nutrition Survey which reported
intakes of 64g per day for children aged 4-7 and 82g
per day for children aged 8-11, and 101g per day for
boys aged 16-18 and 80g per day for girls aged 16-18.
Carbohydrate and fat intake followed similar patterns of
increase.
National Nutrition Survey data, which reported
carbohydrate intakes of 52%, 50% and 49% for children
aged 4-7, 8-11 and 16-18 respectively. The percentage of
energy intake from sugar, which decreased from 25% to
22% from Year 1 to Year 10 was slightly lower than the
1995 National Nutrition Survey findings, which reported
intakes of 28% for children aged 4-7, 25% for children
aged 8-11and 25% for children aged 16-18.
The mean intake of fat, expressed as a percentage of
energy intake, ranged from 32% to 33% across all ages.
The mean intake for percentage of energy intake from
saturated fat ranged from 14% to 15% across the Year
groups.
Boys and girls at all Year levels consumed
approximately 50% of their energy intake from
carbohydrate. This is comparable with the 1995
KEY POINTS
• The mean reported daily energy intake was within
the expected levels for boys and girls in years 1
and 5, and boys in Year 10.
• The mean reported daily energy intake was about
15% lower than the expected level in Year 10
girls, which suggests a greater degree of underreporting in this group.
• On average, Queensland children aged 5-17
consumed significantly more protein than current
recommended dietary intakes, but consumption
was comparable to the 1995 National Nutrition
Survey data.
• On average, Queensland children aged 5-17
consumed diets in which 50% of the energy
intake was derived from carbohydrate. Nearly
half of this (22-25% of energy) was derived from
sugars.
• On average, Queensland children aged 5-17,
consumed diets in which 32.5% of the energy
intake was derived from fat, and 14.5% was
derived from saturated fat. This compares to
current NHMRC dietary guidelines recommending
approximately 30% of energy intake as fat and
no more than 10% coming from saturated fat as
being desirable.
42
4.2
Micronutrients
Tables 24-26 show the average daily intakes of various
micronutrients by Year level and sex.
Table 24
Average daily micronutrient intakes of children in Year 1 by sex
Male (n = 113)
Female (n = 121)
Mean
SD
Median
Mean
SD
Median
Thiamin (mg)
1.6
0.9
1.5
1.6
0.9
1.4
Riboflavin (mg)
2.2
1.0
2.1
2.0
1.2
1.7
Niacin (mg)
16.6
6.7
15.9
16.1
7.8
14.5
Niacin equivalents (mg)
30.2
9.8
28.6
28.5
10.9
26.4
Vitamin C (mg)
87.6
62.4
74.0
83.9
71.0
57.2
Calcium (mg)
909
414
911
779
352
758
Iron (mg)
10.2
3.9
9.6
9.0
3.1
8.7
Zinc (mg)
9.2
3.4
8.5
8.2
3.3
7.4
2,491
892
2421
2,161
823
2,112
Potassium (mg)
Table 25
Average daily micronutrient intakes of children in Year 5 by sex
Male (n = 648)
Female (n = 746)
Mean
SD
Median
Mean
SD
Median
Thiamin (mg)
1.8
0.9
1.6
1.7
1.3
1.4
Riboflavin (mg)
2.4
1.2
2.2
2.1
1.5
1.9
Niacin (mg)
20.1
9.3
18.9
18.5
10.6
16.5
Niacin equivalents (mg)
36.2
15.1
34.5
33.3
15.4
30.7
Vitamin C (mg)
100.5
88.3
77.7
104.4
97.8
74.0
Calcium (mg)
916
457
858
815
437
735
Iron (mg)
12.1
4.9
11.4
10.7
4.4
10.1
Zinc (mg)
10.7
5.2
9.8
9.8
4.8
9.0
Potassium (mg)
2,669
1,066
2,624
2,483
1,026
2,330
Table 26
Average daily micronutrient intakes of children in Year 10 by sex
Male (n = 404)
Female (n = 526)
Mean
SD
Median
Mean
SD
Median
Thiamin (mg)
2.4
1.6
2.1
1.6
0.9
1.5
Riboflavin (mg)
3.0
1.9
2.6
2.0
1.3
1.8
Niacin (mg)
27.6
15.0
23.4
19.3
11.1
17.5
Niacin equivalents (mg)
50.4
25.0
44.5
35.4
17.5
32.5
Vitamin C (mg)
120.5
130.0
83.0
111.8
108.5
82.9
Calcium (mg)
1135
716
997
838
491
782
Iron (mg)
16.5
8.0
15.1
11.4
5.2
10.7
Zinc (mg)
15.1
8.3
13.5
10.5
5.3
9.7
Potassium (mg)
3,468
1,723
3,050
2,668
1,206
2,509
Micronutrient intakes were compared with the
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) recommended
for each micronutrient.39 The EAR is the daily nutrient
level estimated to meet the requirements of half of
healthy individuals in a particular age, stage or sex.
The EAR is used to estimate the prevalence of
inadequate intakes within a group or population.
Table 22 shows the percentage of the study sample that
failed to meet the micronutrient EAR for children of that
age.
The micronutrient intakes for this comparison were
“adjusted” intakes. It is well documented and accepted
that one day’s food record may not represent “usual”
43
food intake. This fact can at least partially be addressed
if information is known relating to the day to day
variation in food records is completed and analysed.
Thus information is available on within subject as well
as between subject variation in food intake. Knowing
Table 27
this information allowed a new “adjusted” value for
all micronutrients to be calculated for the individuals
taking part in the survey. This process is described in
detail elsewhere 36, but a brief summary of the analysis
is provided in Appendix VII.
Percentage of children failing to meet the micronutrient EAR by year and sex
Thiamin
Riboflavin
Niacin
Vitamin C
Calcium
Iron
Zinc
Male
0
0
0
0
2.7
0
0
Female
0
0
0
0
6.6
0
0
Male
0
0
0
1.2
43.3
0.9
0.5
Female
0
0
0
0.7
55.8
0.4
0.1
Male
0
0
0
0
50.7
0.0
0.0
1.0
1.0
0
0
87.3
11.4
1.3
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Female
# These data have been calculated on adjusted food intake values which takes in to account the fact that the data were from one day food records.
– Values are the percentage of children not achieving the EAR for each vitamin or mineral according to age and sex.
also a concern for both boys and girls in Year 5 and Year
10 boys, with half of the children not drinking or eating
enough calcium. Children in Year 1 had diets that met
most of the micronutrient requirements.
Higher proportions of inadequate micronutrient intakes
were observed in Year 10 girls. The two micronutrients
of concern for Year 10 girls were calcium and iron: with
over four fifths consuming insufficient calcium and one
in 10 consuming insufficient iron. Calcium intakes were
KEY POINTS
On the day of the survey:
• Almost one in ten Year 5 girls and more than one
in four Year 10 girls had diets inadequate in iron.
• About one in twenty Year 1 boys and girls and
about half of all children in Year 5 and Year 10 had
diets inadequate in calcium.
• Six out of every seven Year 10 girls had diets that
were inadequate in calcium.
• Diets inadequate in calcium were more common
amongst girls than boys. Almost one-quarter of
Year 1 girls, over a half of Year 5 girls and almost
three-quarters of Year 10 girls had inadequate
calcium intake.
• One in ten Year 10 girls had diets inadequate in
iron.
• Higher proportions of inadequate micronutrient
intakes were observed in Year 10 girls. These
lower reported intakes by Year 10 girls might
reflect a greater degree of under-reporting, as
previously described.
44
4.3
Food categories
food record. Table 28 shows the percentage of children
who consumed foods from 18 food categories during
the study. Details explaining the food categories are in
Appendix I.
Consumption of the major food categories, such as
cereals and cereal products, meat products, egg
products etc., used in the 1995 National Nutrition
Survey 36 were also identified from the 24- hour
Table 28
Percentage (%) of males and females consuming foods of selected major food categories by year
group and sex
Year 1
n=
Male
(113)
Year 5
Year 10
Female
(121)
Male
(648)
Female
(746)
Male
(404)
Female
(526)
Non-alcoholic beverages
64
72
62
63
70
66
Cereals and cereal products
100
100
98
98
99
95
Cereal-based products and dishes
82
74
77
79
73
72
Fats and oils
72
73
53
53
42
44
Fish and seafood products and dishes
14
12
10
10
6
8
Fruit products and dishes
79
84
63
70
55
61
Egg products
15
13
9
9
13
13
Meat, poultry and game products and dishes
80
83
77
79
80
78
Milk products and dishes
98
96
95
94
90
88
Soups
3
4
4
4
6
4
Seed and nut products and dishes
17
19
16
12
11
11
Savoury sauces and condiments
35
31
33
34
38
37
Vegetable products and dishes
71
75
70
74
67
81
Legume and pulse products and dishes
3
4
3
3
5
4
Snack foods
38
27
28
31
27
26
Sugar products and dishes
61
53
52
53
46
38
Confectionery and health bars
46
36
43
47
41
50
Miscellaneous
48
47
39
39
30
39
Table 29
Mean daily intake (g) of selected major food categories of males and females for those who
consumed each food group, by year and sex
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Male
(113)
Female
(121)
Male
(648)
Female
(746)
Male
(404)
Female
(526)
Non-alcoholic beverages
397
367
470
425
731
529
Cereals and cereal products
172
173
196
185
261
180
Cereal-based products and dishes
124
113
163
146
223
153
8
8
8
7
11
9
Fish and seafood products and dishes
112
122
158
127
202
148
Fruit products and dishes
221
190
201
187
240
217
Egg products
48
79
76
60
72
86
n=
Fats and oils
Meat, poultry and game products and dishes
127
107
177
165
264
187
Milk products and dishes
443
374
451
381
570
386
Soups
238
224
444
375
510
469
Seed and nut products and dishes
24
32
25
22
53
31
Savoury sauces and condiments
37
24
41
50
62
45
Vegetable products and dishes
163
135
195
195
268
226
Legume and pulse products and dishes
33
95
172
97
183
138
Snack foods
26
31
49
36
55
43
Sugar products and dishes
32
28
36
33
28
28
Confectionery and health bars
34
29
40
33
51
41
Miscellaneous
7
7
8
8
12
9
45
Nearly half of the boys in Year 10 did not consume fruit
products and dishes, and one in three did not consume
vegetable products or dishes on the day of the survey.
Reported intakes for Year 10 girls were similar, with four
out of 10 not consuming fruit products or dishes, and
one in 5 not consuming vegetable dishes or products
on day of the survey. This contrasts with reported
intakes for Year 1 in which approximately three-quarters
of boys and girls consumed vegetable products and
dishes and four out of five consumed fruit products and
dishes on the day of the survey.
Tables 29 and 30 show the mean weight (g) and median
weight (g) of consumption of these food categories
for males and females. It should be noted that these
data are the mean intake of only those children who
consumed food in these categories during the 24-hour
recording period. These data should be considered in
the context of data presented in Table 28. For example,
for girls in Year 5 the mean consumption of soup was
375 g. However, only 4% of the girls in Year 5 consumed
soup during the measurement period.
Dairy products and cereals were consumed by nine out
of every 10 children.
Table 30
Median daily intake (g) of selected major food categories of males and females for those who
consumed each food group, by year and sex
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Male
(113)
Female
(121)
Male
(648)
Female
(746)
Male
(404)
Female
(526)
Non-alcoholic beverages
263
263
391
314
624
420
Cereals and cereal products
145
133
143
132
195
138
Cereal-based products and dishes
92
77
119
105
162
102
Fats and oils
5
5
5
5
10
5
Fish and seafood products and dishes
120
105
102
95
90
112
Fruit products and dishes
160
171
166
166
166
168
Egg products
50
64
50
50
50
60
Meat, poultry and game products and dishes
88
88
141
125
190
144
Milk products and dishes
407
341
396
322
490
297
Soups
167
252
505
379
500
379
Seed and nut products and dishes
19
20
18
13
25
13
Savoury sauces and condiments
21
20
23
21
23
21
Vegetable products and dishes
142
95
167
165
213
180
Legume and pulse products and dishes
47
44
138
70
127
138
Snack foods
22
25
20
25
30
29
Sugar products and dishes
13
8
14
13
17
11
Confectionery and health bars
32
29
31
30
37
35
Miscellaneous
6
5
6
6
8
6
n=
• One serve of milk approximates 250g, one serve
of yoghurt 200g and one serve of cheese 40g and
therefore it is difficult to estimate the number
of dairy serves that children were consuming.
Estimates are based on a conservative serve size
of 200g,
Table 31 shows the mean consumption of the various
food categories across the entire sample, so for
example, the mean consumption of soup across the
entire sample of the 746 girls in Year 5 was 15.0g.
For comparison with the recommended intakes from
core food groups38 (page 38), an approximate estimate
can be derived using the following assumptions:
• an average serve of fruit weighs 150g and that
the food group ‘fruit products and dishes’ is
predominantly fruit
• an average serve of vegetables weighs 75g and that
the ‘vegetable products and dishes’ food group is
predominantly vegetables
46
Table 31
Mean daily intake (g) of selected major food categories across the entire sample by year and sex
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Male
(113)
Female
(121)
Male
(648)
Female
(746)
Male
(404)
Female
(526)
Non-alcoholic beverages
254
264
291
268
512
349
Cereals and cereal products
172
173
192
181
258
171
Cereal-based products and dishes
102
84
126
115
163
110
6
6
4
4
5
4
n=
Fats and oils
Fish and seafood products and dishes
16
15
16
13
12
12
Fruit products and dishes
175
160
127
131
132
132
Egg products
7
10
7
5
9
11
Meat, poultry and game products and dishes
102
89
136
130
211
146
Milk products and dishes
434
359
428
358
513
340
Soups
7
9
18
15
31
19
Seed and nut products and dishes
4
6
4
3
6
3
Savoury sauces and condiments
13
7
14
17
24
17
Vegetable products and dishes
183
116
101
137
144
180
Legume and pulse products and dishes
1
4
5
3
9
6
Snack foods
10
8
14
11
15
11
Sugar products and dishes
20
15
19
17
13
11
Confectionery and health bars
16
10
17
16
21
21
Miscellaneous
3
3
3
3
4
4
For the sample population as a whole, reported
consumption of fruit products and dishes decreased
with age. Using the assumptions stated earlier
relating to weights of average serves, mean intakes
approximated to just over one serve of fruit per day
for Year 1 children and just under one serve a day
for years 5 and 10 children. Likewise, for reported
consumption of vegetable products and dishes, mean
intakes approximated to one and a half serves in
Year 1 children, nearly 2 serves in Year 5 children and
just under two and a half serves in Year 10 children.
Consumption of legume and pulse product and dishes
was negligible.
Consumption of milk and milk products, for the sample
population as a whole, increased with age in boys, but
not for girls. A proxy of 200g for a serve, would suggest
that whilst the average Year 1 and Year 5 boy is eating
the recommended dairy serves, the average Year 10 boy
and the average Year 1, Year 5 and Year 10 girl is eating
insufficient milk products.
Non alcoholic beverages (fruit drinks, soft drink, cordial,
coffee and tea) were also prominent in the reported
intakes across the sample population. On average
Year 1 children consumed 250ml, and this increased to
350ml in Year 10 girls and 500ml in Year 10 boys.
KEY POINTS
On the day of the survey:
• on average, Year 1 children met and Year
5 children were close to meeting, the
recommended fruit intake of one serve per day
• on average, Year 10 children consumed less
than a third of the recommended intake of three
serves of fruit per day
• on average, Year 1 children ate less than a half,
Year 5 children ate less than two thirds and Year
10 children ate less than three quarters of the
serves of vegetables recommended for their age
groups
• on average, Year 10 girls only consumed just over
half the recommended intake of milk and milk
products
• low intakes of milk products are reflected by the
large proportion of children, particularly Year 10
girls, with inadequate calcium intakes.
47
4.4
Consumption of foods of interest from the 24-hour food record
From the 24-hour food record, consumption of one
serve or more of fruit, one serve or more of vegetables,
take-away food*, dietary supplements and various
Table 32
types of beverages were extracted. Tables 32 and 33
present data on the consumption of these foods and
beverages.
Percentage of study population consuming one serve or more of fruit and vegetables, take-away
food and dietary supplements on the day of the food record
n
One or more serve of
fruit
One or more serve of
vegetables
Take-away food*
Supplements
Year 1
Male
113
70.5
49.5
20.3
5.1
Female
121
65.7
39.6
13.6
9.8
Year 5
Male
648
55.7
46.0
21.1
4.4
Female
746
59.3
51.5
19.3
3.3
Male
404
46.7
48.0
26.3
3.2
Female
526
56.2
58.6
22.8
1.9
Year 10
* For the 24-hour food record, take-away food was defined as meals or snacks such as burgers, pizza, chicken or chips from places like McDonalds, Hungry Jacks,
KFC, Pizza Hut, Red Rooster or local take away food places. It also included pies, sausage rolls, and fish and chips, as well as items bought hot from supermarkets
etc. It did not include sushi, take away Asian foods or salads, sandwiches or rolls.
Table 33
Overall, 40% of the participants consumed less than
one serve of fruit on the day of the 24-hour food record.
Comparison with recommended fruit intake (page 38)
indicates that only two-thirds of Year 1 and just over
half of Year 5 boys and girls met the recommended
intake of at least one serve of fruit per day. Year 10 fruit
consumption, as recorded above, cannot be compared
with recommendations (since requirements for Year 10
children are three serves per day).
Percentage of study population
consuming soft drinks and sports and
energy drinks on the day of the food
record
n
Non-diet
soft
drinks
Diet soft
drinks
Sports
drinks
Energy
drinks
Male
113
10.5
Female
121
11.5
1.0
0
0
3.9
0.9
0
Male
648
16.9
3.4
1.5
0.2
Female
746
13.0
3.8
0.4
0.1
Male
404
28.4
6.3
7.0
0.4
Female
526
19.2
5.1
2.2
1.1
Year 1
Year 5
Approximately half of all children consumed less than
one serve of vegetables on the day of the survey.
Year 10
Take-away food was consumed by about 20% of all
participants and was highest in Year 10 children, with
almost one-quarter consuming take-away food on the
day of the survey.
Whilst consumption of sports and energy drinks was
generally low, one in 13 Year 10 boys drank a sports
drink on the day of the survey.
Almost 10% of Year 1 girls and 5% of Year 1 boys
consumed dietary supplements on the day of the
survey. Use of supplements declined with age.
Alcohol intake was also recorded. The only recorded
consumption was in Year 10 boys, of whom 1.6%
reported drinking alcohol on the day of the survey.
Table 33 presents the percentage of children recording
consumption of each specified beverage.
Consumption of both non-diet and diet soft drinks
increased with age, and more boys than girls consumed
non-diet soft drinks on the day of the survey. Soft
drinks (non diet and diet) were consumed by a third of
Year 10 boys and a quarter of Year 10 girls.
48
KEY POINTS
On the day of the survey:
• approximately two-thirds of Year 1 and
just over half of Year 5 boys and girls met
recommendations for fruit consumption
• half of Queensland 5-17-year-olds had less than
one serve of vegetables
4.5
• approximately 1 in 5 of Queensland 5-17-year-olds
had take-away food
• one in 10 Year 1 boys and one in six Year 1 girls
consumed soft drink and this increased to one in
three Year 10 boys and one in four Year 10 girls.
4.5.1
Food habits
From the food frequency questionnaire, key dietary
habits and frequency of consumption of specific meals
and foods of interest consumed over the previous 12
months, were assessed. These included:
• fruit and vegetable
• breakfast
• evening meal with parents
• evening meal while watching television
• fast food
• milk
• soft drinks (diet and non-diet)
• energy drinks
• sports drinks.
Table 34
Fruit and vegetables
Self-reported usual intake of fruit and
vegetables over the year before the survey was
assessed by two short questions. A serve of
fruit was described as a medium piece of fruit,
two small pieces of fruit or one cup of diced
pieces. A serve of vegetables was described as
half a cup of cooked vegetables or one cup of
salad vegetables. Table 34 gives the frequency
of consumption of fruits and Table 35 the
frequency of consumption of vegetables.
Frequency of reported fruit consumption in the previous 12 months
n
Don’t eat fruit
1 serve or less
per day
2 serves per day
3 serves per day
4 serves or more
per day
Year 1
Male
471
1.8
36.8
44.4
14.3
2.7
Female
466
1.6
39.0
43.7
11.9
3.8
Year 5
Male
612
3.0
47.1
35.4
9.8
4.7
Female
703
1.2
38.7
43.6
11.7
4.8
Year 10
Male
412
4.7
44.0
33.6
12.8
4.9
Female
526
3.4
40.4
39.1
13.7
3.4
Values are the percentage of children in each category according to year level and sex.
Table 35
Frequency of reported vegetable consumption in the previous 12 months
n
Don’t eat
vegetables
1 serve or less
per day
2 serves
per day
3 serves
per day
4 serves
per day
5 serves
per day
6 serves or
more per day
Year 1
Male
470
3.1
46.6
26.6
15.9
6.6
1.0
0.3
Female
466
2.1
46.0
34.2
11.6
5.4
0.6
0
Year 5
Male
611
2.4
32.2
29.2
22.3
9.6
2.9
1.3
Female
703
1.4
33.7
31.6
19.7
7.6
4.1
1.9
Male
413
1.7
25.3
26.0
23.5
15.1
5.6
2.8
Female
526
0.7
26.3
28.7
21.9
15.6
5.0
1.7
Year 10
Values are the percentage of children who ate vegetables in each frequency category according to year level and sex.
49
The data was compared to the national
recommendations shown on page 38. On
average, 60% of Year 1 and Year 5 children
reported regularly consuming two pieces
of fruit or more per day, thus exceeding
the minimum recommendations for fruit
consumption. In contrast, only 1 in 6 Year 10
boys and girls reported regularly consuming
the recommended amount of fruit (three
serves/day).
The percentage of children regularly consuming
the recommended amount of vegetables
for their age declined with age. Just over
half of Year 1 children reported regularly
consuming the recommended amount of
vegetables or more (at least two serves/day)
for their age group. In Year 5 children, just
over a third reported regularly consuming the
recommended amount of vegetables or more
(three serves/day). In Year 10, only 23.5% of
boys and 22.3% of girls reported regularly
consuming the recommended amount of
vegetables (a minimum of four 4 serves/day).
4.5.2 Meal habits
Breakfast
The children were asked to record how often they ate breakfast over the past year.
Table 36
Reported breakfast consumption in the previous 12 months
n
Rarely or Never
1-2 days per
week
3-4 days per
week
5-6 days per
week
Every day
Male
471
0
0.4
0.6
4.2
94.8
Female
464
0.1
0.9
1.6
6.5
90.9
Year 1
Year 5
Male
611
1.0
0.6
3.3
3.8
91.2
Female
704
1.1
2.3
4.1
5.8
86.6
Year 10
Male
412
4.8
3.8
5.8
12.6
72.8
Female
525
11.3
8.9
10.6
15.5
53.8
Values are the percentage of children who ate breakfast in each frequency category according to year level and sex.
A high percentage of children in Years 1 and
5 reported eating breakfast every day. The
proportion who ate breakfast daily declined
steadily with age from more than nine in
ten children in Year 1, just under nine in ten
children in Year 5, and on average six in ten
children in Year 10. Girls in Year 10 reported
eating breakfast the least: only just over half of
them had breakfast every day and more than
one in 10 had breakfast rarely or never.
The children were also asked about the
usual type of breakfast cereal eaten over the
previous 12 months and the frequency with
which they had prepared (or helped prepare)
their breakfast.
50
Table 37
Reported usual type of breakfast cereal consumption in the previous 12 months
n
Did
not eat
cereal
Porridge
Plain
wheat
flakes/
biscuit/
puffed
wheat
Plain
corn
& rice
based
cereals
Plain
bran
based
cereals
Cereals
with
added
sugar/
flavour
Cereals
(including
muesli)
with
added
fruit and/
or nuts
Breakfast
bars
Liquid
breakfast
More
than
1
Year 1
Male
471
0.9
5.6
40.3
12.4
0.3
17.4
4.8
0
0
18.3
Female
465
1.8
7.8
33.0
15.1
0.3
16.6
7.9
0.4
0
17.1
Year 5
Male
612
2.5
7.2
34.8
16.0
0.5
21.8
9.1
0.1
0.3
7.7
Female
766
6.0
8.0
30.1
18.4
0.8
20.5
8.4
0.6
0.5
6.7
Male
414
11.6
4.5
31.7
11.7
0.9
16.7
13.4
0.2
0.3
9.1
Female
524
21.6
7.1
15.8
15.3
1.8
14.1
19.7
0
1.7
2.9
Year 10
The most popular choice of breakfast cereal in all ages
and in both sexes were plain wheat flakes/ biscuit/
puffed wheat cereals. These cereals were reported as
being consumed most often by between 15% to 40%
Table 38
of children. Cereals with added sugar/flavour were
reported as being consumed by about 15% to 20%
of children. One in five girls in Year 10 reported not
consuming breakfast cereals at all.
Reported frequency with which the child prepared, or helped prepare, their own breakfast over the
previous 12 months
n
Rarely or never
Irregularly
1-4 days/week
5-7 days per week
Year 1
Male
470
34.6
10.0
35.2
20.2
Female
464
31.8
12.5
35.0
20.7
Year 5
Male
611
17.5
10.7
25.2
46.6
Female
705
14.8
9.3
29.8
46.1
Year 10
Male
410
12.4
7.3
17.0
63.3
Female
523
21.1
7.3
17.9
53.7
As children got older the more likely it was that they
reported making their own breakfasts or helping to
prepare the own breakfast. One in five Year 1 children
did this on most days of the week and almost two in
three of Year 10 children.
Evening meal practices
The children were asked to record the frequency with
which they ate their evening meal a) while watching the
television and
b) with the family (at least one parent). They were also
asked how often they helped in the preparation of
evening meals.
51
Table 39
Reported frequency of eating evening meal while watching TV in the previous 12 months
n
Rarely or Never
Irregularly
1-4 times per week
5-7 times per week
Year 1
Male
469
48.9
5.7
28.4
17.0
Female
464
46.3
5.7
30.6
17.4
Year 5
Male
610
37.4
8.6
33.8
20.2
Female
701
37.3
9.9
34.6
18.1
Male
414
31.6
4.5
31.3
32.6
Female
523
31.8
6.0
33.7
28.5
Year 10
Values are the percentage of children who ate the evening meal while watching television in each frequency category according to year level and sex.
Overall, about one-half to two-thirds of all participants
ate the evening meal while watching television at least
once a week. The percentage of children who ate the
evening meal while watching television on most days
(5-7 days/week) increased with age from one in six
Table 40
Year 1 children to three in ten Year 10 children. A fairly
constant percentage (about one third) of children ate
the evening meal while watching television on some
days (1-4 days/week).
Reported frequency of eating evening meal with family in the previous 12 months
n
Rarely or Never
Irregularly
1-4 times per
week
5-7 times per
week
Irregularly
Year 1
Male
470
0.6
2.8
10.1
85.9
2.8
Female
465
1.2
3.5
10.7
84.5
3.5
Year 5
Male
611
2.9
4.7
7.9
84.6
4.7
Female
702
3.3
4.5
8.7
83.5
4.5
Year 10
Male
414
8.4
4.9
16.5
70.2
4.9
Female
523
7.3
4.3
21.4
67.0
4.3
Values are the percentage of children who ate the evening meal with family (including at least one parent) in each frequency category according to year level
and sex.
In years 1 and 5, a high percentage of children, on
average five out of every six, ate the evening meal with
their family five or more times a week. Fewer Year 10
children ate the evening meal with their family five or
Table 41
more times a week; 70.2% of boys and 67.0% of girls.
Few Year 1 and 5 children rarely or never ate their evening
meal with the family and less than 10% of Year 10
children rarely or never ate the family meal with family.
Reported frequency with which child helped prepare the family evening meal over the past
12 months
n
Rarely or never
Irregularly
1-4 days/week
5-7 days per week
Year 1
Male
469
59.1
12.3
26.9
1.8
Female
464
45.0
20.3
31.2
3.5
Male
608
53.0
13.2
29.5
4.2
Female
702
35.5
15.1
41.7
7.7
Male
414
41.6
6.2
45.9
6.2
Female
524
36.2
7.4
47.4
9.0
Year 5
Year 10
The percentage of children who regularly helped
prepare the family meal on one day of the week or more
increased with age, from about a third of Years 1 and 5
children to almost half of Year 10 children.
The number of children not involved with meal
preparation decreased with age, with only two in five
Year 10 children reporting helping rarely or never.
52
Consumption of fast food
Fast food was described as meals or snacks
from fast-food chains, and several examples
Table 42
of fast-food chains were listed for the children.
Reported frequency of consuming ‘fast food’ in the previous 12 months
n
Never
Once per fortnight
or less
Once per week
2-4 times per
week
5-7 times per
week
Year 1
Male
469
3.4
66.3
27.1
3.2
0
Female
464
4.5
57.6
35.3
2.3
0.2
Year 5
Male
612
6.5
63.5
26.7
3.3
1
Female
703
5.3
61.3
30.8
2.5
0.1
Male
414
4.2
56.2
30.8
6.8
1.9
Female
523
13.7
59.3
21.4
5.2
0.4
Year 10
Values are the percentage of children who consumed fast food in each frequency category according to year level and sex.
More than one in ten Year 10 girls reported that
they never ate fast food. Around three in five
children in Year 1 and Year 5 reported eating
fast food once per fortnight or less. Overall,
about one-third of participants consumed fast
food at least once per week, but frequency of
consumption was highest in Year 10 boys, with
about one in ten reporting fast food 2-4 times a
week or more.
4.5.3 Beverages
Consumption of milk
Table 43
Type of milk consumed in the previous 12 months
n
Don’t drink
milk
Whole milk
Low or
reduced-fat
milk
Skim milk
Soy milk
Other
More than 1
type
Year 1
Male
471
1.9
74.2
15.4
1.6
1.5
4.6
0.8
Female
466
2.0
73.5
17.4
1.8
1.4
3.0
1.0
Year 5
Male
611
0.7
67.6
19.1
5.0
2.1
4.2
1.3
Female
704
3.8
62.1
18.8
6.5
1.4
6.4
1.1
Male
414
2.2
67.6
17.1
6.4
2.1
3.3
1.2
Female
521
6.4
56.3
22.2
10.0
1.0
2.9
1.2
Year 10
Values are the percentage of children who consumed milk in each frequency category according to year level and sex.
On average, more than 95% of all children
drank milk. In Years 5 and 10, more girls than
boys reported not drinking any type of milk.
Whilst current guidelines recommend two to
three serves of dairy intake, including milk, to
promote calcium intake, it is recommended
that children over 2 years of age should be
encouraged to choose reduced-fat varieties.
Whole milk was the predominant milk of choice
by most children in this survey, though there
was a clear trend for older children to switch
to the low or reduced fat milks. Whilst threequarters of Year 1 children consumed whole
milk, this dropped to just over half of Year 10
children and whilst one in six Year 1 children
consumed low or reduced-fat milk, this
increased to one in five of Year 10 children.
53
Consumption of soft drinks
Table 44
Frequency of reported non-diet soft drink consumption in the previous 12 months
n
Never
≤ 1 per
month
1 per week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
> 2 per day
Year 1
Male
449
45.7
23.9
18.6
8.2
1.4
1.5
0.6
Female
456
40.5
21.4
21.5
12.4
1.0
2.5
0.5
Year 5
Male
600
30.4
28.8
22.3
13.7
1.9
1.8
0.9
Female
693
30.6
25.8
22.8
14.5
2.0
2.9
1.4
Male
410
11.3
17.3
27.7
26.6
7.9
5.2
4.1
Female
521
27.2
24.7
21.4
15.0
4.6
4.3
2.8
Year 10
Values are the percentage of children who consumed non-diet soft drinks in each frequency category according to year level and sex.
Soft drink consumption increased with age.
Three in ten Year 1 children reported drinking
soft drink once a week or more and this rose
to seven in ten of Year 10 boys and just under
half of Year 10 girls. This trend is also reflected
in the number of children who reported never
drinking soft drink. Whilst two in five Year 1
children never drank soft drink, this dropped to
only one in ten of Year 10 boys and just under
three in ten Year 10 girls.
Soft drink consumption patterns were in
general similar between boys and girls, apart
from Year 10. One in four Year 10 girls and two
in five Year 10 boys reported consuming soft
drink at least 2-4 times a week.
Consumption of diet soft drinks
Table 45
Frequency of reported diet soft drink consumption in the previous 12 months
n
Never
≤ 1 per
month
1 per week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
>2 per day
Year 1
Male
439
77.9
7.9
7.7
4.9
0.7
0.7
0.3
Female
447
71.1
11.2
9.3
6.7
0.7
0.9
0.2
Year 5
Male
597
60.1
15.6
11.3
9.6
1.4
1.3
0.5
Female
690
60.1
17.4
10.7
8.2
1.4
1.7
0.4
Male
411
53.8
14.8
16.9
9.6
2.8
1.6
0.7
Female
520
50.5
18.9
17.2
8.5
1.2
2.8
0.9
Year 10
Values are the percentage of children who consumed diet soft drinks in each frequency category according to year level and sex.
Children reported consuming diet soft drink
less frequently than regular soft drink. As with
soft drink consumption, consumption of diet
soft drink increased with age. One in six Year 1
children reported drinking diet soft drink once
a week or more and this rose to approximately
one in four of Year 10 children. This trend is
also reflected in the number of children who
reported never drinking diet soft drink. Just
under three quarters of Year 1 children never
drank diet soft drink, and this was reduced to
just over a half of Year 10 children.
Diet soft drink consumption patterns were
similar between boys and girls at all Year
levels.
54
Consumption of energy drinks
Table 46
Frequency of reported energy drink consumption in the previous 12 months
n
Never
≤ 1 per
month
1 per week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
>2 per day
Year 1
Male
450
98.1
1.4
0.1
0.4
0
0
0
Female
452
99.1
0.9
0
0
0
0
0
Year 5
Male
599
92.3
6.6
0.8
0.1
0.1
0
0.1
Female
695
91.6
6.2
0.6
0.3
0.6
0.5
0.2
Male
410
48.1
33.6
10.7
5.2
2.0
0.5
0
Female
522
64.6
24.4
6.1
2.4
2.4
0
0.2
Year 10
Values are the percentage of children who consumed energy drinks in each frequency category according to year level and sex.
As with soft drink consumption, consumption
of energy drinks increased with age, and there
was a notable step-up in consumption for the
older children. Less than 2%, or one in 50,
children in years 1 and 5 reported drinking
energy drinks once a week or more. However in
Year 10, one in six boys and one in eight girls
reported drinking energy drinks once a week or
more.
This trend is also reflected in the number of
children who reported never drinking energy
drinks. Over 90% of years 1 and 5 children
never drank energy drinks, and this dropped to
just over a half of Year 10 children.
Consumption of sports drinks
Table 47
Frequency of reported sports drink consumption in the previous 12 months
n
Never
≤1 per
month
1 per week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
> 2 per day
Year 1
Male
454
77.8
17.9
2.8
1.5
0
0
0
Female
456
87.1
11.1
1.2
0.4
0
0.1
0
Year 5
Male
600
47.8
40.0
9.0
2.4
0.6
0
0.1
Female
698
61.5
30.3
5.6
2.0
0.1
0
0.5
Male
411
17.1
39.5
21.1
16.3
3.2
1.5
1.3
Female
523
35.8
41.9
14.3
5.1
2.0
0.7
0.3
Year 10
Values are the percentage of children who consumed sports drinks in each frequency category according to year level and sex.
Sports drink consumption patterns were higher
amongst boys than girls at each Year level. By
Year 10, two out of five of boys were consuming
sports drinks once a week or more, compared
to one in five girls.
Children drank sports drinks more frequently
than energy drinks, but not as frequently as
soft drinks. As with soft drinks and energy
drinks, consumption of sports drinks increased
with age and again there was a step-up in
consumption for the older children of Year 10.
Approximately one in 20 Year 1 children, one
in ten Year 5 children and one in three Year
10 children reported consuming sports drinks
once a week or more.
55
KEY POINTS
Beverages- over the past year:
• On average, more than 95% of all children drank
milk. Year 10 girls were notable with one in 15
girls not drinking any type of milk.
• In contrast to the recommendation that children
aged over 2 years should choose low fat milk,
most children drank whole milk. Only one in five
of Year 1 children reported drinking low fat milk,
and this increased to one in three amongst Year
10 girls.
• Soft drink consumption increased with age. Three
in ten Year 1 children reported drinking soft drink
once a week or more and this rose to seven in ten
of Year 10 boys and just under half of Year 10 girls.
• As with soft drink consumption, consumption
of diet soft drink also increased with age. One
in six Year 1 children reported drinking diet
soft drink once a week or more and this rose to
approximately one in four Year 10 children.
• Approximately, one in 20 Year 1 children, one
in ten Year 5 children and one in three Year 10
children reported consuming sports drinks once a
week or more. Sports drink consumption patterns
were higher amongst boys than girls at each Year
level.
• Energy drinks were consumed less than sports
drinks. Less than 2%, or one in 50, children in
years 1 and 5 reported drinking energy drinks
once a week or more. However in Year 10, one in
six boys and one in eight girls reported drinking
energy drinks once a week or more.
• Throughout the analyses of children’s diets, no
consistent differences were observed between
children in urban areas and children in rural areas.
Fruit and vegetables- over the past year:
• On average, three in five Year 1 and Year 5
children reported consuming two pieces of fruit
or more per day, thus exceeding their minimum
daily recommendations for fruit consumption.
• Only 17% of Year 10 children reported consuming
the recommended amount of fruit for their age
(3 serves/day).
• On average a half of Year 1 children, a third of
Year 5 children and just over a fifth of Year 10
children reported consuming the recommended
amount of vegetables for their age.
Meal habits- over the past year:
• Over 90% of children in Years 1 and 5 ate
breakfast every day, however this dropped to
three quarters of Year 10 boys and just over half
of Year 10 girls.
• A high percentage of children, on average five out
of every six Year 1 and 5 children and two in three
Year 10 children, ate the evening meal with their
family five or more times a week.
• Approximately one-half to two-thirds of all
children ate their evening meal in front of the
television at least once per week. The percentage
of children who ate the evening meal while
watching television on most days (5-7 days/week)
increased with age from one in six Year 1 children
to three in ten Year 10 children.
• About one-third of children in all Year levels
reported consuming fast food at least once per
week.
56
4.6
All food and drink items from the food frequency questionnaire
More detailed information from the food frequency
questionnaire relating to the frequency of consumption
of various food items over the past year is shown in the
following tables. The foods have been grouped by:
• meat chicken, fish and eggs/ vegetarian meat
substitutes
• beans and lentils
• vegetables/ fruit
•
•
•
•
bread and cereal foods
baked goods and snacks
sugar, spreads and dressings
dairy foods/ non-milk drinks.
Data are also shown on supplement usage and past
infant feeding practices.
Meat, chicken, fish, eggs
Table 48
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 49
Proportion of children consuming mince dishes (e.g. bolognaise sauce, rissoles, meatloaf)
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
458
3.1
4.0
20.6
44.5
26.7
0.8
0
0.2
Female
455
5.9
2.4
16.7
52.8
21.2
0.7
0.3
0
Male
604
4.0
7.9
20.2
45.1
21.5
0.8
0.5
0
Female
706
4.0
9.4
23.0
44.3
17.7
0.6
0.9
0
Male
412
4.6
6.5
27.2
39.7
20.9
0.8
0.4
0
Female
521
5.2
10.0
28.2
37.6
17.3
1.5
0
0.1
Proportion of children consuming mixed dishes with meat like beef, lamb, or pork (e.g. stir-fry,
casserole, Chinese)
n
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 50
Year 5
Year 10
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
454
6.6
10.4
20.7
40.6
19.8
0.8
1.0
0
Female
459
8.8
8.9
25.3
38.5
16.4
1.3
0.5
0.2
Male
604
8.1
11.6
22.8
34.7
20.7
1.5
0.7
0
Female
704
5.9
9.0
23.0
38.0
21.3
1.1
1.4
0.2
Male
412
4.2
10.7
29.8
34.1
16.6
2.9
1.5
0.2
Female
523
7.2
12.8
27.3
29.7
19.9
2.1
1.5
0.3
Proportion of children consuming mixed dishes with chicken, turkey, duck, (e.g. stir-fry,casserole,
Chinese)
n
Year 1
Never
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
446
9.4
10.1
24.0
37.0
17.9
0.7
0.8
0
Female
453
10.5
11.2
23.4
35.4
17.5
1.2
0.5
0.2
Male
600
9.1
14.2
21.7
34.2
19.3
0.7
0.8
0
Female
700
10.3
11.9
24.7
33.2
18.2
1.1
0.5
0
Male
411
8.0
20.8
31.7
26.4
12.2
0.1
0.8
0
Female
522
8.5
16.8
28.0
31.6
12.9
1.8
0.4
0.1
57
Table 51
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 52
Proportion of children consuming roast, BBQ or steamed chicken, turkey, duck
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
Year 5
Year 10
Table 53
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 54
Year 5
Year 10
Table 55
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
0
Male
444
4.3
12.3
34.4
40.9
8.0
0.1
0
449
6.5
8.9
31.5
41.3
10.9
0.6
0.3
0
Male
598
6.9
15.3
26.9
42.0
7.6
0.7
0.3
0.4
Female
700
6.9
17.8
33.4
33.7
7.1
0.9
0.3
0
Male
410
6.6
16.9
37.9
30.1
7.6
0.5
0.3
0
Female
521
7.1
19.7
35.2
30.1
7.0
0.6
0.3
0
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Proportion of children consuming crumbed fried chicken, nuggets
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
Male
443
8.7
27.7
39.3
19.1
4.8
0
0.3
0
Female
449
9.1
25.9
35.3
24.4
4.3
0.7
0.3
0
Male
590
15.1
35.4
31.6
12.9
4.1
0.6
0.2
0.2
Female
696
13.7
33.9
30.4
18.2
2.8
0.4
0.7
0
Male
408
13.3
41.0
28.5
14.4
2.0
0.5
0.2
0
Female
517
18.9
30.5
32.5
15.3
2.4
0.4
0
0
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Proportion of children consuming roast meat (e.g. beef, lamb, pork)
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
Male
441
4.3
23.2
39.3
30.0
3.1
0.2
0
0
Female
439
5.8
14.9
43.8
31.8
1.9
1.2
0.7
0
Male
598
5.9
18.8
39.9
31.1
3.8
0.3
0.2
0
Female
692
6.9
21.2
39.1
28.1
3.6
0.7
0.3
0
Male
408
4.3
14.7
39.2
31.2
7.6
0.9
2.1
0
Female
519
7.4
21.2
33.8
27.5
8.8
0.4
0.9
0.2
Proportion of children consuming crumbed steak or chops
n
Year 1
5-6 per
week
Female
n
Year 1
2-4 per
week
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
447
9.5
14.1
30.2
32.9
12.6
0.5
0.3
0
Female
443
11.4
7.7
24.4
39.1
16.6
0.6
0.3
0
Male
598
7.5
13.9
27.2
36.2
14.1
0.8
0.3
0
Female
700
7.1
15.0
25.3
34.9
15.9
1.2
0.6
0
Male
409
3.2
7.8
24.4
36.9
22.6
3.4
1.7
0
Female
522
11.5
12.3
24.6
28.1
18.9
2.6
1.5
0.5
Proportion of children consuming sausages, frankfurters, cheerios
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
0
Male
445
3.8
14.7
31.9
35.7
13.5
0.2
0.2
Female
448
5.0
10.9
32.7
39.7
10.4
1.0
0.3
0
Male
598
5.0
14.7
33.5
36.1
8.6
1.8
0
0.2
Female
693
8.1
19.9
30.4
33.4
6.9
0.8
0.4
0.2
Male
411
4.4
17.9
36.5
28.8
10.5
1.7
0.3
0
Female
523
10.5
21.8
35.4
25.7
6.4
0
0
0.1
58
Table 56
Proportion of children consuming bacon
n
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 57
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 58
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 59
Year 5
Year 10
Table 60
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
0
Male
448
9.7
23.9
38.1
21.8
5.6
0.7
0.2
Female
451
10.7
21.6
37.1
25.5
4.6
0.6
0
0
Male
603
9.3
20.5
35.8
27.8
5.2
0.5
0.6
0.3
Female
703
9.5
22.1
34.7
24.6
7.6
1.1
0.2
0.3
Male
412
6.6
12.7
42.9
26.5
8.8
1.4
0.8
0.4
Female
520
11.7
23.6
32.9
24.9
5.8
0.1
0.5
0.6
Proportion of children consuming ham
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
453
7.2
14.9
17.7
20.0
31.3
5.1
3.0
0.8
Female
452
8.3
10.6
19.3
20.4
30.0
6.9
4.5
0.1
Male
600
7.9
13.6
18.9
23.2
26.4
4.8
5.2
0.1
Female
701
12.8
9.3
20.1
19.3
27.4
4.1
6.1
0.8
Male
409
7.4
11.2
24.8
23.6
19.7
5.5
6.5
1.3
Female
521
11.9
14.4
20.3
26.1
19.0
3.9
4.3
0.1
Proportion of children consuming salami, luncheon meats (e.g. devon, pressed chicken)
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
450
29.9
24.0
19.7
11.8
10.9
2.6
1.5
0.4
Female
450
30.1
21.0
17.6
12.2
14.7
1.9
2.5
0.1
Male
603
23.0
26.3
17.6
15.0
12.4
1.7
3.6
0.3
Female
702
27.8
22.6
21.6
12.4
11.7
1.8
2.0
0
Male
409
17.6
19.0
26.3
16.2
12.2
3.5
4.8
0.4
Female
523
22.2
25.0
23.5
9.9
11.7
2.5
4.3
1.0
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Proportion of children consuming liver including pate
n
Year 1
Never
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
Male
454
94.3
3.9
1.1
0
0.3
0
0.4
0
Female
457
88.6
9.3
1.6
0.2
0.1
0.1
0
0
Male
602
91.6
7.2
0.9
0.3
0
0
0
0
Female
706
91.0
6.0
2.4
0.1
0.1
0.3
0
0
Male
412
85.8
11.6
2.0
0.3
0.3
0
0
0
Female
523
88.5
9.5
1.6
0.3
0.1
0
0
0
Proportion of children consuming other offal (e.g. kidneys)
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
453
94.0
5.3
0.1
0.6
0
0
0
0
Female
456
95.1
3.3
1.6
0
0
0
0
0
Male
600
94.5
4.1
1.2
0.2
0
0
0
0
Female
703
93.7
3.9
1.8
0.2
0.1
0.3
0
0
Male
411
90.0
6.9
1.6
0.6
0
0.5
0.4
0
Female
522
92.3
5.7
2.0
0
0
0
0
0
59
Table 61
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 62
Proportion of children consuming canned fish (e.g. tuna, salmon, sardines)
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
456
37.6
18.4
20.7
14.8
6.8
0.8
0.8
0
Female
457
40.5
16.2
23.0
13.7
6.1
0.6
0
0
Male
602
38.7
18.4
21.4
12.5
7.8
0.4
0.9
0
Female
706
38.1
17.8
22.7
12.9
7.0
0.7
0.5
0.2
Male
413
40.7
21.8
21.2
8.7
6.5
0.8
0.3
0
Female
523
46.3
19.4
20.0
8.5
4.5
0.4
0.9
0
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Proportion of children consuming fish steamed, baked, grilled
n
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 63
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 64
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 65
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
Male
444
22.1
23.4
30.2
17.9
5.5
0.4
0.4
0
Female
445
26.6
23.2
26.5
19.1
3.7
0.9
0
0
Male
597
26.0
23.8
31.1
17.3
1.3
0.4
0.2
0
Female
699
27.7
25.6
26.0
16.3
3.1
0.6
0.5
0.2
Male
412
18.8
28.0
33.5
16.5
2.3
0.6
0.2
0
Female
521
28.3
24.8
31.3
13.6
1.7
0.1
0.1
0.1
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Proportion of children consuming fish fried, battered, crumbed
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
Male
451
10.4
24.7
43.4
19.3
1.9
0.2
0
0
Female
447
12.0
28.9
35.1
21.5
1.8
0.6
0.2
0
Male
595
13.3
26.6
40.0
17.2
2.4
0.1
0.4
0
Female
703
16.9
28.7
37.1
15.5
1.2
0.5
0
0.2
Male
411
11.8
30.7
40.1
14.2
2.1
0.9
0.2
0
Female
523
25.5
27.7
35.5
9.1
1.7
0
0
0.5
Proportion of children consuming other seafood (e.g. prawns, oysters, calamari)
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
0
Male
452
37.1
33.8
24.8
3.3
0.9
0
0
Female
454
37.9
30.7
24.8
5.0
1.6
0
0
0
Male
600
34.5
37.1
22.7
4.4
1.0
0.1
0
0.2
Female
705
37.5
34.2
23.8
3.3
0.5
0.3
0.1
0.3
Male
413
28.9
35.2
26.0
7.4
1.9
0.6
0
0
Female
522
37.2
34.2
21.9
4.4
1.7
0.7
0
0
Proportion of children consuming eggs or egg dishes
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
0.1
Male
454
10.6
9.6
20.1
34.1
19.7
3.7
2.1
Female
454
7.8
8.9
18.8
32.4
26.0
3.0
3.0
0
Male
601
8.5
10.9
20.4
34.7
22.4
1.2
1.7
0.1
Female
700
6.7
11.3
24.2
32.6
20.8
2.5
1.5
0.4
Male
411
9.2
13.3
28.1
31.3
13.3
1.6
2.3
0.8
Female
520
10.9
11.9
28.9
30.5
13.4
2.7
1.4
0.4
60
Meat, chicken, fish and eggs are important sources of protein and, in the case of some meat, iron. Approximately
half to two-thirds of the children were consuming such items at least once a week, with the proportion of children
that never consumed these food items, on the whole, being low: around 3-10% in most cases. Processed foods
(e.g. salami, luncheon meats ) were consumed by fewer children, with about a quarter of all children reporting that
they never consumed these products.
Canned or steamed, baked or grilled fish was reported as being never consumed by between a quarter to a third
of all children. Fried/battered or crumbed fish were consumed by more children, with only about 10% of children
saying that they never consumed these items except for Year 10 girls in whom about 25% reported that they never
consumed these foods. Consumption of offal, including pate, was rare, with over 90% of children in nearly all year
and sex groups reporting no consumption.
Vegetarian meat substitutes
Table 66
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 67
Proportion of children consuming soy- based meat substitutes (e.g. TVP, soy burger)
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
Year 5
Year 10
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
453
92.6
3.9
1.5
0.8
1.3
0
0
0
Female
454
95.2
3.0
0.6
1.0
0.2
0.1
0
0
Male
601
89.8
5.1
2.8
1.3
0.7
0.1
0.2
0
Female
703
90.7
3.4
3.0
1.5
0.5
0.7
0.2
0
Male
413
89.0
5.5
1.7
2.0
1.3
0.5
0
0
Female
523
89.7
5.4
1.7
1.5
1.5
0.2
0.1
0
Proportion of children consuming nut-based meat substitutes (e.g. Nutolene™, Vegelinks™)
n
Year 1
5-6 per
week
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
451
96.0
1.6
0.7
1.0
0.6
0
0
0
Female
454
97.5
1.0
0.3
0.6
0.3
0
0.3
0
Male
600
93.6
4.2
0.7
1.0
0.1
0.4
0
0
Female
705
93.3
2.7
1.6
1.2
0.6
0.4
0.3
0
Male
412
92.5
4.0
1.0
1.4
0.7
0.5
0
0
Female
523
93.3
3.6
1.7
0.9
0.5
0
0.1
0
Soy based meat substitutes were not frequently consumed, with nine out of ten children never consuming them
and approximately only 5% of all children consuming them more than once per month. Similarly, less than 5% of
all children consumed nut based meat substitutes more than once per month.
Beans and lentils
Table 68
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Proportion of children consuming soybean, tofu
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
443
89.7
6.4
2.4
1.0
0.4
0
0.2
0
Female
443
94.7
2.3
1.4
0.8
0.7
0
0
0
Male
599
91.5
3.9
2.6
0.8
0.2
0.7
0.2
0
Female
702
91.7
4.8
1.8
1.0
0
0.2
0.5
0
Male
411
90.3
5.7
2.0
1.7
0.3
0
0.1
0
Female
521
84.1
8.1
4.6
2.0
0.7
0.4
0.2
0
61
Table 69
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 70
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Proportion of children consuming baked beans
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
0
Male
453
36.0
17.7
24.3
15.1
6.1
0.5
0.3
Female
456
33.7
16.4
27.4
16.6
5.8
0
0.2
0
Male
604
35.7
19.1
22.9
15.7
5.5
0.6
0.4
0.2
Female
706
41.5
19.4
24.6
10.0
3.7
0.3
0.3
0.2
Male
412
32.3
26.4
23.0
13.0
3.4
1.0
0.8
0
Female
519
46.7
22.5
21.5
5.3
3.4
0.6
0
0
Proportion of children consuming other beans/peas/lentils (e.g. kidney, borlotti, chickpeas, dhal,
split pea)
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
454
48.9
15.9
18.1
6.6
8.0
1.4
1.1
0
Female
454
50.5
14.4
16.1
10.6
6.4
0.7
0.8
0.5
Male
603
50.0
16.5
16.2
9.3
5.7
1.9
0.3
0
Female
704
45.8
16.2
17.9
9.6
7.0
1.9
1.4
0.2
Male
410
32.3
20.8
18.4
10.1
13.0
2.6
2.6
0.1
Female
523
40.2
19.4
15.7
11.0
10.0
2.2
1.4
0.1
Beans/peas/lentils, including baked beans, were consumed by about 15 – 25% of all children at least once a week.
Soybeans and/or tofu were consumed by few children with about 85% - 95% of all children reporting that they
never consumed these foods.
Vegetables (fresh frozen, canned)
Table 71
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 72
Proportion of children consuming green/ mixed salad (e.g. lettuce, tomato, cucumber, onion, etc)
in a sandwich
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
457
31.4
11.7
14.8
15.3
18.8
2.6
4.5
0.9
Female
457
29.1
9.7
16.0
19.9
18.6
3.3
3.0
0.5
Male
603
24.1
13.9
12.3
18.9
20.9
4.1
4.9
0.9
Female
704
15.4
11.2
16.7
20.6
22.6
4.7
8.2
0.6
Male
413
8.3
11.0
25.3
32.7
15.4
4.3
3.0
0
Female
523
6.1
7.0
15.9
30.0
22.9
9.3
8.1
0.6
Proportion of children consuming green/ mixed salad (e.g. lettuce, tomato, cucumber, onion, etc)
as a side salad
n
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
458
22.7
7.0
14.9
17.4
29.9
3.9
3.8
0.5
Female
452
18.5
9.3
11.8
20.3
31.3
5.1
3.0
0.6
Male
602
18.5
11.7
13.2
18.7
27.5
5.5
4.1
0.8
Female
705
10.0
8.3
15.6
23.1
33.2
4.4
4.5
0.8
Male
413
11.3
20.7
32.8
24.7
8.6
0.9
1.0
0
Female
522
14.2
18.3
27.3
26.7
10.1
2.6
0.5
0.3
62
Table 73
Proportion of children consuming stir-fried and mixed cooked vegetables
n
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 74
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 75
Year 5
Year 10
Table 76
Year 5
Year 10
Table 77
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
1.2
Male
452
9.8
7.3
12.9
15.8
35.6
10.0
7.6
456
10.1
5.9
11.9
20.1
32.8
11.9
7.3
0
Male
599
9.2
7.8
13.0
18.2
28.7
12.8
9.5
0.7
Female
700
7.0
7.4
17.1
20.2
31.0
11.6
4.7
1.0
Male
411
8.3
11.0
25.3
32.7
15.4
4.3
3.0
0
Female
522
6.1
7.0
15.9
30.0
22.9
9.3
8.1
0.6
≥ 2 per
day
Proportion of children consuming mixed vegetables in a casserole or stew
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
Male
448
13.3
12.7
23.2
29.3
18.5
1.8
1.3
0
Female
447
13.4
13.0
23.9
28.4
18.0
1.8
1.3
0.2
Male
599
14.1
10.5
24.6
27.0
20.2
2.4
0.6
0.6
Female
697
14.2
16.7
26.1
22.7
17.3
2.0
0.8
0.2
Male
405
11.3
20.7
32.8
24.7
8.6
0.9
1.0
0
Female
518
14.2
18.3
27.3
26.7
10.1
2.6
0.5
0.3
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Proportion of children consuming vegetable soup
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
Male
440
40.1
28.2
23.1
6.0
1.7
0.5
0.4
0
Female
448
41.3
21.8
24.0
9.6
2.2
0.4
0.5
0.1
Male
605
38.2
27.8
21.4
9.2
2.9
0.3
0.1
0
Female
703
35.2
28.2
24.7
8.3
1.8
1.1
0.3
0.3
Male
409
29.8
30.8
26.2
8.1
4.0
0.7
0
0.5
Female
519
37.3
29.3
22.1
6.7
2.2
1.6
0.8
0
Proportion of children consuming potato cooked without fat (e.g. boiled, mashed, dry baked)
n
Year 1
< 1 per
month
Female
n
Year 1
Never
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
0.9
Male
458
6.6
3.1
11.2
13.5
44.3
15.6
4.8
Female
461
3.1
4.0
8.5
17.3
46.8
13.2
7.1
0
Male
603
4.3
4.5
10.4
20.3
41.4
14.1
4.3
0.6
Female
705
5.3
4.4
11.1
16.7
45.9
10.5
5.3
0.8
Male
412
3.8
4.5
17.4
22.5
32.0
14.9
4.9
0
Female
522
3.5
5.2
13.3
16.3
38.8
13.2
9.4
0.4
Proportion of children consuming potato cooked with fat (e.g. chips, French fries, gems, wedges,
roast)
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
456
3.2
8.1
31.6
38.1
17.7
0.5
0.6
0.2
Female
457
2.7
6.7
30.4
40.7
17.6
1.4
0.5
0
Male
603
5.3
14.5
28.4
33.3
16.7
0.8
1.1
0
Female
705
3.9
15.1
27.4
38.6
12.9
1.4
0.5
0.1
Male
413
4.3
12.5
31.6
31.0
14.8
2.9
2.9
0
Female
521
4.6
15.4
29.7
32.2
14.1
2.1
1.2
0.7
63
Table 78
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 79
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 80
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 81
Proportion of children consuming carrots
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
456
5.6
3.5
4.3
9.1
42.1
22.4
12.3
0.8
Female
457
5.7
3.5
7.1
9.8
41.7
19.2
12.7
0.2
Male
605
6.2
5.0
8.7
11.1
39.2
17.0
10.5
2.2
Female
701
4.9
5.1
7.1
13.9
42.3
14.3
11.3
1.0
Male
412
5.1
4.6
11.4
22.1
29.2
18.0
8.6
1.0
Female
523
4.1
3.1
7.4
16.8
33.8
17.6
14.7
2.5
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Proportion of children consuming pumpkin
n
Never
< 1 per
month
Male
454
23.1
9.8
9.0
17.0
30.0
7.0
3.5
0.7
Female
454
18.5
6.5
13.8
21.9
25.9
8.8
4.3
0.3
Male
597
23.3
8.7
14.6
19.1
22.4
7.9
3.7
0.3
Female
704
22.8
13.1
14.2
17.0
24.3
5.6
3.0
0
Male
413
21.0
11.3
15.0
21.4
16.8
9.3
4.8
0.4
Female
522
23.0
10.0
16.2
14.2
22.1
8.6
5.7
0.2
Proportion of children consuming sweet potatoes and other root vegetables
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
450
26.2
11.0
16.8
17.4
18.7
5.8
3.6
0.6
Female
453
21.2
13.4
18.9
18.9
20.9
4.2
0.3
0.3
Male
602
26.8
14.1
14.1
17.5
19.5
4.8
0.4
0.4
Female
701
22.3
15.9
18.1
18.1
18.2
3.7
0
0.1
Male
413
17.4
12.7
28.4
18.1
13.4
7.5
0
0
Female
521
21.9
8.4
17.0
17.8
21.4
7.6
0.2
0.2
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
0.6
Proportion of children consuming green peas
n
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 82
Year 5
Year 10
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
Male
453
20.3
7.6
8.1
12.5
33.4
11.6
5.9
Female
457
13.6
5.4
9.7
18.0
35.7
11.0
6.6
0
Male
603
12.0
7.8
8.8
19.8
33.4
11.4
6.5
0.3
Female
698
16.0
6.9
13.2
17.2
31.3
9.1
6.3
0.1
Male
412
9.6
4.8
13.6
22.7
26.4
15.1
7.9
0
Female
521
13.6
5.3
9.5
16.4
30.2
14.3
10.4
0.5
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Proportion of children consuming green beans
n
Year 1
Never
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
Male
455
25.8
7.3
11.5
14.0
27.8
8.0
5.4
0.2
Female
456
18.0
9.0
13.5
16.5
28.9
8.9
5.2
0
Male
601
22.3
10.4
11.6
15.1
29.1
6.8
4.7
0
Female
702
21.0
10.5
12.5
15.7
27.8
6.9
5.5
0
Male
411
13.1
8.5
14.9
22.6
24.9
9.3
6.5
0
Female
521
15.6
7.4
15.3
16.9
26.3
11.3
6.6
0.7
64
Table 83
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 84
Proportion of children consuming silverbeet, spinach
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
Year 5
Year 10
Table 85
Male
454
53.6
16.3
15.4
7.6
5.9
1.2
0
0
454
58.3
17.1
12.0
7.8
4.3
0.2
0.2
0
Male
601
56.4
17.4
14.6
6.5
4.2
0.4
0.5
0
Female
701
55.7
17.2
17.0
6.1
2.6
0.5
0.7
0.2
Male
414
53.0
19.5
19.0
6.5
1.9
0.1
0
0
Female
521
53.0
19.0
15.8
5.7
2.1
1.5
0.8
0.1
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Proportion of children consuming celery, asparagus, or bean sprouts
Year 5
Year 10
Table 86
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 87
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
Male
450
55.2
13.4
15.4
6.9
7.0
2.0
0.1
0
Female
453
52.8
15.3
15.1
9.7
6.0
1.3
0
0
Male
599
49.0
18.8
17.8
7.3
5.5
0.8
0.5
0.3
Female
700
46.9
18.4
19.1
9.1
6.1
0
0.4
0
Male
414
41.1
23.7
20.0
9.9
3.5
1.2
0.7
0
Female
522
34.7
21.4
25.1
10.2
5.2
2.0
1.3
0.1
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Proportion of children consuming broccoli
n
Year 1
≥ 2 per
day
Female
n
Year 1
1 per day
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
Male
457
17.3
7.1
10.9
14.1
31.7
13.9
5.0
0
Female
454
13.5
6.5
12.5
11.8
39.1
10.3
6.4
0
Male
600
13.3
9.6
8.7
20.4
34.0
8.3
5.4
0.4
Female
701
13.9
5.5
14.6
19.6
31.0
8.4
6.5
0.5
Male
412
13.9
10.4
15.8
24.0
23.5
8.1
3.8
0.4
Female
522
15.0
6.1
12.3
22.8
25.2
11.8
6.2
0.7
Proportion of children consuming cauliflower
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
450
27.1
11.2
20.6
14.8
18.3
5.7
2.4
0
Female
448
25.0
11.1
16.4
13.3
23.7
7.0
3.5
0
Male
599
22.9
14.0
15.7
18.9
21.6
4.2
2.6
0
Female
699
19.3
11.4
22.4
19.0
20.1
4.4
3.0
0.3
Male
412
18.1
16.4
24.3
19.9
16.2
4.0
0.7
0.5
Female
521
18.9
12.8
17.7
19.7
19.0
6.5
5.1
0.2
Proportion of children consuming brussels sprouts, cabbage, coleslaw, Asian greens
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
451
44.6
13.8
19.6
12.6
6.6
2.5
0.3
0
Female
454
36.9
16.8
19.6
14.6
9.4
1.8
1.0
0
Male
598
39.6
11.7
20.8
15.0
10.1
1.4
1.2
0
Female
701
31.4
17.0
22.2
14.3
10.2
3.1
1.5
0.2
Male
413
29.7
16.3
25.6
17.8
7.0
2.5
0.6
0.4
Female
521
30.5
14.1
24.9
16.0
9.2
3.2
2.0
0.2
65
Table 88
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 89
Proportion of children consuming zucchini, eggplant, squash
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
0
Male
454
45.5
10.8
14.7
12.3
11.3
4.3
1.1
Female
450
41.6
12.1
18.5
13.2
11.8
1.8
0.8
0
Male
598
43.3
17.2
12.2
13.2
11.7
1.1
1.1
0.3
Female
699
43.6
16.1
15.0
13.9
8.2
2.3
0.8
0.1
Male
411
47.1
13.7
21.8
10.5
5.5
1.5
0
0
Female
520
49.4
17.0
14.9
9.2
5.7
2.2
1.3
0.2
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Proportion of children consuming lettuce, rocket, endive, other raw salad greens
n
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 90
Year 5
Year 10
Table 91
Year 5
Year 10
Table 92
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
Male
450
26.4
9.6
14.0
22.4
19.8
4.8
2.2
0.8
453
20.6
7.9
11.4
25.7
26.6
6.0
1.8
0.1
Male
600
20.4
10.1
12.7
24.3
23.8
3.7
5.0
0.1
Female
701
15.0
6.5
15.9
23.1
27.6
6.3
5.0
0.7
Male
413
11.8
4.7
21.4
25.1
23.6
7.1
6.3
0
Female
522
8.6
6.2
14.4
22.8
28.8
12.5
5.3
1.3
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Proportion of children consuming capsicum
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
Male
447
44.2
11.9
12.7
14.5
12.4
2.3
1.7
0.3
Female
452
45.0
10.8
12.2
16.2
12.2
2.1
1.0
0.6
Male
598
42.3
15.8
12.0
12.6
13.9
1.6
1.5
0.3
Female
699
39.8
11.5
15.3
13.1
14.7
3.8
1.7
0
Male
413
30.7
13.0
19.7
19.9
11.1
4.6
1.0
0.1
Female
520
29.3
14.4
17.8
16.2
14.0
3.9
3.8
0.7
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Proportion of children consuming tomatoes including canned
n
Year 1
< 1 per
month
Female
n
Year 1
Never
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
Male
453
17.4
5.2
12.0
21.5
28.8
10.5
3.8
0.8
Female
453
16.1
4.2
13.4
19.3
32.2
9.7
4.1
1.0
Male
601
21.8
5.8
9.1
22.5
27.2
9.1
3.5
0.9
Female
698
19.0
5.9
15.2
18.6
26.3
9.5
4.7
0.7
Male
414
18.6
6.0
13.9
22.4
26.2
7.4
5.5
0
Female
518
21.4
5.8
8.0
18.5
29.6
8.9
5.8
2.1
Proportion of children consuming tomato products (e.g. dried, paste, sauce)
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
448
11.8
6.8
15.3
23.3
29.0
9.1
4.0
0.7
Female
451
10.8
4.1
16.0
25.5
32.7
6.5
3.7
0.8
Male
600
10.5
7.7
14.7
26.3
30.3
6.8
3.1
0.6
Female
700
11.3
5.3
21.8
27.8
24.5
5.6
2.9
0.7
Male
413
10.2
8.5
21.9
25.6
24.0
6.8
2.9
0
Female
520
6.8
11.8
19.8
28.0
23.5
6.6
2.9
0.5
66
Table 93
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Tabel 94
Proportion of children consuming avocado
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
Year 5
Year 10
Table 95
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 96
Year 5
Year 10
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
450
51.1
10.2
13.9
11.6
9.3
2.1
1.7
0
455
50.0
12.2
12.5
11.4
11.0
2.3
0.3
0.3
Male
599
55.3
10.9
14.0
8.3
9.9
1.0
0.6
0
Female
701
49.1
10.6
16.8
11.6
7.1
2.3
2.2
0.1
Male
413
49.2
13.8
16.7
10.6
6.3
1.3
1.9
0.3
Female
519
42.2
9.7
16.2
14.4
10.0
4.8
2.7
0
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Proportion of children consuming onion or leeks
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
Male
448
32.4
7.1
11.4
15.0
25.1
6.4
2.2
0.4
Female
449
37.6
9.0
11.4
15.5
18.0
5.9
1.7
1.0
Male
599
28.4
8.4
12.5
16.3
23.9
7.3
2.9
0.3
Female
699
30.7
8.9
12.4
18.9
18.5
6.7
3.4
0.6
Male
413
15.7
9.0
18.1
26.2
20.2
5.9
4.5
0.4
Female
520
24.3
9.4
14.0
22.1
20.2
5.2
4.3
0.3
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Proportion of children consuming sweetcorn, corn on the cob
n
Never
Male
448
13.7
9.7
22.2
22.3
25.9
5.0
1.3
0
Female
454
9.4
9.2
18.0
25.5
30.2
3.9
3.7
0.2
Male
595
12.3
9.1
24.1
28.1
19.4
4.6
2.4
0
Female
698
9.2
11.3
25.3
23.9
21.4
5.3
3.3
0.3
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
Male
413
12.0
14.1
27.8
24.5
14.7
3.4
3.1
0.5
Female
518
12.0
14.5
23.1
27.5
13.2
5.3
3.9
0.4
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Proportion of children consuming mushrooms
n
Year 1
5-6 per
week
Female
n
Year 1
2-4 per
week
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
Male
452
48.5
9.9
13.8
16.3
10.3
1.2
0
0
Female
454
46.6
13.9
13.1
11.4
12.8
1.9
0.2
0
Male
598
47.0
11.2
15.6
15.3
9.4
1.1
0.2
0
Female
699
47.0
12.3
15.6
14.3
7.5
1.4
1.2
0.6
Male
412
40.0
14.5
19.0
14.5
9.4
2.3
0.5
0
Female
522
43.5
11.3
14.8
15.1
9.6
3.2
2.2
0.3
Salad consumption, both in a sandwich and as a side salad, generally increased in regularity as children became
older. For example, around 30% of Year 1 children reported “never” consuming salad in a sandwich, whilst
this number fell to about 7% in Year 10 children. Close to 70% of all children (excluding Year 10 boys) reported
consuming stir fried and mixed cooked vegetables at least once a week, with 10-15% reporting consumption
as high as 5-6 times per week. Only 55% of Year 10 boys had a weekly consumption of stir-fried and/or mixed
vegetables. One in three children received additional vegetables in stews and casseroles at least once a week.
Carrots were the most consumed vegetable with over 80% of children reporting consumption at least once a week
and with at least a quarter of children reporting consumption 5-6 times per week. Boiled and baked potato was
also common, with approximately 60% of all children reporting intakes of at least twice a week. Around 50-60% of
children reported consuming potato cooked with fat (ie chips, French fries, gems, wedges or roast) at least once a
week.
67
Rarely consumed vegetables included silverbeet, spinach, celery, zucchini, eggplant, squash, avocado and
mushrooms, with over 40% of children reporting that they never consumed them at all.
Fruit (fresh, frozen, canned dried)
Table 97
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 98
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Table 99
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Proportion of children consuming dried fruit- all types, (e.g. sultanas, prunes, apricots)
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
453
17.3
18.6
24.5
14.5
15.5
4.4
4.9
0.4
Female
454
16.9
18.9
22.0
17.5
14.2
4.7
5.5
0.4
Male
600
32.1
17.6
21.3
12.6
10.5
2.8
2.8
0.2
Female
699
25.8
21.9
22.0
12.0
11.1
1.9
4.5
0.7
Male
412
17.7
19.8
26.1
20.7
6.9
4.3
4.1
0.4
Female
519
19.6
18.5
25.0
16.5
10.7
4.1
5.0
0.6
Proportion of children consuming fruit salad, mixed fruit
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
441
16.0
15.6
22.0
18.6
16.9
4.5
5.1
1.3
Female
444
14.6
12.2
20.8
22.6
16.0
6.3
4.8
2.3
Male
592
20.2
19.1
25.3
18.6
9.2
2.7
4.3
0.6
Female
696
12.3
20.5
27.2
17.3
13.5
3.9
3.2
2.1
Male
411
11.9
17.7
30.3
25.8
6.3
5.1
2.7
0.3
Female
514
7.6
15.0
28.7
23.1
15.7
4.4
4.6
0.9
Proportion of children consuming apple, pear
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
458
1.9
1.8
5.2
8.4
27.5
19.8
28.2
7.1
Female
457
2.4
2.0
3.4
10.1
31.7
16.8
25.4
8.1
Male
598
4.8
5.0
8.3
15.2
27.0
12.7
21.0
5.9
Female
702
2.1
1.9
9.6
13.5
29.7
15.7
23.3
4.3
Male
410
2.2
5.9
13.8
17.1
24.8
9.6
20.1
6.6
Female
522
5.2
4.9
9.0
20.1
25.0
6.8
23.6
5.4
Table 100 Proportion of children consuming orange, mandarin, grapefruit
Year 1
Year 5
Year10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
455
12.3
4.7
13.1
16.2
25.0
14.0
12.1
2.7
Female
455
12.9
6.0
8.0
18.4
29.3
10.3
10.1
5.1
Male
594
11.0
7.0
11.1
18.6
23.5
8.3
15.2
5.3
Female
700
8.2
4.8
12.8
18.5
26.8
10.3
15.6
2.9
Male
412
7.3
7.2
17.6
19.8
24.8
7.0
13.0
3.3
Female
520
6.3
5.9
16.8
20.8
23.7
9.2
12.3
5.1
68
Table 101 Proportion of children consuming banana
n
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
457
9.7
7.9
14.4
17.2
26.1
11.9
10.8
1.9
Female
443
10.5
5.1
10.6
18.7
32.5
9.8
9.5
3.3
Male
599
16.1
11.0
17.7
18.7
21.0
6.3
7.9
1.2
Female
702
12.4
9.3
18.6
19.3
21.9
6.7
10.0
1.8
Male
413
10.9
10.9
21.1
24.6
19.1
5.9
4.7
2.8
Female
519
12.2
13.7
21.8
22.8
16.3
5.4
5.7
2.2
Table 102 Proportion of children consuming peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherries
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
451
25.0
15.1
19.8
20.3
13.3
3.9
2.3
0.4
Female
450
24.0
12.6
17.9
16.6
18.7
4.8
3.8
1.7
Male
599
26.8
18.9
22.4
12.9
11.8
3.7
3.2
0.2
Female
701
17.5
16.3
24.1
19.0
12.7
3.9
5.4
1.0
Male
413
18.6
14.6
23.2
25.5
9.4
3.9
4.0
0.8
Female
520
15.9
14.7
22.8
23.1
11.9
4.9
5.2
1.6
≥ 2 per
day
Table 103 Proportion of children consuming mango, paw- paw
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
Male
449
33.0
22.3
14.2
14.2
9.5
1.6
1.0
0
Female
451
33.7
16.5
14.7
14.7
8.2
1.9
3.0
0.2
Male
599
32.3
22.4
12.3
12.3
9.3
1.3
1.8
0.2
Female
696
25.7
22.0
13.7
13.7
7.8
2.7
3.4
1.3
Male
412
20.8
20.9
16.7
16.7
7.4
1.8
3.8
1.1
Female
521
19.2
21.8
15.6
15.6
11.4
3.0
3.4
1.4
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Table 104 Proportion of children consuming pineapple
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
Male
451
30.7
16.6
24.9
17.1
8.3
1.7
0.7
0
Female
452
25.2
17.8
23.7
16.4
11.3
3.2
2.2
0.2
Male
598
22.0
22.1
24.3
19.0
9.9
1.5
0.9
0.2
Female
697
20.3
17.7
27.4
18.7
8.8
3.4
3.2
0.5
Male
414
16.9
18.4
30.2
19.7
10.3
2.6
1.9
0
Female
522
14.8
19.5
28.2
17.4
12.5
4.4
2.4
0.7
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Table 105 Proportion of children consuming berries (e.g. strawberries, blueberries)
n
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
Male
453
18.4
13.3
20.6
21.6
15.3
4.0
5.9
0.9
Female
457
13.9
9.6
20.2
21.6
19.8
5.8
6.9
2.1
Male
599
20.3
16.9
20.8
18.7
15.1
3.8
3.7
0.8
Female
697
13.7
13.1
24.3
24.1
15.3
3.2
5.2
1.1
Male
414
16.8
19.3
27.5
20.6
10.6
3.1
1.7
0.4
Female
519
14.1
16.7
21.7
26.9
12.5
4.1
2.7
1.3
69
Table 106 Proportion of children consuming melon (e.g. watermelon, rockmelon)
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
454
11.3
11.7
22.7
20.5
22.4
5.8
3.5
2.0
Female
455
10.4
9.8
19.0
22.9
23.9
7.0
5.9
1.1
Male
600
13.2
14.5
25.7
21.3
16.6
4.5
3.5
0.7
Female
699
8.8
14.5
25.7
23.8
16.4
4.4
5.2
1.3
Male
412
10.6
15.2
34.1
24.7
10.3
3.1
1.8
0.3
Female
519
8.1
20.7
27.9
22.3
11.3
3.8
4.5
1.5
Table 107 Proportion of children consuming other fruit (e.g. grapes, kiwi fruit)
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
451
13.2
6.9
19.4
17.0
28.1
7.3
6.3
1.7
Female
457
10.1
5.1
17.8
21.0
29.4
6.8
7.5
2.4
Male
599
12.8
12.5
22.1
20.5
19.6
4.5
6.3
1.6
Female
700
7.7
8.7
20.9
25.8
21.0
6.1
8.0
1.8
Male
413
10.0
13.8
25.6
22.1
18.3
3.3
5.3
1.7
Female
521
7.3
8.7
28.4
25.5
14.3
6.9
6.8
2.1
Over 80% of Year 1 children and 60-70% of Years 5 and 10 children reported consuming an apple or pear 2-4 times
per week. One in four of all children reported eating an apple or pear every day. Whilst citrus fruits (orange,
mandarin, grapefruit) were consumed less frequently, 70% or more of all children reported consuming them once
a week or more with between 10% to 15% reporting daily consumption.
Other fruits such as bananas, stone fruit, mango, pineapple, berries and paw-paw had low levels of reported
consumption with about a quarter to a third of children reporting that they never consumed these items. Many of
these fruit are seasonal which could affect overall consumption as well as introduce recall bias. It should be noted
that the banana consumption during the time of the survey is likely to have been dramatically affected by the
banana shortage, as a result of hurricane Katrina, in 2006.
Bread and Cereal foods
Table 108 Proportion of children consuming white bread, toast or rolls
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
451
6.3
7.7
7.0
6.5
12.0
12.1
26.7
21.6
Female
452
4.5
6.5
6.1
6.0
11.1
10.4
31.7
23.7
Male
596
3.3
5.9
6.7
8.0
14.9
11.8
28.0
21.6
Female
700
3.0
5.6
6.0
9.3
12.4
11.1
30.8
21.8
Male
412
1.9
2.5
5.4
8.3
16.0
14.4
26.3
25.2
Female
523
6.7
4.1
8.8
9.9
16.7
12.4
25.6
15.8
Table 109 Proportion of children consuming wholemeal or mixed grain bread, toast, rolls
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
451
19.1
6.0
8.7
8.1
12.9
8.5
22.2
14.4
Female
456
21.7
6.0
12.0
9.1
16.5
7.6
16.3
10.8
Male
601
20.4
9.2
12.0
10.3
13.3
6.2
17.5
11.1
Female
698
21.8
9.2
13.0
11.4
13.2
6.9
16.9
7.8
Male
414
15.6
8.0
12.9
16.7
13.5
9.5
15.7
8.0
Female
522
11.3
6.8
15.1
15.0
15.5
10.7
17.8
7.9
70
Table 110 Proportion of children consuming English muffin, bagel, crumpet, foccacia, flat bread
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
452
19.1
21.7
25.7
20.1
11.6
0.4
1.1
0.3
Female
451
19.5
19.9
24.5
19.4
11.3
1.6
3.6
0.1
Male
601
16.5
21.9
27.6
19.4
9.5
1.6
3.0
0.6
Female
699
18.1
20.3
26.9
20.0
9.6
2.3
2.7
0.2
Male
414
15.1
20.3
29.1
20.8
6.6
2.8
4.7
0.6
Female
522
18.3
22.9
27.2
17.3
7.8
2.6
3.4
0.5
Table 111 Proportion of children consuming dry or savoury biscuits, crispbread, crackers, rice cakes
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
454
4.4
3.1
10.7
18.3
29.3
12.4
15.8
6.0
Female
456
3.0
3.2
10.7
13.6
32.1
8.2
22.3
6.9
Male
601
6.8
10.1
16.8
17.1
24.0
8.8
14.1
2.3
Female
702
8.3
9.3
13.4
18.4
24.3
8.7
14.3
3.1
Male
414
13.1
9.8
21.1
20.3
19.5
5.6
8.4
2.3
Female
523
7.6
10.9
21.1
26.0
16.4
7.1
8.8
2.1
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Table 112 Proportion of children consuming muesli
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
Male
439
66.7
9.0
10.2
7.9
4.0
0.2
1.8
0.2
Female
450
65.1
12.2
6.4
5.5
5.2
0.3
5.1
0.3
Male
596
58.3
17.3
8.8
6.4
4.4
1.4
2.9
0.5
Female
700
59.8
12.7
9.3
9.1
3.4
1.9
3.0
0.7
Male
414
27.8
19.4
15.8
13.0
11.6
4.2
6.1
2.1
Female
521
34.2
16.2
17.8
13.7
7.7
3.3
6.6
0.5
≥ 2 per
day
Table 113 Proportion of children consuming cooked porridge
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
Male
449
40.7
11.8
17.7
12.2
13.9
1.3
2.4
0
Female
456
43.0
12.8
16.2
11.7
10.5
1.6
4.0
0.1
Male
601
42.7
13.6
17.0
8.4
11.9
2.5
3.0
0.9
Female
698
40.9
18.4
16.6
9.5
9.5
1.6
2.9
0.6
Male
413
41.2
20.5
18.6
9.9
6.3
1.9
1.6
0
Female
523
40.7
20.6
16.5
11.0
6.8
1.4
2.5
0.6
Table 114 Proportion of children consuming breakfast cereal
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
462
2.1
0.3
2.8
6.9
19.2
17.3
48.5
3.0
Female
453
2.4
1.6
4.5
5.8
18.3
16.2
50.1
1.2
Male
601
1.3
2.5
4.5
7.4
22.0
14.0
44.1
4.2
Female
699
2.9
4.0
6.2
8.5
23.4
12.7
40.6
1.8
Male
414
4.7
6.2
6.8
8.5
14.9
14.7
40.4
3.8
Female
520
8.9
9.8
11.5
11.1
14.7
10.2
23.9
1.7
71
Table 115 Proportion of children consuming rice including white or brown
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
451
6.4
4.7
15.5
37.1
27.3
4.0
3.3
1.8
Female
453
4.4
4.8
14.6
38.0
28.5
3.9
4.4
1.4
Male
599
7.6
5.7
19.6
32.8
28.2
1.8
3.3
0.9
Female
693
7.4
5.9
16.8
34.2
28.4
3.2
2.8
1.3
Male
410
6.2
6.2
26.7
30.0
22.7
2.1
4.0
2.0
Female
519
7.9
7.1
26.3
28.5
18.9
5.3
5.2
0.7
≥ 2 per
day
Table 116 Proportion of children consuming pasta including filled pasta, noodles, lasagne
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
Male
459
2.2
2.0
11.3
37.4
41.4
4.1
1.6
0
Female
462
1.3
1.2
10.6
41.4
39.7
2.6
2.7
0.4
Male
603
2.2
3.2
16.3
35.6
37.5
2.7
1.8
0.7
Female
702
1.6
4.4
14.7
38.4
35.0
2.1
3.3
0.4
Male
413
3.6
3.2
20.1
37.6
27.0
4.9
2.7
0.8
Female
523
1.8
4.6
17.6
37.7
32.1
4.9
0.9
0.4
Close to half of all children consumed white bread, toast or rolls at least once a day, with about a fifth consuming
these items at least twice a day. Consumption of wholemeal or mixed grain bread, toast or rolls was less common,
with about a quarter to a third of all children consuming these items daily or more.
Rice was consumed by most children to some extent. Almost three quarters of Year 1 children reported rice
consumption at least once a week, with this figure falling to about 60% in Year 10 children. Pasta, including filled
pasta, noodles and lasagne, were also consumed by about three quarters of all children at least once a week.
Baked Goods and Snacks
Table 117 Proportion of children consuming meat pie, sausage roll, other savoury pastries
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
455
9.5
26.9
37.4
20.9
4.0
0.6
0.7
0
Female
456
10.4
23.7
33.0
27.6
4.7
0.3
0.4
0
Male
601
5.5
21.2
40.1
26.7
5.3
0.8
0.4
0
Female
697
8.1
23.4
36.0
25.1
5.2
0.9
0.9
0.2
Male
414
3.2
10.3
30.5
33.2
15.3
4.1
2.7
0.7
Female
521
8.9
22.0
35.5
20.3
10.1
1.1
1.9
0.2
Table 118 Proportion of children consuming pizza
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
453
3.9
26.6
50.0
18.9
0.6
0
0
0
Female
456
7.4
26.4
46.2
19.8
0.3
0
0
0
Male
599
2.6
25.0
49.9
20.7
1.7
0.2
0
0
Female
696
5.6
30.2
42.4
19.2
1.7
0.1
0.6
0.2
Male
414
2.8
17.4
48.5
25.1
3.8
2.0
0
0.4
Female
520
6.6
28.5
44.6
18.0
1.9
0
0.5
0
72
Table 119 Proportion of children consuming hamburger with bun
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
448
17.9
36.1
35.4
10.2
0.4
0
0
0
Female
456
22.7
35.8
31.7
9.5
0.3
0
0
0
Male
599
14.2
33.2
38.3
13.0
0.9
0.2
0.2
0
Female
693
15.3
36.0
33.2
13.3
0.8
0.2
1.1
0.2
Male
412
6.3
19.0
43.3
22.9
6.1
1.7
0.7
0
Female
520
11.5
30.5
41.3
12.0
3.8
0
0.7
0
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Table 120 Proportion of children consuming cakes, muffins, scones, pikelets
n
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
Male
455
2.3
14.8
25.1
27.8
22.2
3.0
3.8
1.0
Female
457
2.1
9.2
30.0
27.4
24.9
2.5
3.7
0.1
Male
598
3.3
14.0
28.1
24.0
21.2
3.5
5.7
0.1
Female
698
2.0
14.9
27.9
26.1
19.3
2.5
6.6
0.6
Male
413
3.2
17.1
38.1
24.7
10.9
3.3
2.8
0
Female
522
4.0
18.4
41.0
21.9
8.1
1.5
5.0
0
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Table 121 Proportion of children consuming sweet pies or sweet pastries
n
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
Male
444
37.8
38.4
18.9
4.0
0.7
0
0.3
0
Female
455
36.3
29.4
22.7
8.8
1.9
0.2
0.6
0
Male
601
31.7
38.9
19.2
7.3
2.6
0.1
0.1
0
Female
696
30.7
33.3
22.7
9.9
2.2
0.1
0.8
0.3
Male
412
15.8
28.8
42.7
8.9
3.7
0
0.2
0
Female
521
20.7
32.9
33.5
9.0
3.1
0.3
0.5
0
Table 122 Proportion of children consuming other puddings and desserts
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
444
13.8
24.8
24.9
15.4
14.6
1.3
5.2
0
Female
445
11.4
18.4
27.3
20.0
16.6
1.3
5.0
0
Male
601
13.5
24.3
24.1
17.0
12.6
2.8
5.4
0
Female
694
9.2
29.7
26.7
17.8
9.1
2.6
4.4
0.4
Male
413
7.1
19.8
31.2
23.5
11.7
2.8
3.6
0.2
Female
520
10.2
28.8
29.1
20.8
7.8
1.2
1.9
0.1
Table 123 Proportion of children consuming plain sweet biscuits
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
442
3.2
14.4
15.3
25.7
26.2
4.3
10.1
0.7
Female
448
4.8
10.1
15.4
21.2
31.2
5.0
10.8
1.5
Male
602
8.9
16.4
18.6
22.6
19.2
4.0
9.4
0.9
Female
697
9.5
16.4
20.9
19.7
21.4
3.2
7.7
1.1
Male
411
5.8
16.5
27.3
23.6
15.9
5.5
3.5
1.9
Female
521
10.5
18.5
28.1
22.2
12.3
3.4
3.6
1.4
73
Table 124 Proportion of children consuming fancy biscuit including jam/cream filled, chocolate, fruit and nut
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
448
8.5
21.3
29.8
18.5
17.7
0.5
2.9
0.8
Female
455
8.7
18.1
26.7
21.8
16.3
3.3
4.4
0.8
Male
598
14.2
21.2
24.3
21.2
11.4
2.7
4.5
0.5
Female
697
11.4
22.9
26.3
21.2
12.4
2.1
2.4
1.2
Male
412
6.9
22.8
26.3
23.5
13.9
4.2
1.6
0.7
Female
522
10.4
21.8
30.3
21.5
10.9
1.7
2.7
0.7
Table 125 Proportion of children consuming chocolate including chocolate bars (e.g. Mars™)
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
456
7.7
18.4
28.8
28.8
13.9
1.2
0.9
0.1
Female
457
3.3
17.8
27.9
30.6
16.0
2.4
1.7
0.4
Male
601
4.0
18.5
31.7
26.6
12.5
3.6
2.6
0.5
Female
696
3.7
18.2
27.9
28.5
15.6
2.1
3.5
0.4
Male
414
2.8
11.7
30.4
28.6
16.9
4.1
4.1
1.5
Female
522
2.2
15.9
25.3
27.0
19.0
5.2
3.7
1.7
Table 126 Proportion of children consuming other lollies, confectioneries
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
449
3.0
13.3
27.7
28.9
20.5
3.8
2.6
0.2
Female
455
3.0
10.8
23.0
33.9
23.2
3.0
2.9
0.1
Male
602
4.0
13.7
28.1
30.2
18.4
2.1
3.0
0.5
Female
693
3.7
12.5
29.5
33.2
15.7
2.3
2.1
1.0
Male
413
3.0
14.5
20.5
35.2
18.0
3.0
3.7
2.1
Female
521
4.0
11.4
28.5
26.6
19.7
3.0
4.3
2.3
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
0
Table 127 Proportion of children consuming nuts
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
Male
449
34.4
23.9
17.3
12.5
8.0
1.7
2.3
Female
450
31.1
18.3
17.7
13.5
13.8
3.2
2.3
0
Male
594
27.0
21.0
25.2
14.0
7.8
2.9
1.8
0.2
Female
695
24.7
21.8
25.3
15.3
7.8
1.2
3.6
0.3
Male
413
19.1
21.1
26.1
18.9
7.4
1.9
4.0
1.6
Female
515
15.8
23.6
24.2
18.8
11.5
2.0
3.8
0.2
Table 128 Proportion of children consuming potato chips, corn chips, (e.g. Twisties™) etc
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
461
0.9
13.2
26.1
28.4
22.3
4.5
4.4
0.1
Female
458
2.0
9.2
25.3
30.4
22.7
2.8
7.1
0.4
Male
602
2.9
9.5
27.9
24.0
22.8
5.5
7.1
0.3
Female
696
1.2
10.4
23.0
27.3
20.2
6.2
11.1
0.5
Male
413
1.3
11.1
19.4
32.6
18.4
5.5
8.8
2.8
Female
522
4.5
15.3
27.7
22.6
14.0
4.7
9.7
1.4
Between a fifth and a third of all children consumed meat pies, sausages rolls or other savoury pastries at least
once a week. Approximately one in four Year 10 boys reported consuming these items at least twice per week
74
or more. Pizza was consumed by nearly all children to some extent, with close to a fifth of all children reporting
consumption once a week. Hamburgers with buns were consumed by about 10 – 15% of children at least once a
week, except for Year 10 boys where this increased to about 30% of those surveyed.
About half of all children reported consuming chocolate or chocolate bars at least once a week, and other
confectionary such as lollies were consumed at a slightly greater rate. About a third of Year 1 children never
consumed nuts, whereas less than 2% of the same children reported never consuming potato chips or corn chips.
Sugar, Spreads and Dressings
Table 129 Proportion of children consuming sugar, syrups
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
455
13.3
9.0
10.8
15.5
16.4
6.0
26.4
2.5
Female
452
12.7
9.0
11.6
15.3
18.4
8.2
22.0
2.6
Male
600
8.5
8.9
12.7
18.7
13.9
6.9
25.2
5.1
Female
697
10.9
12.4
12.6
15.4
16.7
6.5
23.5
2.0
Male
413
7.5
9.3
13.1
21.2
13.7
4.5
26.8
3.9
Female
523
8.6
15.3
20.8
20.6
8.3
9.0
14.2
2.7
Table 130 Proportion of children consuming jam, marmalade
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
453
25.5
12.7
17.3
14.0
18.0
4.6
7.4
0.4
Female
452
28.7
9.4
19.8
19.2
12.5
2.7
7.0
0.7
Male
599
23.9
14.8
17.1
19.6
16.4
2.8
5.2
0.3
Female
695
27.8
17.7
19.0
14.7
13.2
2.2
4.8
0.5
Male
414
14.3
15.3
22.2
23.6
14.0
4.1
6.1
0.6
Female
522
21.9
25.8
23.7
15.0
7.5
4.0
2.0
0.2
Table 131 Proportion of children consuming peanut butter, other nut spreads
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
454
22.9
8.6
7.9
15.1
26.0
6.2
10.1
3.3
Female
453
25.7
5.6
12.3
18.7
17.3
6.9
12.5
1.0
Male
599
18.5
10.7
12.8
16.8
24.6
6.8
8.1
1.7
Female
694
20.1
12.1
17.4
17.5
18.1
5.5
8.1
1.1
Male
412
19.2
11.8
20.1
19.6
15.6
4.6
7.8
1.3
Female
523
20.3
20.3
17.9
18.5
12.6
4.6
4.0
1.7
Table 132 Proportion of children consuming butter, dairy blends, margarine
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
451
4.0
2.8
0.5
2.8
9.6
13.1
42.6
24.6
Female
454
4.2
1.5
1.7
3.6
8.7
11.6
42.6
26.3
Male
596
6.4
3.7
3.4
5.7
9.1
12.1
38.4
21.1
Female
691
7.6
4.2
5.7
7.0
9.4
11.2
35.1
19.8
Male
409
6.5
3.2
6.8
13.3
11.6
14.2
31.4
12.9
Female
519
6.9
7.2
4.5
12.2
15.9
11.2
29.8
12.2
75
Table 133 Proportion of children consuming Vegemite™, Marmite™, Promite™
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
447
14.1
3.3
7.6
13.1
24.1
12.3
21.4
4.0
Female
447
15.4
2.6
4.3
9.8
23.6
11.1
25.8
7.4
Male
598
20.5
7.5
8.9
13.3
20.2
10.6
14.7
4.4
Female
693
20.7
6.2
9.7
15.3
18.3
8.8
16.3
4.6
Male
413
25.1
11.5
10.0
22.6
12.7
4.1
11.1
2.8
Female
521
17.8
9.6
10.1
18.8
14.9
13.3
12.1
3.4
≥ 2 per
day
Tabel 134 Proportion of children consuming oil and vinegar dressing
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
Male
450
61.2
13.7
8.7
5.7
6.5
1.7
2.4
0
Female
456
59.3
10.8
8.8
8.7
6.6
1.8
3.7
0.4
Male
598
52.4
13.8
10.7
10.0
8.8
1.5
2.7
0.2
Female
693
48.8
14.7
12.2
10.4
8.4
2.3
3.2
0
Male
412
35.8
15.0
19.4
14.8
7.7
2.6
3.7
0.8
Female
519
33.5
18.8
18.8
12.5
7.9
4.5
3.4
0.7
≥ 2 per
day
Table 135 Proportion of children consuming mayonnaise, other creamy dressing
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
Male
452
56.9
14.5
Female
455
52.2
12.8
11.7
8.1
5.3
2.1
1.4
0
12.1
10.6
8.0
1.6
2.4
0.3
Male
601
38.7
15.1
17.9
15.8
9.3
1.4
1.8
0
Female
695
33.9
14.7
19.6
15.8
12.3
1.6
2.0
0.1
Male
414
22.3
15.5
26.8
17.3
11.7
2.7
3.2
0.5
Female
523
22.2
17.3
24.2
17.7
9.6
4.6
3.9
0.4
About a quarter of all children reported consuming sugar or syrup once a day, except for Year 10 girls in whom
about 15% reported this level of consumption. Jam and marmalade were consumed at least once a week by
between 30% to 50% of all children. Twenty to 25% of all children reported that they never consumed peanut
butter or other nut spreads, with between 4% and 13% of children reporting daily consumption.
Consumption of butter, dairy blends and margarine were greater in the younger children. Around two thirds of Year
1 children reported consumption at least once a day, whilst this figure dropped to close to 40% in Year 10 children.
Consumption of oil and vinegar dressings increased markedly with age. About 60% of Year 1 children reported
never consuming, whilst this figure fell to about 35% in Year 10 children, with about 10% to 15% of the these
children reporting that these items were consumed once a week.
Dairy Foods
Table 136 Proportion of children consuming milk/soy as a drink
n
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
451
13.7
1.7
6.3
8.7
23.1
8.7
25.0
12.7
Female
448
15.5
4.1
7.1
7.6
20.4
7.3
25.9
12.0
Male
600
16.6
3.0
8.5
10.7
17.7
7.1
24.7
11.6
Female
693
21.6
7.4
8.1
9.9
17.7
8.7
19.4
7.3
Male
411
21.9
5.6
8.2
16.0
16.8
6.6
16.4
8.6
Female
517
21.4
12.1
11.4
13.6
13.2
4.3
16.9
7.0
76
Table 137 Proportion of children consuming flavoured milk/soy drink (e.g. milkshake, iced-coffee, hot
chocolate)
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
455
7.3
10.3
20.8
21.7
20.7
5.6
10.9
2.6
Female
456
5.8
13.9
15.3
19.8
25.4
5.5
12.8
1.4
Male
602
6.1
11.6
19.3
20.6
18.5
8.0
13.3
2.6
Female
696
6.9
13.5
22.7
22.1
16.8
5.6
10.4
2.1
Male
412
5.7
10.5
20.8
22.0
23.2
5.2
8.7
3.8
Female
522
6.5
12.5
23.1
21.9
16.4
7.1
9.7
2.7
Table 138 Proportion of children consuming milk/soy on breakfast cereals
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
440
8.8
0.1
2.3
3.5
13.7
13.1
55.1
3.2
Female
447
9.6
0.3
4.3
4.0
13.5
11.4
55.6
1.2
Male
597
9.0
2.3
1.9
5.3
13.8
12.5
51.6
3.7
Female
688
12.9
3.8
4.3
7.6
16.0
13.5
39.4
2.5
Male
412
14.1
4.8
5.9
10.0
10.8
14.7
36.0
3.7
Female
515
15.8
8.3
10.7
11.6
15.0
9.3
26.7
2.5
Table 139 Proportion of children consuming milk/soy to top up hot drinks (e.g. milk in tea)
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
441
49.3
9.5
8.8
11.6
10.7
2.6
5.7
1.7
Female
441
52.4
9.2
8.5
8.7
8.7
4.2
6.7
1.6
Male
593
34.2
10.2
11.9
14.1
10.6
5.3
11.3
2.5
Female
691
35.6
11.5
10.9
13.4
12.4
5.3
9.0
1.8
Male
403
22.5
9.9
10.8
15.1
17.4
5.1
16.8
2.4
Female
520
19.3
14.6
16.4
13.6
13.0
6.0
12.4
4.6
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
0
Table 140 Proportion of children consuming cream or sour cream
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
Male
448
33.0
24.0
26.0
11.9
5.0
0
0.2
Female
451
33.3
21.3
26.1
12.5
6.0
0.4
0.4
0
Male
598
29.2
23.1
26.8
15.9
4.6
0
0.1
0.2
Female
688
26.5
23.8
27.0
14.9
5.2
1.2
1.2
0.2
Male
412
21.4
20.5
34.7
17.6
4.5
0.4
0.9
0
Female
521
19.6
27.3
27.4
17.5
5.6
1.6
1.0
0
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Table 141 Proportion of children consuming ice-cream
n
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
Male
457
1.5
11.5
24.3
20.8
33.4
2.5
6.1
0
Female
456
1.4
9.0
23.6
25.3
29.7
5.1
5.3
0.6
Male
595
1.3
9.4
26.2
18.6
28.2
9.7
6.4
0.1
Female
694
2.2
11.1
24.2
23.2
27.6
7.2
3.6
1.0
Male
412
3.4
9.7
24.4
23.3
24.6
7.7
6.5
0.5
Female
518
5.6
16.2
27.6
22.3
15.1
6.0
6.4
0.8
77
Table 142 Proportion of children consuming yoghurt including plain, frozen, flavoured, and fromage frais
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
452
7.0
3.7
13.3
11.6
26.8
12.0
22.5
3.0
Female
455
8.1
5.5
8.1
11.9
31.5
12.5
20.2
2.3
Male
601
16.1
11.3
17.3
13.6
23.5
7.0
10.2
1.0
Female
696
12.6
12.3
17.7
16.3
23.9
7.2
9.9
0.1
Male
411
16.3
14.2
21.1
22.4
15.5
5.9
3.5
1.0
Female
521
13.0
18.0
24.1
22.0
13.3
3.2
6.3
0.1
Table 143 Proportion of children consuming cottage or ricotta cheese
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
0
Male
444
75.0
13.0
6.9
2.0
2.4
0.2
0.6
Female
456
76.4
10.6
6.0
2.7
3.2
0.8
0.3
0
Male
600
74.6
10.6
7.8
3.1
2.8
0.5
0.5
0.2
Female
688
69.3
13.3
8.8
5.0
2.3
0.8
0.3
0.3
Male
411
52.0
19.5
17.0
6.7
2.9
1.3
0.7
0
Female
521
52.6
21.3
15.0
6.4
3.0
0.4
1.3
0
Table 144 Proportion of children consuming cheddar and all other cheeses
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
451
2.5
2.2
6.5
13.5
31.2
17.5
22.5
3.8
Female
454
4.7
0.9
6.1
8.8
34.9
19.0
22.0
3.3
Male
599
5.5
3.1
7.4
13.3
35.3
13.9
17.6
3.7
Female
692
7.9
4.3
7.8
16.1
36.3
13.0
12.3
2.3
Male
412
8.2
6.0
19.5
19.0
27.8
7.0
11.2
1.3
Female
521
7.7
11.0
13.6
20.7
25.8
8.7
10.4
2.1
A quarter to just over a third of all children reported consuming milk/soy as a drink at least once a day. In contrast,
15% to 20% of all children reported never drinking milk as a drink per se. Over a half of Year 1 children consumed
milk/soy with breakfast cereal at least once a day, this figure falling to about a quarter of Year 10 girls. Yoghurt
consumption decreased with age, with 75% of Year 1 children reporting eating yoghurt at least once a week
and 25% reporting daily consumption, dropping to 50% of Year 10 consuming yogurt once a week and only 5%
reporting daily consumption.
Ice cream was consumed by between 50% to 60% of all children at least once a week. Between 25% and 40% of
children had ice-cream at least twice a week and 6% to 7% of all children reported consuming ice-cream once per
day.
Cheese consumption dropped with age, with over 40% of Year 1 children reporting consuming cheddar and other
cheeses 5-6 times a week or more, and falling to 20% of Year 10 children. Across the sample, at least 70% of
children had cheese of one kind or other at least once per week.
78
Non- milk drinks
Table 145 Proportion of children consuming water including unflavoured mineral water, soda water, tap
water
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
460
3.8
0.5
0.3
0.7
1.4
4.3
7.7
81.5
Female
454
3.3
0.5
0.2
0
1.4
3.1
9.0
82.7
Male
602
3.1
2.2
1.3
1.0
2.1
5.0
7.9
77.4
Female
696
2.4
1.0
4.5
2.1
2.3
5.5
8.3
73.8
Male
411
3.3
1.1
2.6
6.9
3.8
7.6
7.9
66.8
Female
523
4.0
2.0
1.0
4.2
1.5
6.8
6.4
74.2
Table 146 Proportion of children consuming 100% fruit juice
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
452
8.5
10.9
14.3
11.5
20.0
6.8
23.0
5.0
Female
451
12.7
10.4
11.9
14.1
17.6
8.1
20.5
4.8
Male
599
9.3
12.9
14.3
12.4
19.3
7.7
20.0
4.1
Female
692
10.5
10.6
15.3
15.1
16.3
8.8
19.6
3.8
Male
409
6.7
14.1
21.4
18.4
16.5
6.2
12.9
3.9
Female
522
9.8
13.1
17.3
16.6
16.1
8.2
14.0
5.1
Table 147 Proportion of children consuming fruit juice drinks (e.g. 35% fruit)
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
441
19.6
14.3
16.7
8.6
17.9
6.4
13.2
3.1
Female
445
15.3
14.5
16.4
12.6
18.9
6.0
12.9
2.4
Male
600
15.2
12.6
14.7
10.1
20.3
9.1
15.3
2.3
Female
686
16.6
13.6
13.0
14.4
15.8
9.5
13.0
3.5
Male
409
8.8
8.4
14.7
20.7
20.2
12.8
11.4
1.8
Female
520
10.0
11.5
14.9
20.1
16.2
8.5
13.6
4.2
Table 148 Proportion of children consuming cordial
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
449
19.5
15.4
12.4
11.0
19.3
5.9
9.4
7.1
Female
444
19.4
16.8
12.1
8.6
18.1
6.2
12.3
6.6
Male
600
17.8
13.3
13.8
13.6
18.4
6.3
9.1
7.6
Female
692
18.3
16.3
16.0
17.2
14.0
4.8
9.5
4.0
Male
409
16.1
10.6
18.1
18.9
12.9
5.6
10.5
7.4
Female
520
24.8
18.3
16.8
14.0
10.3
3.4
6.2
6.1
79
Table 149 Proportion of children consuming coffee
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
447
95.8
1.8
0.9
1.1
0.4
0
0
0
Female
451
95.7
2.0
0.7
1.3
0
0
0.2
0.1
Male
597
87.6
4.4
2.2
2.6
0.6
0.7
1.2
0.6
Female
694
91.0
3.9
1.0
1.8
0.6
0.1
0.6
1.0
Male
410
50.1
8.9
8.6
12.3
7.8
3.9
6.3
2.1
Female
521
63.3
8.1
8.2
7.3
5.6
1.5
5.3
0.6
Table 150 Proportion of children consuming tea
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
452
75.2
9.3
4.2
4.4
3.5
0.9
2.3
0.2
Female
453
70.6
8.8
6.2
6.5
4.4
1.0
1.9
0.6
Male
601
57.3
15.9
8.6
5.8
6.5
2.3
2.9
0.5
Female
699
55.8
11.8
12.7
6.4
8.2
1.0
3.5
0.6
Male
411
36.3
14.3
14.6
16.5
7.9
2.1
7.2
1.3
Female
522
45.1
10.7
13.0
11.0
7.9
3.6
5.5
3.4
Seventy-five percent of Year 5 and 10 children, and 80% of Year 1 children reported drinking water at least twice a
day. A notable 5% of all children, however, reporting drinking water never or rarely, and up to 10% of Year 5 and 10
children reporting drinking water only once a week or less.
Fruit juice (100%) was reported to be drunk on a daily basis by approximately a quarter of Year 1 children, however
it was less common for Year 10 children, with only 10%-15% reporting drinking fruit juice daily. Fruit juice drinks
and cordials were reported to be drunk daily by about 15% of children at all three Year levels.
Coffee consumption was negligible in Year 1 children but about a fifth of Year 10 girls and a third of Year 10 boys
reported consuming coffee once a week or more. Similarly tea was not commonly drunk: with 80% of Year 1, 70%
of Year 5 and 50% of Year 10 children respectively, never or rarely drinking tea.
Additional non-milk drink items for children in Year 10
Children in Year 10 were also asked to report on their usual frequency of consumption of alcohol over the past
twelve months
Table 151 Proportion of children consuming beer- low alcohol
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
≥ 1 per day
Male
386
76.0
13.3
6.9
2.8
0.9
0
0.2
Female
504
86.6
9.5
2.9
1.0
0
0
0
1 per week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
≥ 1 per day
Table 152 Proportion of children consuming beer- full strength
n
Year 10
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
Male
386
79.1
10.2
5.9
3.7
0.7
0.4
0.2
Female
505
92.1
5.0
0.7
2.3
0
0
0
80
Table 153 Proportion of children consuming red wine
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
≥ 1 per day
Male
384
91.7
4.9
1.7
1.0
0.7
0
0
Female
505
89.9
5.9
3.2
0.8
0.2
0
0
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
≥ 1 per day
Table 154 Proportion of children consuming white wine or champagne/sparkling wine
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per week
Male
386
91.8
5.8
1.3
1.1
0
0
0
Female
507
86.6
8.9
3.5
0.3
0.6
0
0
Table 155 Proportion of children consuming wine cooler
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
≥ 1 per day
Male
386
94.8
3.3
0.8
0.6
0.5
0
0
Female
505
97.0
1.5
1.3
0.2
0
0
0
≥ 1 per day
Table 156 Proportion of children consuming sherry or port
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
Male
386
94.0
4.9
1.0
0.1
0
0
0
Female
506
95.2
4.0
0.8
0
0
0
0
5-6 per
week
≥ 1 per day
Table 157 Proportion of children consuming pre-mixed drinks (e.g. Bacardi breezer)
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per week
2-4 per
week
Male
386
78.0
11.6
6.7
2.8
0.8
0
0
Female
505
76.1
11.4
7.6
3.4
1.2
0.3
0
5-6 per
week
≥ 1 per day
Table 158 Proportion of children consuming spirits or liqueurs
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per week
2-4 per
week
Male
384
91.7
4.9
1.7
1.0
0.7
0
0
Female
505
89.9
5.9
3.2
0.8
0.2
0
0
Seventy five percent of Year 10 reported never drinking alcohol. About 3% of Year 10 children reported consuming
full strength beer, low alcohol beer, pre mixed drinks or spirits and liqueurs at least once a week. Pre-mixed drinks
themselves were reported to be drunk by 10% of Year 10 at least once a month.
81
Supplements
Table 159 Proportion of children consuming vitamin and mineral supplements (including tablets, capsules or
drops)
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
449
58.5
3.5
3.5
2.3
4.6
1.7
23.6
2.2
Female
453
64.2
5.9
4.2
0.6
3.8
2.1
17.3
2.0
Male
600
63.1
6.1
4.9
3.1
3.8
1.3
15.5
2.3
Female
695
63.5
9.0
5.6
2.9
2.0
1.2
14.6
1.1
Male
411
53.0
12.3
9.7
8.6
5.1
0.7
9.7
0.9
Female
523
49.8
14.6
8.4
4.8
3.2
0.9
15.1
3.2
Table 160 Proportion of children consuming sports supplements
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
447
99.4
0
0.2
0
0.1
0.2
0
0
Female
452
99.8
0
0
0
0
0
0.2
0
Male
598
96.6
2.3
0.4
0.3
0.1
0.5
0
0
Female
690
93.3
1.3
2.6
1.6
0.7
0.1
0
0.5
Male
411
74.3
8.9
6.1
5.2
3.1
0.9
1.4
0.1
Female
523
87.1
6.9
1.6
2.1
0.9
0.6
0.6
0.2
Table 161 Proportion of children consuming weight control supplements
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
450
100.0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Female
453
100.0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Male
600
98.4
0.8
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.2
0
0
Female
693
96.8
0.8
1.0
0.5
0.2
0
0.3
0.4
Male
411
95.5
0.8
2.2
0.2
0.4
0
0.9
0
Female
524
97.3
2.1
0.1
0
0.2
0
0
0.3
Table 162 Proportion of children consuming other dietary supplements
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Never
< 1 per
month
1-3 per
month
1 per
week
2-4 per
week
5-6 per
week
1 per day
≥ 2 per
day
Male
449
97.3
0.3
0
0.1
0.4
0
1.2
0.7
Female
453
97.7
0.6
0.5
0
0.5
0
0.7
0
Male
600
96.4
1.4
0.6
0.1
0.2
0
1.1
0.2
Female
696
94.8
1.8
1.7
0.1
0.2
0.5
0.7
0.2
Male
411
94.0
0.9
2.0
0.9
0.3
0
1.9
0.1
Female
524
94.1
2.0
0.1
1.3
0
0
2.3
0.2
Vitamin supplements were consumed at least one a day by approximately one in five Year 1 children and one in
six children in Years 5 and 10. The consumption of sports supplements was negligible in children in Years 1 and 5,
however about 10% of Year 10 boys and just under 5% of Year 10 girls reported consuming sports supplements at
least once per week.
Consumption of weight control supplements was also negligible in most children; the exception being Year 10
boys of whom 5% reported consumption at a frequency of once a month or more and 1% reported consuming
weight control supplements on a daily basis. The consumption of “other” supplements was rare, with on average
3-5% of all children reporting some consuming them once a month or more.
82
Special Diets
The children were asked to report on whether they had been on a special diet over the previous 12months.
Whilst over 90% of Year 1 and 5 children reported no to this question, 12% of Year 1 boys and 17% of Year 10 girls
reported being on a special diet.
Table 163 Proportion of children reporting eating special foods or having a special diet over the previous
twelve months
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
No
Male
467
92.1
Yes
7.9
Female
463
93.9
6.1
Male
610
91.9
8.1
Female
702
93.2
6.7
Male
414
88.0
12.0
Female
522
83.2
16.8
The reasons for the special diets are reported in Table 164. Nine possible reasons were offered and there was also
space for children to add their own reasons (the options offered weren’t mutually exclusive).
Table 164 Reasons for eating special foods or having a special diet over the previous twelve months
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Vegetarian
0.2
0.2
1.2
1.6
0.2
Female
3.8
For asthma
0.9
0.2
1.4
1.1
0
0.2
For allergy
2.3
2.3
1.2
0.9
0.4
0.5
To avoid milk
1.9
1.9
1.1
1.1
1.3
0.3
To avoid wheat
1.3
1.4
1.4
0.9
1.8
0.6
For diabetes
0.2
0
0
0.3
1.1
0.8
Behaviour
3.2
0.9
1.7
1.1
1.2
0.5
For sport
0
0
0.3
0.1
4.2
2.7
To lose weight
0.2
0
1.7
1.2
2.5
8.4
To gain weight
0.8
0
0.2
0.2
3.1
0.3
Other
1.4
1.4
0.6
0.9
1.4
3.1
The reasons for special diets were similar across the sexes in Year groups, with a couple of exceptions. More boys
than girls in Year 1 were reported being on special diets for behaviour reasons and more girls than boys in Year 10
reported being on diets to lose weight.
Reasons listed as ‘other’ fell under several main categories:
• wanting to eat healthier/ get fitter and healthier
• to avoid certain additives/ preservatives in the diet
• to avoid lactose in the diet
• to help with persistent stomach aches and pains
• to reduce meat content of diet
• to increase fruit and vegetable intake of diet
• to reduce processed foods / to increase fibre
• to increase iron in the diet
• to help with eczema
83
Past Feeding Practices
Since the majority of children in Year 1 and 5 had their parents complete, or help complete, the FFQ, they were
asked to report on how they had been fed as an infant (this was not included in the Year 10 questionnaire).
Table 165 Proportion of children who were breast-fed as an infant
Year 1
Year 5
n
No
Yes
Don’t know
Male
469
15.1
84.6
0.3
Female
464
14.6
85.4
0
Male
606
14.8
81.9
3.2
Female
696
17.1
78.1
4.8
Table 166 Length of time children were breastfed (i.e. receiving breastmilk only and no infant formula or
other milk as their main drink)
Year 1
Year 5
n
Did not
Breast feed
Less than 4
months
4-6 months
7-12
months
13-18
months
>18
months
Don’t know
Male
461
15.5
25.1
22.4
25.3
7.4
3.6
0.7
Female
460
14.5
30.4
22.4
18.5
7.9
5.5
0.9
Male
594
13.8
29.2
17.9
22.0
9.1
2.6
5.3
Female
677
17.1
21.8
21.9
19.0
7.0
5.2
7.8
Table 167 Age when children started eating solid foods
Year 1
Year 5
n
Less than 4
months
4-6 months
7-12 months
13-18 months
Don’t know
Male
471
12.3
64.9
20.6
0.7
1.5
Female
466
11.1
69.1
17.7
0.8
1.3
Male
600
17.6
57.3
17.8
2.6
4.7
Female
692
15.8
57.3
16.3
2.8
7.6
Information relating to breast feeding was obtained from Year 1 and Year 5 children only. About 80% of all Year 1
and Year 5 children had been breastfed, and of these 70% to 80% had been fully breastfed for 4 months or more.
Approximately one in three children had been breast-fed for more than 6 months.
This survey relied on recall of breast feeding duration by parents, presumably to a large extent mothers. A number
of studies have evaluated the accuracy of breast feeding duration by maternal recall. For example, in a study
conducted in Brazil, 70 % of mothers accurately recalled breast feeding duration when their children were 4 years
of age based on data collected when the child was 11 months of age. 44 In an Australian study almost 80% of
mothers recalled accurately the duration of breast feeding to within 1 month when their offspring were 3 years
of age on average. 45 In general correlation coefficients of around 0.90 have been reported for the relationship
between prospectively recorded breast feeding duration and that recalled at a later date.
Solid foods were introduced mainly between 4 and 6 months of age. Approximately one in six children had
received solid food before the age of 4 months.
84
5.0 Physical activity
R
The overall compliance for the pedometer was good.
A day’s recording was deemed valid if it had been
recorded as worn for at least eight hours per day.
More than 90% of all participants who agreed to the
pedometer study completed a minimum of two days;
66% of Year 1 children, 75% of Year 5 children and 78%
of Year 10 children recorded steps on four days or more.
egular physical activity is an important part of
physical, social and psychological development in
children. Weight-bearing activity is important to bone
health, and moderate-to-vigorous activity is important
for preventing diseases or conditions related to a
sedentary lifestyle.
The Australian Physical Activity Guidelines for Children
and Youth recommend at least one hour of moderate
or vigorous physical activity each day and that children
limit their use of electronic media for entertainment,
such as watching television and videos/DVDs or using
computer games or internet, to two hours per day.46
Physical activity questionnaire
Children (or their parents for Year 1 children) completed
a questionnaire about their physical activity during the
previous seven days. They were provided with a list of
named physical activities (31 for Years 1 and 5 children,
and 35 for Year 10 children) and asked to indicate the
number of times they performed each activity during
the week and on the weekend. Questions also asked
about participation in physical activity at school,
whether the children walked to school, and other
leisure pursuits (television, hobbies, etc.).
Physical activity levels were assessed using a physical
activity questionnaire and by a pedometer, standard
methods to assess physical activity behaviour at
the population level and methods that are similar to
those used in the 2003 WA CAPANS Survey.28 Different
methods allow for various aspects of physical activity
behaviour to be captured. The pedometer provides an
objective measure of movement, whilst questionnaires
can help provide more qualitative information about
physical activity habits.
Children also indicated their participation in various
activities during the preceding year. In order to assess
whether the children were meeting the current physical
activity guidelines, the children were asked to report
the number of days in the past week on which they had
engaged in physical activity or active play that caused
their heart rate to rise or caused them to ‘huff and puff’.
This was taken as an indicator of activity that was of a
moderate or vigorous intensity.
Pedometer diary
A pedometer is worn on the waist and measures the
number of steps taken. It is used widely in children,
adolescents and adults as a quantitative measure
of physical activity. Each participant was given a
pedometer and instructed on its use. Children were
asked to use the pedometer for five consecutive
days including both weekdays and weekend days.
Participants or their parents recorded the number of
steps taken each day, the time the pedometer was
worn, and whether the pedometer had been taken off
during the day and why.
Throughout the subsequent analyses of children’s
activity behaviours, no consistent differences were
observed between children in urban areas and children
in rural areas.
85
5.1
Pedometer steps
The data in Figure 6 show the mean number of daily
steps, defined as the mean number of steps per day for
Figure 6
each participant who wore the pedometer for eight hours
or more, on four or five days during the study period.
Mean number of steps per day, measured with a pedometer, by Year and sex
Year group
16,000
Male
14,000
Female
Mean daily steps
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0
1
5
The same records were used to explore the difference in
steps taken on a weekday compared with a weekend day.
10
Table 168 shows the mean number of daily steps
and the corresponding mean number for type of day
(weekday or weekend).
Table 168 Mean number of steps per day, per weekday and per weekend day, measured with a pedometer, by
year and sex
Steps
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Mean daily steps
(SD)
Weekday
steps
Weekend
steps
Male
306
13,184 (3,033)
12,956
13,798
Female
297
11,495 (3,082)
11,269
11,909
Male
438
14,555 (4,216)
15,395
12,873
Female
566
12,518 (3,443)
12,869
11,702
Male
265
12,966 (4,074)
13,847
11,747
Female
398
10,870 (3,254)
11,334
9844
Whilst there are no current national step guidelines
for children, there has been a suggestion in the
international literature 48 that to maintain a healthy
weight, girls aged 6-12 should aim for a target of 12000
steps, and boys of the same age, 15000 steps per day.
No recommendations for older children exist. Using
these targets, 27% of the boys in Year 1 and 42% of the
girls in Year 1 achieved adequate steps. This increased
to 40% of boys, and 53% of girls, in Year 5.
In each age group, boys accumulated more mean
daily steps and more steps per day than girls on both
weekdays and weekends. The difference between boys
and girls by Year 10 was over 2,000 steps.
Year 1 children took more steps on weekends than
on weekdays, but this was reversed in Year 5 and 10
children, who were more active on weekdays than on
weekends. This trend was similar in boys and girls.
86
KEY POINTS
• Boys on average took more steps than girls at all
ages, and this difference was greatest (more than
2,000 steps) in Year 10 children.
• In terms of steps taken, Year 5 children were the
most active and Year 10 children the least active.
• Year 1 children are more active on weekends than
during the week.
• Year 5 and 10 children are more active during the
week than on weekends.
• Using suggested international targets for daily
steps, approximately only three in ten Year 1 boys
and four in ten Year 1 girls met physical activity
targets. This increased to four in ten of Year 5
boys and just over half of Year 5 girls.
• Throughout the analyses of children’s physical
activity behaviours, no consistent differences
were observed between children in urban areas
and children in rural areas.
87
5.2
Physical activities and sports
Children were asked about the type of physical
activities that they had participated in over the previous
week. They were also asked to indicate what physical
activities they usually participated in the previous year
as a way of finding out about participation in seasonalbased activities and sports not undertaken at the time
of the survey. Year 1 and 5 children were provided with a
list of 31 activities and sports, and Year 10 children were
provided with a list of 35 activities and sports. There was
also space on the survey for the children to include any
activity or sport not already on the list.
Viewed the other way, for the entire sample, 85.2% of
all children reported some sport, exercise or dance,
in the previous year (85.1% for males and 85.2% for
females) and 83.6% in the previous week (83.1% for
males and 84.1% for females). The most recent ABS
study on children’s participation in leisure 47, reported
that 69% of males and 58% of females surveyed had
had involvement in organised sport outside of school.
The higher figures for Queensland children may be
partly attributable to inclusion of exercise and dance,
and the fact that children were not specifically asked
to tick activities that were outside of school hours. This
said, the participation rates are also slightly higher
than that reported in the 2003 CAPANS Survey 28,
who found 81.6% of males and 76.8% of females had
participated in sport, exercise and dance over the
previous week.
With the exclusion of school sport and PE, the
proportion of children who reported not participating
in any sport or physical activity, over the previous
week and over the past year, decreased with age.
The physical activities and sports were divided into
two categories: i) sport, exercise and dance and ii)
active play. ‘Sport, exercise and dance’ involved all
team games, organised sports e.g. athletics, dance
and aerobics. ‘Active play’ included activities such as
playing outside, playing on equipment, bike riding,
trampolining, rollerblading, skipping, skateboarding
and jogging/running. The percentage of children
reporting no involvement in these categories, over the
previous 12 months, are shown in Figures 7 and 8.
Figure 7
Of interest, when participation in school sport and PE
was included, past year participation rates in sport,
exercise and dance increased to 92% for both males
and females: increasing from 84% of Year 1 children to
95% of Year 10 children.
Participation in active play in the previous year
is shown in Figure 8. Participation in active play
decreased with age for both previous year and the past
week.
Percentage of children by year and
gender who reported no involvement
outside of school in ‘sport, exercise or
dance’ over the previous year
Figure 8
Percentage of children by year and
gender who reported no involvement
outside of school in ‘active play’ over
the previous year
Year 1 Female
Year 1 Male
Year 1 Female
Year 5 Female
Year 1 Male
Year 5 Male
Year 5 Female
Year 10 Female
Year 5 Male
Year 10 Male
Year 10 Female
0
5
10
15
20
25
Percentage (%)
Year 10 Male
0
One in five Year 1 children reported no sport, exercise
or dance (not including school sport or PE) over the
previous year. This dropped to less than one in 10
children in Years 5 and 10. Similar rates were observed
for participation over the previous week.
5
10
15
20
25
Percentage (%)
Five percent of Year 1, 3.5% of Year 5 and 17.9% of Year
10 children reported no active play over the previous
week. There was little difference between males and
88
females. These rates are slightly higher than those
found in the 2003 CAPANS Survey 28, which reported
0.5-1.0% of primary school children recording no active
play and 7.9- 11.0% of secondary school children.The
top 20 most cited activities for both the previous week
and the previous year are shown in Tables 169-174.
Table 169 Participation in physical activities* over the previous week for Year 1 males and females
Male
%
Female
%
Playing outside
89.7
Playing outside
89.9
Playing on playground equipment
86.3
Playing on playground equipment
86.5
Sports/PE at school
81.0
Sports/PE at school
85.7
Chores
73.0
Chores
71.0
Bike riding
71.9
Bike riding
68.0
Trampolining
58.8
Trampolining
58.7
Running/jogging
42.8
Skipping with a rope
53.2
Soccer
37.9
Dance
44.5
Walking
32.7
Running/jogging
38.7
Swimming (at a pool)
29.9
Walking
37.8
Skateboarding/rollerblading
27.6
Swimming (at a pool)
28.4
Athletics
22.1
Skateboarding/rollerblading
24.3
Skipping with a rope
19.9
Walking the dog
18.3
Handball/4 square
18.6
Athletics
19.1
Dance
14.5
Gymnastics
11.3
Walking the dog
14.0
Soccer
9.9
Rugby league
11.6
Handball/4 square
8.3
Tennis
11.0
Tennis
6.8
Cricket
10.5
Basketball
5.3
Australian rules football
8.7
Martial arts
3.9
* There were 31 listed physical activities to choose from and space for others, not listed, to be added
89
Table 170 Physical activities* that Year 1 males and females had ‘usually’ participated in over the previous
year
Male
%
Female
%
Playing outside
74.3
Playing outside
76.9
Playing on playground equipment
75.0
Bike riding
71.4
Bike riding
67.5
Playing on playground equipment
71.3
Trampolining
61.7
Trampolining
63.2
Swimming (at a pool)
59.9
Swimming (at a pool)
61.3
Chores
58.6
Sports/PE at school
58.0
Sports/PE at school
57.9
Chores
57.5
Running/jogging
35.2
Skipping with a rope
49.8
Walking
34.7
Dance
39.0
Soccer
34.2
Walking
35.3
Skateboarding/rollerblading
29.6
Running/jogging
35.2
Athletics
23.1
Skateboarding/rollerblading
26.3
Skipping with a rope
21.8
Walking the dog
22.2
Cricket
18.5
Athletics
19.4
Walking the dog
17.1
Gymnastics
12.4
Handball/4 square
15.4
Soccer
8.0
Dance
14.0
Handball/4 square
7.8
6.9
Tennis
13.5
Tennis
Australian rules football
13.4
Basketball
4.9
Rugby league
10.8
Cricket
4.6
* There were 31 listed physical activities to chose from and space for others, not listed, to be added
For Year 1 children, common physical activities included general activities such as bike riding, playing outside,
trampolining, skipping and swimming. The most played sports were soccer, athletics, handball and cricket for
boys and gymnastics, soccer and athletics for girls.
Table 171 Participation in physical activities* over the previous week for Year 5 males and females
Male
%
Female
%
Sports/PE at school
87.7
Sports/PE at school
91.7
Playing outside
84.3
Playing outside
89.9
Chores
64.8
Chores
79.2
Running/jogging
63.5
Running/jogging
69.5
Bike riding
66.4
Bike riding
64.5
Handball/4 square
55.3
Walking
61.4
Soccer
52.7
Playing on playground equipment
60.6
Playing on playground equipment
49.1
Skipping with a rope
57.7
50.3
Walking
43.9
Trampolining
Skateboarding/rollerblading
42.5
Handball/4 square
47.3
Trampolining
42.4
Skateboarding/rollerblading
42.8
Athletics
35.5
Soccer
40.7
Rugby league
30.0
Dance
39.4
Swimming (at a pool)
26.1
Walking the dog
35.8
35.6
Walking the dog
25.9
Netball
Skipping with a rope
23.8
Athletics
36.8
Tennis
22.5
Swimming (at a pool)
33.3
Cricket
20.5
Basketball
22.9
AFL
19.0
Tennis
19.9
Basketball
17.9
Baseball/softball
16.3
* There were 31 listed physical activities to chose from and space for others, not listed, to be added
90
Table 172 Physical activities* that Year 5 males and females had ‘usually’ participated in over the previous
year
Male
%
Female
%
Playing outside
79.7
Playing outside
81.7
Sports/PE at school
74.7
Sports/PE at school
77.0
Bike riding
73.0
Bike riding
72.7
Swimming (at a pool)
62.0
Chores
71.5
Chores
59.0
Swimming (at a pool)
66.3
Running/jogging
57.9
Running/jogging
65.3
Handball/4 square
53.6
Playing on playground equipment
64.5
Playing on playground equipment
51.6
Skipping with a rope
64.0
Soccer
50.2
Walking
61.5
Trampolining
49.2
Trampolining
58.5
Athletics
47.2
Skateboarding/rollerblading
48.8
Skateboarding/rollerblading
46.9
Handball/4 square
47.9
Walking
44.7
Athletics
42.9
Walking the dog
34.4
Dance
42.6
Cricket
33.0
Walking the dog
40.6
Rugby league
29.8
Soccer
40.3
Skipping with a rope
29.4
Netball
40.3
Tennis
27.7
Tennis
24.8
AFL
23.0
Basketball
24.2
Basketball
18.3
Baseball/softball
22.6
* There were 31 listed physical activities to chose from and space for others, not listed, to be added
For Year 5 children, common physical activities included general activities such as bike riding, playing outside,
skipping and swimming. The most played sports were soccer, handball and athletics for boys and handball, soccer
and athletics for girls.
Table 173 Participation in physical activities* over the previous week for Year 10 males and females
Male
%
Female
%
Sports/PE at school
77.6
Chores
77.1
Chores
60.5
Sports/PE at school
68.5
Running/jogging
40.3
Walking
49.9
Bike riding
38.1
Running/jogging
41.0
Soccer
31.6
Dance
31.9
Touch football
29.6
Walking the dog
27.3
Rugby league
29.3
Athletics
24.8
Athletics
27.3
Touch football
23.4
22.3
Walking
22.9
Netball
Basketball
22.7
Basketball
19.4
Walking the dog
20.6
Soccer
19.3
Tennis
19.7
Tennis
16.1
Handball/4 square
15.4
Swimming (at a pool)
15.4
Swimming (at a pool)
12.8
Bike riding
14.9
11.3
AFL
11.8
Volleyball
Rugby union
11.1
Aerobics
8.5
Skateboarding/rollerblading
9.0
Handball/4 square
7.2
Volleyball
8.7
Cricket
4.6
Surfing
8.2
Scooter
4.4
Cricket
8.1
Hockey
4.2
* There were 35 listed physical activities to choose from and space for others, not listed, to be added
91
Table 174 Physical activities* that Year 10 males and females had ‘usually’ participated in over the previous
year
Male
%
Female
%
Sports/PE at school
71.0
Chores
72.9
Chores
61.2
Sports/PE at school
65.9
Bike riding
53.2
Walking
59.8
Swimming (at a pool)
48.3
Swimming (at a pool)
57.1
Running/jogging
47.7
Running/jogging
50.0
Soccer
42.8
Athletics
44.2
Touch football
41.4
Dance
37.8
Athletics
41.8
Walking the dog
36.2
Rugby league
39.4
Touch football
33.3
Walking
34.8
Soccer
33.1
Basketball
34.3
Netball
30.5
28.0
Cricket
33.1
Tennis
Walking the dog
30.8
Bike riding
26.9
Tennis
29.7
Basketball
25.5
Handball/4 square
28.6
Volleyball
21.7
Rugby union
24.7
Handball/4 square
17.4
Golf
22.6
Cricket
16.8
Skateboarding/rollerblading
18.0
Baseball/softball
14.3
Volleyball
17.2
Aerobics
14.2
AFL
17.0
Rollerblading
13.6
* There were 35 listed physical activities to choose from and space for others, not listed, to be added
For Year 10 children, common physical activities
included general activities such as bike riding, running,
walking and swimming. The most played ‘sports’ were
soccer, touch football, rugby league and athletics for
boys and athletics, touch football, soccer and netball
for girls.
Frequency of physical activity and sports
As well as recording whether they had participated in
certain physical activities over the previous week, the
children were also asked to record the number of times
they had done each specific activity during the week
and at the weekend.
The total number of times for each activity was
calculated, and averaged across the whole sample (i.e.
whether the activity had been participated in or not).
Year 10 children were also asked to record the time
spent on each activity.
Table 175 Top 12 most frequently participated activities for Year 1 children (averaged across the whole study
sample)
Male
Average number
of times per week
Female
Average number
of times per week
Playing outside
6.5
Playing outside
6.4
Playing at playground
4.4
Playing at playground
4.6
Chores
3.7
Chores
3.4
Bike riding
3.5
Trampolining
3.1
Trampolining
3.1
Bike riding
3.0
Running around/jogging
2.2
Skipping
2.3
Walking
1.2
Running around /jogging
2.1
PE/ school sports
1.2
PE/ school sports
1.4
Soccer
1.1
Walking
1.2
Skate-boarding/ rollerblading
1.0
Dance
1.0
Handball
0.5
Skate-boarding/ rollerblading
0.9
Skipping
0.5
Swimming
0.5
92
For both boys and girls in Year 1, the top twelve most
frequently participated activities were amongst the top
fifteen of the most common activities listed in Table 169
i.e. they were activities that a lot of children did, and on
average reported doing more than once a week. Simply
‘playing’ for children of this age was the major physical
activity, followed by bike riding and trampolining.
On average children reported one session of PE or
school sports per week. Soccer for boys, and dance for
girls, was the only form of organised physical activity
(apart from school PE/sports) that was engaged in, on
average, once per week or more.
Table 176 Top 12 most frequently participated activities for Year 5 children (averaged across the whole study
sample)
Male
Average number
of times per week
Female
Average number
of times per week
Playing outside
5.7
Playing outside
6.3
Chores
3.9
Chores
5.4
Bike riding
3.8
Running around/ jogging
3.6
Running around /jogging
3.4
Bike riding
2.9
Handball
2.5
Trampolining
2.7
Soccer
2.1
Walking
2.6
Trampolining
2.0
Playing at playground
2.3
Walking
1.8
Skipping
2.2
Skating/ rollerblading
1.8
Handball
1.7
Playing at playground
1.6
Skate-boarding/ rollerblading
1.6
PE/ school sports
1.6
Walking the dog
1.5
Rugby union
1.0
PE/ school sports
1.5
As with children in Year 1, for both boys and girls in Year
5, the top twelve most frequently participated activities
were amongst the top fifteen of the most common
activities listed in Table 171, i.e. they were activities
that a lot of children did, and on average reported
doing more than once a week. Playing and running
around were still reported as being frequent activities
that children participate in at this age. Organised sport
was more prominent than at Year 1, with boys in Year 5
reporting, on average, two or more sessions of soccer
and handball, and handball was also reported to be
played by girls more than once a week. Both boys and
girls in Year 5 reported, on average just over one and a
half sessions of PE or school sports in the past week.
As reported earlier, Year 10 children were also asked to
record the time they had spent in the various activities
over the past week.
Table 177 Top 12 most frequently participated activities over previous week for Year 10 children and time
(in minutes) spent on them (averaged across the whole study sample)
Male
Average number
of times per
week
Mean time
(mins)
Female
Average number
of times per
week
Mean time
(mins)
Chores
4.5
86
Chores
4.1
89
PE/ school sport
2.0
104
PE/ school sports
1.8
84
Running around/ jogging
1.8
36
Walking
1.6
52
Bike-riding
1.7
70
Running around/ jogging
1.1
32
Soccer
1.0
59
Walking the dog
1.0
23
Rugby league
0.9
52
Dancing
0.9
47
Cricket
0.9
20
Touch football
0.6
32
Walking
0.8
27
Netball
0.6
32
Walking the dog
0.8
25
Athletics
0.6
27
Touch football
0.8
30
Soccer
0.5
25
Handball
0.7
17
Swimming
0.5
20
Rugby union
0.6
25
Bike-riding
0.5
16
93
For Year 10 boys, the most frequently played sports and
physical activities were predominantly amongst the top
twelve most common activities (shown in Table 173),
with the exception of cricket and rugby union. Organised
sports were more prevalent amongst the list of top
frequently played activities in this older age group.
participated in at least once every two weeks. Year
10 girls were more likely than boys to report doing
‘lifestyle’ activities, such as walking, running, walking
the dog and dancing at least once a week. Both boys
and girls in Year 10 reported, on average, two sessions
of PE or school sports per week.
For Year 10 girls, the most frequently participated
activities were again amongst the most common
activities: they were activities that were popular and
The average time spent per week, across the whole
sample, for all listed physical activities in Year 10
children is shown in Table 178.
Table 178 Average time (in minutes) spent on physical activities and sports over the previous week by Year
10 children.
Male
Mean minutes per
week
Female
Mean minutes per
week
PE/ School sport
Chores
104
Chores
89
86
PE/ School sport
84
Bike-riding
70
Walking
52
Soccer
59
Dancing
47
32
Rugby league
52
Running around/ jogging
Running around/ jogging
36
Netball
32
Touch football
30
Touch football
32
Tennis
28
Athletics
27
Walking
27
Soccer
25
Basketball
27
Swimming
20
Surfing
27
Walking the dog
23
Skateboarding
25
Basketball
19
Walking the dog
25
Bike-riding
16
Rugby union
24
Tennis
16
Athletics
24
Volleyball
10
Cricket
20
Aerobics
8
AFL
20
Baseball/ Softball
5
Handball
17
Hockey
5
Golf
16
Surf-lifesaving
5
Hockey
13
Surfing
5
Swimming
11
Cricket
4
Volleyball
7
Gym
4
Baseball/ Softball
5
Handball
4
Netball
5
Martial arts
3
Canoeing
5
Rugby league
3
Scooter
4
Rollerblading
2
2
Martial arts
3
Rugby union
Surf-lifesaving
2
Golf
2
Rowing
2
AFL
2
2
Dancing
2
Scooter
Rollerblading
1
Rowing
2
Gym
1
Skateboarding
2
Aerobics
1
Canoeing
1
Triathlon
1
Waterpolo
1
Waterpolo
1
Triathlon
0
The average time spent on various physical activities and sports again highlights the important contribution of
school sport and PE towards overall time spent on physical activity per week.
94
Excluding chores and walking (either walking or walking
the dog), the average time spent on active play (e.g.
biking, skate-boarding, running) or sports over the
previous week, was just over 10 hours for boys in Year
10, and just over 7 hours for girls in Year 10.
To determine how many Year 10 boys and girls were
meeting physical activity recommendations, the
number of self-reported minutes on all physical
activities, over the previous week, were calculated
for each Year 10 child. Table 179 shows the mean and
standard deviation of accumulated time in physical
activities.
Table 179 Accumulated time over previous week on all physical activities by Year 10 children
Male
Minutes per week
mean (SD), median
Female
Minutes per week
mean(SD), median
All activities
787 (531), 710
All activities
584 (416), 470
All activities (excluding chores,
walking, and walking the dog)
646 (470), 530
All activities (excluding chores,
walking, and walking the dog)
420 (342), 325
Year 10 boys accumulated an average of just under 11
hours per week of physical activity excluding chores
and walking, and Year 10 girls, 7 hours per week.
The percentage who reached the national target of
60 minutes per day (420 minutes per week) was
also calculated. Sixty-three percent of Year 10 boys
accumulated 420 minutes in the previous week,
compared to 41% of Year 10 girls.
KEY POINTS
• Nine out of 10 of the Queensland children
surveyed, reported being involved with sport,
exercise or dance in the previous year.
• The most recorded physical activity for Year 1
children was playing outside, either as simple
playing, skipping and trampolining, or playing on
playground equipment.
• Bike riding was also a popular physical activity
for children of all ages, apart from Year 10 girls.
• Common sports across all ages were soccer and
athletics, with handball being popular among
the younger children and touch football popular
amongst the children in Year 10.
• School-based sports and physical education (PE)
provided a significant opportunity for physical
activity, listed as first or second activity for both
boys and girls in Years 5 and 10.
• For self–reported time spent in sports and
physical activity, just under two thirds of Year
10 boys were reaching a daily average of the
required 60 minutes per day, compared to two
fifths of Year 10 girls.
95
5.3
Physical activity patterns and electronic media for entertainment
The children were asked how many days of the past
seven days had they engaged in physical activity or
active play that raised their heart rate or caused them
to ‘huff and puff’ for a total of 60 minutes per day.
This was used as an indication of time spent in
moderate or vigorous physical activity and was
compared with the recommendations shown on the
previous page. The average number of days which they
achieved this recommendation is shown by Year and
sex in Table 180.
Table 180 Self reported frequency of the number of days over the past seven days that children engaged in
physical activity or active play that raised their heart rate or caused them to huff and puff for a
total of 60 minutes or more per day
n
Number of days in past
week
Mean (median)
Percentage of children who reported
every day in past 7 days
%
Percentage of children who reported
3 days or more in past 7 days
%
Year 1
Male
420
3.0 (3.3)
16.5
53.4
Female
394
2.2 (2.0)
6.3
35.1
Male
605
3.0 (3.0)
11.7
51.7
Female
696
3.0 (3.0)
9.5
53.5
Male
405
3.5 (3.0)
12.5
65.9
Female
505
2.8 (3.0)
4.8
52.6
Year 5
Year 10
On average, children reported that they achieved this
60-minute target on three days of the previous week.
The number of children who met the daily recommended
level of activity decreased with age, and was higher
amongst boys at all ages. The percentage of boys who
were active for 60 minutes a day over the past week
decreased from 16.5 % in Year 1 to 12.5% in Year 10 and
in girls, from 6.3% in Year 1 to 4.8% in Year 10.
The children were also asked to record how long
they had spent on the previous day (or most recent
school day) ‘watching television, videos, DVDs or playing
video or computer games for entertainment’ in daylight
hours. The mean number of minutes recorded is shown
in Table 181, along with the percentage of children who
spent more than two hours on these activities. Children
in years 1 and 5 recorded slightly more than 80 minutes
of screen-based electronic media entertainment,
whereas children in Year 10 reported on average just over
100 minutes on the previous day: Year 10 boys recorded
an average of two hours.
Table 181 Reported time spent and the percentage of children who spent more than two hours on screenbased electronic media for entertainment, during daylight hours in the previous day
n
Mean (SD) number of minutes
Median number of minutes
Percentage of children who
reported spending over
2 hours
Year 1
Male
431
83 (75)
75
16.0
Female
418
84 (64)
60
17.5
Year 5
Male
588
91 (73)
90
26.6
Female
681
79 (72)
60
19.2
Male
395
123 (103)
120
39.3
Female
498
91 (92)
60
27.0
Year 10
The percentage of children who exceeded two hours of screen-based electronic media for entertainment on the
previous day increased with age from 17% of Year 1 children to 23% of Year 5 children to 33% of children in Year
10. Almost two in five boys in Year 10 spent more than two hours of the previous day on screen-based electronic
media for entertainment.
96
Other leisure activities and past-times
Further details of time and type of screen based
entertainment and other leisure activities were also
collected. The children were asked to estimate the
number of minutes they had spent on specified
sedentary activities and leisure past-times, over the
previous seven days. The children were asked to think
about an average school day and also both Saturday
and Sunday. The mean and median number of minutes
spent on various such activities are shown in Tables
182 to 184.
Table 182 Mean (and median) time spent, in minutes, on leisure activities during the previous week for
Year 1 children
Year 1
School Day
Saturday
Sunday
Male
(mins)
Female
(mins)
Male
(mins)
Female
(mins)
Male
(mins)
Female
(mins)
Watch TV show
97 (60)
92 (60)
85 (60)
91 (60)
74 (60)
77 (60)
Watch videos’s/ DVDs
19 (0)
17 (0)
60 (0)
65 (60)
50 (0)
54 (50)
Play video games
11 (0)
2 (0)
31 (0)
8 (0)
26 (0)
5 (0)
Use a computer for fun (chat, surf, games, MSN)
9 (0)
8 (0)
15 (0)
11 (0)
11 (0)
10 (0)
Study, homework or extra tutoring
50 (30)
38 (30)
6 (0)
5 (0)
5 (0)
4 (0)
Read for fun
26 (15)
27 (15)
14 (0)
22 (15)
13 (0)
18 (10)
Chat on phone / texting / SMS
1 (0)
2 (0)
1 (0)
2 (0)
1 (0)
1 (0)
Hang out out home, park or shopping centre
84 (0)
80 (0)
98 (0)
112 (0)
86 (0)
106 (0)
Do hobbies, craft
21 (0)
19 (0)
26 (0)
43 (30)
24 (0)
37 (0)
Music lesson, practice
4 (0)
3 (0)
1 (0)
2 (0)
1 (0)
1 (0)
Travel in a car, train, bus or boat/ferry
46 (30)
44 (30)
38 (30)
43 (30)
36 (30)
39 (30)
Go to church or Sunday school
2 (0)
2 (0)
1 (1)
2 (0)
15 (0)
13 (0)
Table 183 Mean (and median) time spent, in minutes, on leisure activities during the previous week for Year
5 children
Year 5
School Day
Saturday
Sunday
Male
(mins)
Female
(mins)
Male
(mins)
Female
(mins)
Male
(mins)
Female
(mins)
Watch TV show
109 (90)
105 (60)
117 (120)
101 (60)
108 (90)
84 (60)
Watch videos’s/ DVDs
18 (0)
17 (0)
56 (30)
55 (20)
46 (0)
41 (0)
Play video games
28 (0)
6 (0)
60 (30)
17 (0)
58 (30)
15 (0)
Use a computer for fun (chat, surf, games, MSN)
23 (0)
24 (0)
30 (0)
27 (0)
26 (0)
22 (0)
Study, homework or extra tutoring
46 (30)
49 (30)
6 (0)
8 (0)
4 (0)
7 (0)
Read for fun
29 (15)
36 (20)
18 (0)
26 (10)
17 (0)
25 (0)
Chat on phone / texting / SMS
4 (0)
6 (0)
5 (0)
6 (0)
4 (0)
5 (0)
Hang out out home, park or shopping centre
78 (0)
70 (0)
99 (30)
115 (30)
111 (0)
103 (0)
Do hobbies, craft
17 (0)
22 (0)
27 (0)
26 (0)
24 (0)
24 (0)
Music lesson, practice
17 (10)
27 (10)
5 (0)
10(0)
4 (0)
10 (0)
Travel in a car, train, bus or boat/ferry
39 (20)
42 (20)
44 (30)
34 (30)
35 (10)
32 (10)
Go to church or Sunday school
4 (0)
3 (0)
4 (0)
6 (0)
12 (0)
17 (0)
97
Table 184 Mean (and median) time spent, in minutes, on leisure activities during the previous week for Year
10 children
Year 10
School Day
Saturday
Sunday
Male
(mins)
Female
(mins)
Male
(mins)
Female
(mins)
Male
(mins)
Female
(mins)
Watch TV show
156 (120)
138 (120)
145 (120)
109 (90)
149 (120)
108 (90)
Watch videos’s/ DVDs
22 (0)
18 (0)
60 (0)
60 (0)
43 (0)
45 (0)
Play video games
37 (0)
4 (0)
73 (0)
6 (0)
57 (0)
8 (0)
Use a computer for fun (chat, surf, games, MSN)
72 (30)
92 (60)
65 (30)
73 (30)
59 (0)
67 (30)
Study, homework or extra tutoring
65 (45)
78 (60)
28 (0)
34 (0)
32 (0)
40 (0)
Read for fun
21 (0)
29 (0)
13 (0)
19 (0)
13 (0)
17 (0)
Chat on phone / texting / SMS
30 (1)
71 (30)
31 (0)
65 (20)
28 (0)
51 (10)
Hang out out home, park or shopping centre
98 (0)
112 (30)
125 (60)
139 (60)
134 (0)
115 (0)
Do hobbies, craft
34 (0)
27 (0)
49 (0)
29 (0)
41 (0)
19 (0)
Music lesson, practice
14 (0)
22 (0)
5 (0)
9 (0)
5 (0)
7 (0)
Travel in a car, train, bus or boat/ferry
69 (30)
71 (45)
39 (25)
41 (30)
36 (20)
34 (15)
Go to church or Sunday school
9 (0)
5 (0)
3 (0)
3 (0)
8 (0)
17 (0)
These data confirm that television viewing is one of
the major leisure activities enjoyed by children and a
leisure pursuit that increases with age. These data also
demonstrate increasing time spent on all electronic
media entertainment as children get older, with boys
in Year 10 spending on average more than three hours
per day on TV, videos and DVD’s and electronic games.
There was also a marked increase for Year 10 children in
the use of computers for chatting, surfing and games;
reported to be as much as 60 minutes per day or more
on both weekdays and weekend days, for both boys
and girls. It was notable too that Year 10 girls reported
spending, on average, an hour per day on the phone,
either chatting or texting, and this was double that of
Year 10 boys.
The second major leisure activity was simply ‘hanging
out’, either at home, in the park or at a shopping
centre. This took up on average 2 hours of the day on
weekend days for Year 10 boys and girls. Whilst more
time was allocated to studying in the older children,
notably those in Year 10, hobbies and travelling
changed little with age.
KEY POINTS
Over the week before the survey:
• The percentage of children who self-reported
meeting the daily recommendations of
60 minutes of moderate or vigorous physical
activity over the past week decreased with age
and was higher in boys than girls at all ages.
• One in six Year 1 boys were active for an hour
every day and this dropped to one in eight by
Year 10. One in 15 Year 1 girls were active for an
hour every day and this decreased to one in 20 by
Year 10.
On the school day before the survey:
• The average Queensland child, aged 5 to 17,
spent 90 minutes per day on screen-based
electronic media for entertainment with boys on
average spending more time than girls.
• Time spent on screen-based electronic media
increased with age. More than two in five boys
and one in four Year 10 girls exceeded the current
daily recommendations.
In general:
• Television viewing is the predominant leisure
behaviour of Queensland children and is a leisure
habit that children spend more time on with age.
• Time spent on all electronic media increases with
age, with Year 10 children spending three to four
• hours per week day and weekend day on a variety
of electronic media.
• Simply ‘hanging out’ is how Year 10 defined
spending up to two hours of each day over the
weekends
98
5.4
Self-reported activity levels
School Sports/ PE
The children were asked to self-report on how often
they were very active at specific occasions over the past
week:
• At school sports and PE
• At breaks at school (morning & afternoon/ lunch)
• After school/ in the evenings/ at weekends
The children were asked to report how often they were
very active in school sports or PE (very active was
defined as activity that raised their heart rate or caused
them to ‘huff and puff’).
Table 185 Self-reported perception of being ‘very active’ in school sports or PE over the previous week
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Didn’t do
Sports/ PE
Hardly ever
Sometimes
Quite often
Always
Don’t Know
Male
441
2.2
2.7
25.5
27.5
19.6
22.5
Female
428
2.3
2.8
30.3
30.3
14.5
19.8
Male
625
2.7
5.5
27.1
36.7
27.7
0.3
Female
720
3.3
6.3
26.2
36.4
27.6
0.2
Male
415
13.0
5.1
22.4
35.7
23.8
0
Female
528
14.6
7.8
26.4
34.6
16.6
0
Breaks at school:
The children were asked about what they mostly did during the morning/afternoon break and during the
lunchbreak whilst at school (besides eating food).
i) Morning/ Afternoon
Table 186 Self-reported activity during a usual morning or afternoon break at school over the previous week
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Male
n
Sat down
(talking/
reading/
study)
Stood or
walked
around
Ran or
played a
little
Ran or
played quite
a bit
Ran or
played hard
most of the
time
Don’t know
445
5.7
1.9
26.9
41.5
17.9
6.1
Female
436
8.7
7.7
37.1
33.7
7.3
5.5
Male
620
6.8
7.1
24.6
27.6
33.9
0
Female
716
11.2
11.4
28.4
29.7
19.3
0
Male
416
24.7
36.3
18.4
13.7
6.9
0
Female
525
36.0
49.4
8.9
3.8
1.6
0.3
There was a clear trend for both morning/afternoon
break and lunch break for the children, both boys and
girls, to report being less active as they got older. Most
notable were the Year 10 girls, of whom more than
75%, or over three in four, reported either sitting down
or standing and walking around as their predominant
activity during the break. The most active group of
children in school break times were the Year 1 boys.
99
ii) Lunchbreak
Table 187 Self-reported activity during a usual lunch break at school over the previous week
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
Sat down
(talking/
reading/
study)
Stood or
walked
around
Ran or
played a
little
Ran or
played quite
a bit
Ran or
played hard
most of the
time
Played
organised
sport
Male
429
1.0
0.8
10.1
48.5
39.1
0.5
Female
418
2.8
2.6
24.7
52.8
16.7
0.4
Male
621
3.5
2.7
12.2
22.7
42.9
16.0
Female
717
4.9
9.3
17.4
29.5
28.3
10.6
Male
412
20.7
35.7
12.7
13.0
6.1
11.8
Female
528
33.1
50.7
6.7
5.3
1.8
2.4
After school
The children were asked on how many days
immediately after school, in the previous week, did
they participate in sports, dance or play games in
which they were very active. Again, the criteria for very
active was whether the activity raised their heart rate
of caused them to ‘huff and puff’. They were given a
choice of different categories; none, one day in the last
week, two or three days in the last week, 4 days, or five
days. The responses are shown in the Tables below.
Over half of all children reported doing activity in the
afternoon straight after school that they considered
‘very active’ on at least two or three of the previous five
school days. While the differences with age or sex were
slight, they were present; the percentage of children
who reported no days of being very active rose with age
and in turn, the percentage who reported being very
active every day after school decreased with age.
Table 188 Self-reported frequency of being ‘very active’ in the time straight after school over the previous
week.
n
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
None
One day
Two or three
days
Four days
Five days
Male
460
9.7
16.1
41.6
11.9
20.7
Female
458
13.0
17.4
43.4
14.2
11.9
Male
624
19.9
20.3
31.4
11.1
17.2
Female
717
18.1
20.7
37.8
12.0
11.4
Male
417
16.1
14.7
34.2
16.2
18.7
Female
526
21.3
21.4
38.0
12.3
6.9
In the evenings
The children were also asked on how many evenings, in
the previous week, did they participate in sports, dance
or play games in which they were very active. Again, the
criteria for very active was whether the activity raised
their heart rate of caused them to ‘huff and puff’.
Table 189 Self-reported frequency of being ‘very active’ in the evenings over the previous week.
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
None
One day
Two or three
days
Four or five
days
Six or seven
days
Male
460
48.6
21.1
20.1
4.7
5.5
Female
457
59.7
18.9
15.3
3.7
2.5
Male
622
37.8
20.9
26.1
9.1
6.0
Female
718
32.4
26.9
26.9
9.0
4.8
Male
413
26.6
20.7
34.8
11.2
6.5
Female
524
31.6
29.0
28.1
8.9
2.3
100
Two thirds of Year 5 and 10 children and a half of Year
1 children spent at least one evening in the week in
which they were very active. On average one in three of
all children self-reported being very active on at least
two or three evenings in the previous week.
At weekends
As per evening activity, the children were also asked to
reflect on the past weekend and report how many
times they had been very active.
Table 190 Self-reported frequency of being ‘very active’ over the previous week.
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
n
None
One time
Two or three
times
Four or five
times
Six or more
times
Male
459
9.6
23.0
41.8
15.8
9.9
Female
454
12.5
21.6
48.9
10.0
7.0
Male
621
12.0
25.4
38.2
15.3
9.1
Female
712
14.2
25.7
37.7
13.8
8.6
Male
413
14.9
28.7
41.8
9.0
5.7
Female
524
28.9
34.4
28.7
5.6
2.4
One in ten Year 1 children and one in eight Year 5 children
reported no time spent being very active on the previous
weekend. This was higher still in Year 10, with one in
seven boys and just under one in three girls reporting
no activity which raised their heart rate. However, some
children were very active. Over 60% of Year 1 children
reported being active on at least two or three occasions
over the weekend, though this decreased with age to
just over 50% of Year 5 children and 50% of Year 10 boys
and just over a third of Year 10 girls.
KEY POINTS
• Across all self-reported activities, with the
exception of evenings, Year 10 girls were more
likely to report being less active compared to Year
10 boys and younger girls
• Half of all children surveyed reported that they
were very active after school on at least two or
three days in the previous week and a third of all
Year 5 and 10 children active at least two to three
evenings in the week.
101
5.5
Active transport
Children recorded the number of times they had
walked and the number of times they had cycled to
or from school in the previous week. Table 191 shows
the percentage of children who had walked or cycled
between home and school at least once in the past
week, and those that had done so every day.
The number of children who had walked or cycled to
school in the previous week increased with age; 22% of
Year 1 children, 36% of Year 5 children and 42% of Year
10 children had walked or cycled at least once in the
past week.
Table 191 Percentage of children engaging in ‘active transport’ to or from school over the previous week
n
Percentage who
had not walked or
cycled in previous
week
(%)
Percentage who
had walked at
least once
(%)
Percentage who
had walked every
day
(%)
Percentage who
had cycled at least
once
(%)
Percentage who
had cycled every
day
(%)
Year 1
Male
479
79.2
16.1
4.4
4.3
0.6
Female
475
74.1
22.1
5.4
2.3
0.3
Year 5
Male
647
68.0
22.1
6.0
12.1
1.9
Female
742
62.5
27.0
5.1
7.8
0.7
Male
415
58.7
34.9
11.5
13.0
3.3
Female
527
57.2
42.1
13.8
1.8
0.1
Year 10
Children were also asked how they had got to school
on the day of the survey and how they had got home
from school on the day before the survey. Similar to the
findings shown in Table 189 about the previous week,
the percentage of children who had either walked or
cycled (all of the way or part of the way) to school on
the day of the survey increased with age, with 14.2%
and 13.2% of Year 1 boys and girls, 22.9% and 23.2%
of Year 5 boys and girls and 36.9 and 35.1% of Year 10
boys and girls respectively reporting active transport.
Getting home from school followed a similar pattern;
16.7% and 15.5 % of Year 1 boys and girls, 26.7% and
27.6% of Year 5 boys and girls and 41.1% and 45.4%
of Year 10 boys and girls respectively either walked or
cycled all or part of the way home from school.
Table 192 and 193 shows the percentage of children
who had used either a car or public transport to get to
school on the day of the survey or from school on the
day before the survey.
Table 192 Percentage of children who used a car or public transport to get to school on the day of the survey
n
Percentage who
travelled by car*
Percentage who
travelled by bus*
Percentage who
travelled by train/
ferry *
Percentage who
walked to bus,
train or ferry
Percentage who
cycled to bus,
train or ferry
Year 1
Male
460
77.7
5.6
0.0
1.5
0.1
Female
459
77.8
5.4
0.0
2.3
0.0
Male
623
63.2
8.8
0.6
3.1
0.5
Female
717
66.5
9.1
0.3
2.4
0.1
Male
416
38.8
28.0
3.3
13.4
0.6
Female
522
49.1
20.0
2.1
18.3
0.0
Year 5
Year 10
* these are not mutually exclusive i.e. some children may have been driven part of the way and then taken a bus
102
Table 193 Percentage of children who used a car or public transport to get home from school on the day
before the survey
n
Percentage who
travelled by car*
Percentage who
travelled by bus*
Percentage who
travelled by train/
ferry *
Percentage who
walked or cycled
to bus
Percentage who
walked or cycled
to train/ ferry
Year 1
Male
460
75.2
5.5
0.0
1.9
0.0
Female
458
74.4
5.6
0.0
2.7
0.0
Year 5
Male
620
54.6
13.9
0.0
4.4
0.5
Female
717
60.8
10.2
0.0
3.9
0.1
Male
416
32.5
30.6
3.3
15.7
1.0
Female
523
34.0
23.3
2.0
22.4
0.0
Year 10
* these are not mutually exclusive i.e. some children may have been driven part of the way and then taken a bus
Being driven to and from school by car was the mode of
transport for just over three-quarters of Year 1 children.
Half of Year 5 children and about a third of Year 10
children were driven to and from school. Use of public
transport increased with age, with approximately one
in four Year 10 children using the bus to get to and from
school, and more than one in three using some form
of public transport on their route to and from school.
Children, at all ages, were more likely to use public
transport to get home from school than to get to school
from home.
KEY POINTS
• 5% of Years 1 and 5 children engaged in active
transport to and from school on a daily basis.
• 20% of Years 1 and 5 children engaged in active
transport to or from school at least once a week.
• 75% of Year 1 children reported no participation
in active transport to or from school in the
previous week.
• Participation in active transport increased with
age; more than one-third of Year 10 children
participated in active transport at least once a
week and over 10% either cycled or walked to
and from school daily.
• On the day of the survey, over 75% of Year 1
children had been driven to school by car.
• On the day of the survey, use of public transport
to get to school increased with age, with more
than one in three Year 10 children using some
form of public transport on the route to or from
school.
103
5.6
Perceptions about physical activity
The children were asked whether they agreed or
disagreed to statements concerning their current
physical activity and their future physical activity.
A category for those who ‘didn’t know’ was also
provided. The following two tables present data for
those who agreed with the statements provided about
both current and future physical activity.
Table 194 Statements about current physical activity; percentage of children who agreed with the following
comments about physical activity and/or sport
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
I do a lot of physical activity
88.0
84.0
81.5
72.6
80.9
55.4
I look funny when I am physically active
12.0
10.3
11.3
12.3
16.9
28.0
I don’t have enough time for physical activity
24.2
19.8
6.3
6.3
11.2
15.6
I prefer to watch TV or play electronic games
35.1
30.5
23.2
13.6
15.5
12.8
I don’t have anyone to be physically active with
11.1
9.0
11.7
12.8
16.9
20.4
I don’t like physical activity
9.5
8.0
5.8
4.2
3.7
8.1
There are no parks or sports grounds near where I live
14.8
16.7
19.6
16.2
18.1
19.8
The other kids make fun of me when I am physically active
9.4
7.7
6.9
5.2
5.3
5.5
I don’t think I’m very good at physical activity
11.3
10.3
9.4
10.2
9.0
22.0
I have a health problem that prevents me from being physically active
2.6
1.5
3.8
2.9
3.8
5.9
I have an injury that prevents me from being physically active
0.8
0.9
3.1
3.8
6.0
8.0
I am scared I might get hurt if I played sport
11.7
13.6
6.3
7.6
3.4
6.2
I don’t have proper clothing or shoes to play sport
5.3
3.1
4.0
3.2
5.2
6.8
I don’t like how being active makes me feel (hot, sweaty)
18.5
18.5
9.4
15.7
4.0
12.8
I don’t feel safe being physically active outside my home
4.1
8.2
4.8
5.3
1.9
3.3
Table 195 Statements about future physical activity; percentage of children who agreed with the following
comments about how being physically active might affect them over the next year
Year 1
Year 5
Year 10
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Keep me healthy
96.9
97.4
95.4
97.8
98.3
98.2
Help me improve my learning
74.6
75.9
62.2
67.6
62.8
61.0
Improve my appearance
69.2
69.6
69.2
68.4
83.2
82.6
Make me feel good about myself
85.5
87.8
87.4
89.2
89.4
88.8
Make or keep me fit
94.0
93.7
95.7
95.4
98.0
96.8
Prevent me from doing other things I like more
18.3
16.9
21.8
19.6
20.9
23.5
Help me lose weight or help me control my weight
51.2
58.6
75.5
75.7
68.8
81.3
Let me have a lot of fun
95.4
95.6
93.9
95.9
89.3
78.5
Make my parents happy
87.7
90.4
83.0
82.5
59.3
52.6
Help me spend time with my friends
91.4
92.9
81.4
78.2
76.0
58.8
Help me make new friends
86.8
90.8
80.8
78.7
72.8
68.0
Current physical activity
There was similarity across ages for many statements,
in particular being concerned about getting hurt, not
having the right clothing, having other kids make fun of
them and having no parks or sports grounds near them,
changed little across age or gender. Other statements
had marked changes across ages. Girls in Year 10 were
much less likely to report doing a lot of activity and
more likely to think that they were not very good at
physical activity and were more conscious about how
they looked during physical activity. Both boys and girls
in Year 10 were less likely to prefer playing electronic
games over physical activity compared to children
in Years 1 and 5 and more likely to report not having
anyone to be physically active with.
104
Future physical activity
In thinking about future activity, there was similarity
across ages for many statements. The majority of
children believed that being physically active over the
next year would keep them healthy, keep them fit and
make them feel good about themselves. Whilst about
70% of Year 1 and 5 children felt that being active would
improve their appearance, this was thought by over
80% of Year 10 children. This is also reflected by over
80% of Year 10 girls who believed that physical activity
would help them lose or maintain weight; this belief
lessened with age, with only just over half of Year 1
children agreeing with this statement. Having fun and
spending time with friends, old and new, was seen by
most Year 1 and 5 children as something they would get
out of being active; this was not such a dominant belief
in Year 10 children.
KEY POINTS
• Most children reported doing that they already did
a lot of physical activity, with the exception of
Year 10 girls, where only half reported doing so
• One in six children reported there being no parks
or recreation grounds nearby to play
• Less than 5% of all children perceived that it was
unsafe to be active outside their home
• The majority of children believed being active was
important to keep them healthy
• Three quarters of Year 5 and Year 10 children
associated physical activity as being important in
maintaining their body weight.
105
6.0 Concluding comments
This Healthy Kids Queensland Survey provides data
that will be used to inform health policies for the
benefit of all Queenslanders. Ideally this crosssectional project will be repeated in subsequent years
to provide Queensland with a thorough, longitudinal
database of patterns of physical activity and nutrition in
Queensland children.
This data set was collected over a six-month period
in 2006 by five field teams comprising 4-6 research
assistants. We are grateful to the school systems,
schools, teachers, students and their families who
so enthusiastically embraced this project. Their
cooperation was essential to the success of the Survey.
The data in this Report give a snapshot of key patterns
of BMI, nutrition, food habits and physical activity for
Queensland children aged 5-17 years. Where
appropriate, comparisons were made with comparable
data from the 1985 ACHPER Survey 35 and the more
recent surveys in Western Australia 28 and New South
Wales. 27 A summary of the findings is given in the
Executive Summary on pages 11-13.
106
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108
Appendix I Classification of Food Groups
Foods and beverages from the 24-hour food record were classified into major food categories according to the
classification system used in the 1995 National Nutrition Survey.36
Major Food Category
Sub-Major Food Category
Example
Non-alcoholic beverages
Tea
Black tea, white tea, herbal tea
Coffee and coffee substitutes
Black coffee, white coffee, coffee substitutes
Fruit and vegetable juices and drinks
Apple juice, pineapple fruit drink, cordial
Soft drinks, flavoured mineral waters
and electrolyte drinks
Lemonade, tonic water, fruit-flavoured mineral water,
sports drinks
Mineral waters and water
Natural mineral water, bottled water, tap water
Water with other additions as a
beverage
Drinking chocolate (and other beverage flavours) made
with water
Flours and other cereal grains and
starches
Cornmeal, couscous, bulgar
Regular breads and rolls
Bread, bread roll, bagel
Breakfast cereals, plain, single source
Bran, wheat breakfast biscuits, puffed rice, corn flakes
Fancy breads, flat breads, English style
muffins and crumpets
Lavash bread, cheese-topped bread, focaccia, fruit
bread, tortilla
Pasta and pasta products
Ravioli, wholemeal pasta, rice noodles
Rice and rice products
Rice, rice cake, flavoured rice
Breakfast cereals, mixed sources
Muesli, wheat flakes with added fruit and nuts,
breakfast bar
Breakfast cereal, hot porridge type
Regular oats, oats with honey, cooked semolina
Sweet biscuits
Shortbread, chocolate biscuits, homemade chocolate
chip biscuits
Savoury biscuits
Water cracker, crispbread
Cakes, buns, muffins, scones, caketype desserts
Cake, sweet bun, brioche, pudding, slice, savoury, dumpling, sweet
dumpling
Pastries
Croissant, apple pie, danish pastry, quiche, meat pie,
spinach and cheese triangle
Mixed dishes where cereal is the major
ingredient
Pizza, commercial hamburger, burrito, spring roll, packet pasta and
sauce, lasagne, fried rice
Batter-based products
Pancakes, waffle, apple fritter, doughnut
Dairy fats
Butter, ghee, dairy blend
Margarine
Margarine
Vegetable oil
Vegetable oil, sesame oil, olive oil
Other fats
Dripping, lard, copha, solid frying fat
Unspecified fats
Unspecified spreads
Fin fish (excluding canned)
Fried flathead, poached bream, baked ling, smoked
salmon
Crustacea and molluscs (excluding
canned)
Abalone, calamari, mussel, oyster, snail
Other sea and freshwater foods
Roe, eel
Packed (canned and bottled) fish and
seafood
Canned anchovy, canned salmon
Fish and seafood products
Battered and crumbed fish, salmon patty, fish stick
Mixed dishes with fish or seafood as
the major component
Tuna mornay, kedgeree, prawn toast, fish casserole,
paella with seafood
Cereals and cereal products
Cereal-based products and
dishes
Fats and oils
Fish and seafood products
and dishes
109
Major Food Category
Sub-Major Food Category
Example
Fruit products and dishes
Pome fruit
Fresh pear, canned apple, stewed quince
Stone fruit
Apricot, cherry, peach, plum
Tropical fruit
Banana, pineapple, mango, pawpaw
Other fruit
Date, fig, grape, melon, passionfruit
Mixtures of two or more groups of fruit
Fruit salad, canned two fruits
Dried fruit, preserved fruit
Sultana, banana chip, dried peach
Mixed dishes where fruit is the major
component
Glace fruit, toffee apple, fruit crumble
Eggs
Fried egg, poached egg, quail egg
Dishes where egg is the major
ingredient
Scrambled egg, omelette, souffle
Egg substitutes and dishes
Egg substitute
Muscle meat
Beef, corned beef, lamb, pork, bacon, ham, veal
Game and other carcase meat
Kangaroo, rabbit, venison
Poultry and feathered game
Chicken, turkey, duck, quail, emu
Organ meats and offal products and
dishes
Liver, kidney, tongue, brain, black pudding, pate
Sausages, frankfurters and saveloys
Beef sausage, frankfurt
Processed meat
Processed delicatessen meats, ham paste, canned
corned beef
Mixed dishes where beef or veal is the
major component
Beef curry, veal casserole, hamburger patty, pork and
veal meatballs
Mixed dishes where lamb, pork, bacon,
ham is the major component
Lamb meatballs, pork stir-fry, pork sausage
Mixed dishes where poultry or game is
the major component
Chicken curry, rabbit stew, satay chicken
Dairy milk
Milk, goats milk, evaporated milk, powdered milk
Yoghurt
Yoghurt, yoghurt dip, buttermilk
Cream
Cream, sour cream, mock cream, sour cream-based dip
Cheese
Cottage cheese, camembert cheese, cheese fondue
Frozen milk products
Ice cream, thickshake, frozen yoghurt
Other dishes where milk or a milk
product is the major component
Creme caramel, custard, baked rice custard,
cheesecake, mousse
Milk substitutes
Soy beverages, tofu-based ice confection, soy cheese
Flavoured milks
Egg flip, milkshake, flavoured milk, smoothie
Soup
Homemade broth, reconstituted vegetable soup
Dry soup mix
Tomato soup mix, chicken and noodle instant dry mix
Canned condensed soup
Condensed minestrone soup
Seed and nut product and
dishes
Seed and seed products
Pumpkin seed, sesame seed, tahini
Nut and nut products
Cashew nuts, peanut butter, coconut cream
Savoury sauces and
condiments
Gravies and savoury sauces
Fish stock, gravy, black bean sauce, tomato sauce,
white sauce, simmer sauce, commercial pasta sauce
Pickles, chutneys and relishes
Apple sauce, mustard, mint jelly, olives, pickles
Salad dressings
Mayonnaise, salad dressing, vinegar
Stuffings
Commercial stuffing, rice and nut stuffing
Egg products and dishes
Meat, poultry and game
products and dishes
Milk products and dishes
Soups
110
Major Food Category
Sub-Major Food Category
Example
Vegetable products and
dishes
Potatoes
Cooked potato, canned potato, hot potato chips, mashed potato,
potato patty, potato salad
Cabbage, cauliflower and similar
brassica vegetables
Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, sauerkraut
Carrot and similar root vegetables
Beetroot, carrot, parsnip, radish, sweet potato
Legumes and pulse
products and dishes
Snack foods
Sugar products and dishes
Confectionary and health
bars
Miscellaneous
Leaf and stalk vegetables
Alfalfa, bean sprout, chives, lettuce, parsley, spinach
Peas and beans
Green beans, peas, snow peas
Tomato and tomato products
Raw tomato, sun-dried tomato, tomato paste
Other fruiting vegetables
Pumpkin, zucchini, avocado, cucumber, eggplant, okra
Other vegetable and vegetable
combinations
Corn, mushrooms, seaweed, garlic, onion, shallot, mixed
vegetables, Caesar salad, coleslaw
Dishes where vegetable is the major
component
Cauliflower in cheese sauce, vegetables in Thai sauce,
ratatouille, stuffed zucchini
Mature legumes and pulses
Kidney beans, chick peas, lentils
Mature legume and pulse products
and dishes
Pappadum, baked beans, tofu, vegetarian sausages
Potato snacks
Potato crisps, potato straw
Corn snacks
Corn chips, popcorn
Extruded snacks
Pork rind snack, prawn crackers, cheese flavour extruded snacks
Pretzels and other snacks
Pretzels, oriental snack mix
Sugar, honey and syrups
Glace icing, white sugar, fairy floss, honey, golden
syrup, chocolate topping
Jams and lemon spreads, chocolate
spreads
Jam, marmalade, lemon butter
Dishes and products other than
confectionery where sugar is the major
component
Meringue, sorbet, icing with added fat
Chocolate and chocolate-based
confectionery
Chocolate, chocolate bars, liqueur-filled chocolates,
peanut brittle
Cereal-, fruit-, nut- and seed-bars
Muesli-bar, fruit leather, sesame seed-bar
Other confectionery
Coconut ice, fudge, licorice, hundreds and thousands,
boiled lollies, turkish delight, chewing gum
Beverage flavourings
Dry beverage flavourings, cocoa, malted milk powder
Yeast; yeast, vegetable and meat
extracts
Compressed yeast, beef extract, yeast extract spread
Artificial sweetening agents
Saccharine artificial sweetener, aspartame artificial
sweetener tablet
Herbs, spices, seasonings and stock
cubes
Chilli powder, curry paste, mint, pepper, bacon chips
Chemical-raising agents and cooking
ingredients
Baking powder, baking soda, gelatine
111
Appendix II Anthropometry Form (Year 10)
112
Appendix III Food Frequency Questionnaire (Year 10)
(EALTHY+IDS1UEENSLAND
0HYSICAL!CTIVITYAND.UTRITION3URVEY
#/.&)$%.4)!,
CONDUCTEDBY4HE5NIVERSITYOF1UEENSLANDWITHFUNDINGPROVIDEDBY1UEENSLAND(EALTH
3CHOOLOF-EDICINE
3CHOOLOF(UMAN-OVEMENT3TUDIES
3CHOOLOF0OPULATION(EALTH
Food Frequency Questionnaire for
High School Students
0HYSICAL!CTIVITY.UTRITION3URVEY
www.som.uq.edu/healthykidsqld
!NINITIATIVEOF%AT7ELL"E!CTIVE
n(EALTHY+IDSFOR,IFE
4HE1UEENSLAND'OVERNMENTS
lRSTACTIONPLANn
4OBECOMPLETEDBYTHESTUDENTWITHASSISTANCEFROM
APARENTORGUARDIANIFREQUIRED
4HANKYOUFORlLLINGOUTTHISQUESTIONNAIREASHONESTLYASPOSSIBLE
4HISISNOTATEST9OURCOOPERATIONISAPPRECIATED
Questionnaire checked: ______/ ______/
with student? (pls tick)
OYes ONo
RA Signature:
School
Year
Class
Initial
Student
Date
Entry 1
)$
.O
Entry 2
Queensland
Page 2
"ACKGROUND
.OTMUCHISKNOWNABOUTTHETYPESANDAMOUNTSOFFOODSANDDRINKSCONSUMEDBYTEENAGERSTODAY3UCHINFORMATIONISESSENTIALTO
DESIGNHEALTHANDEDUCATIONPROGRAMSANDSERVICES9OURANSWERSTOTHISQUESTIONNAIREABOUTYOURUSUALPATTERNOFFOODINTAKEARE
IMPORTANTANDWILLADDTOTHEOVERALLPICTUREOFWHATTEENAGERSEATANDDRINK
3ECTIONASKSHOWOFTENONAVERAGEYOUCONSUMEDCERTAINFOODSANDDRINKSDURINGTHELASTMONTHS
3ECTIONASKSQUESTIONSABOUTAMOUNTSANDTYPESOFFOODSMEALSANDWAYSOFEATING
#ONlDENTIALITY
0LEASEPLACETHECOMPLETEDQUESTIONNAIREINTHEPLASTICSURVEYPACKPROVIDEDANDRETURNTOTHESCHOOL
/NLYTHERESEARCHTEAMWILLSEEYOURANSWERSANDWEWILLTREATALLINFORMATIONINTHESTRICTESTCONlDENCE
(OWTOlLLINTHEQUESTIONNAIRE
5SETHEPENCILPROVIDEDTOANSWERALLQUESTIONS3IMPLYMARKTHEMOSTAPPROPRIATECOLUMNWITHA
0LEASEMARKONEBOXFOREVERYFOODLISTEDIN3ECTIONANDEVERYQUESTIONIN3ECTION
%XAMPLE3ECTION
!VERAGETIMESEATENINTHELASTMONTHS
-ONTHLYORLESS
4ICKONEBOXFOREACHFOODITEM
.EVER
2OASTMEATEGBEEFLAMBPORK
,ESSTHAN
XMONTH
7EEKLY
nTIMES
AMONTH
113
/NCEA
WEEK
nTIMES
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$AILY
nTIMES
AWEEK
/NCE
ADAY
nTIMES
ADAY
TIMESA
DAY
Queensland
Page 3
3%#4)/.
0LEASEREADTHISPAGEBEFORECOMPLETINGTHEQUESTIONSABOUTHOWOFTENFOODSWEREEATEN
&OREACHFOODITEMLISTEDTICKTHEBOXTHATBESTREPRESENTSYOURUSUALPATTERNOFEATINGTHATFOODOVERTHELASTMONTHS
5SEARULERTOWORKYOURWAYDOWNTHEPAGEANDENSURETHATTHEREISARESPONSEFORALLFOODSONEACHPAGEOF3ECTION
4HINKABOUTALLEATINGOCCASIONS
7HENREADINGTHROUGHTHELISTOFFOODSTHINKABOUTYOURUSUALWEEKDAYANDWEEKENDEATINGPATTERNSWHICHMIGHTBEDIFFERENTASWELLAS
SEASONALANDHOLIDAYVARIATION!LSOTHINKABOUTFOODSANDDRINKSCONSUMEDAWAYFROMHOMEASWELLASTHOSEPREPAREDANDCONSUMED
ATHOME
-IXEDFOODS
&ORMOSTMIXEDFOODSSUCHASSANDWICHESTHEINGREDIENTSNEEDTOBECONSIDEREDANDRECORDEDSEPARATELY(OWEVERSOMEMIXEDFOODS
HAVEBEENLISTEDASASINGLEITEMTOMAKEITEASIERFORYOUTOANSWER4HESEINCLUDECASSEROLESANDMEATCOOKEDINSAUCESMIXEDVEGETA
BLEDISHESANDSTIRFRIESMIXEDSALADPIZZAANDHAMBURGERINABUN4HEINGREDIENTSSHOULDNOTBECOUNTEDAGAINASINDIVIDUALFOODS
Queensland
Page 4
%STIMATINGFREQUENCYOFEATING
s
&ORSOMEFOODSINTAKEMAYBETHESAMETHROUGHOUTTHEYEAR
%XAMPLE2OASTMEATEATENONEEVENINGAWEEKTHROUGHOUTTHEYEARWOULDBERECORDEDASONCEPERWEEK
%XAMPLE"READORROLLSEATENATTWOMEALSADAYONSEVENDAYSOFTHEWEEKWOULDAVERAGEOUTTOTWOTIMESPERDAYANDWOULDBE
RECORDEDASnTIMESPERDAY
s
&OROTHERFOODSINTAKEMAYVARYWITHSEASONSOFTHEYEAR
%XAMPLE3TRAWBERRIESEATENFORBREAKFASTTWICEAWEEKDURINGTHEWARMERHALFOFTHEYEARBUTNOBERRIESEATENATALLFORTHERESTOF
THEYEARWOULDAVERAGEOUTTOONCEPERWEEKFORTHEWHOLEYEAR
s
%XAMPLE%VENIFYO[email protected],IVERINCLUDINGPATEINTHEEXAMPLE
BELOW
%XAMPLE3ECTION
!VERAGETIMESEATENINTHELASTMONTHS
-ONTHLYORLESS
4ICKONEBOXFOREACHFOODITEM
.EVER
,ESSTHAN
XMONTH
7EEKLY
nTIMES
AMONTH
2OASTMEATEGBEEFLAMBPORK
/NCEA
WEEK
,IVERINCLUDINGPATE
/NCE
ADAY
nTIMES
ADAY
"ERRIESEGSTRAWBERRIESBLUEBERRIES
$AILY
nTIMES
AWEEK
7HITEBREADTOASTORROLLS
nTIMES
AWEEK
114
TIMESA
DAY
Queensland
Page 5
1UESTIONSABOUTHOWOFTENFOODSWEREEATEN
0LEASElLLINONEBOXFOREACHFOODITEMLISTED4ICKTHEAPPROPRIATEBOX
!VERAGETIMESEATENINTHELASTMONTHS
-ONTHLYORLESS
4ICKONEBOXFOREACHFOODITEM
.EVER
,ESSTHAN
XMONTH
7EEKLY
nTIMES
AMONTH
/NCEA
WEEK
nTIMES
AWEEK
$AILY
nTIMES
AWEEK
/NCE
ADAY
nTIMES
ADAY
TIMESA
DAY
-EAT#HICKEN&ISH%GGS
-INCEDISHESEGBOLOGNAISESAUCE
RISSOLESMEATLOAF
-IXEDDISHESWITHMEATLIKEBEEFLAMB
ORPORKEGSTIRFRYCASSEROLE#HINESE
-IXEDDISHESWITHCHICKENTURKEYDUCK
EGSTIRFRYCASSEROLE#HINESE
2OAST""1ORSTEAMEDCHICKEN
TURKEYDUCK
#RUMBEDFRIEDCHICKENNUGGETS
2OASTMEATEGBEEFLAMBPORK
3TEAKORCHOPS
3AUSAGESFRANKFURTERSCHEERIOS
"ACON
(AM
3ALAMILUNCHEONMEATSEGDEVON
PRESSEDCHICKEN
Queensland
Page 6
!VERAGETIMESEATENINTHELASTMONTHS
-ONTHLYORLESS
4ICKONEBOXFOREACHFOODITEM
.EVER
,ESSTHAN
XMONTH
7EEKLY
nTIMES
AMONTH
,IVERINCLUDINGPATE
/THEROFFALEGKIDNEYS
#ANNEDlSHEGTUNASALMON
SARDINES
&ISHnSTEAMEDBAKEDGRILLED
&ISHnFRIEDBATTEREDCRUMBED
/THERSEAFOODEGPRAWNSOYSTERS
CALAMARI
%GGSOREGGDISHES
6EGETARIANMEATSUBSTITUTES
3OYBASEDMEATSUBSTITUTES
EG460SOYBURGER
.UTBASEDMEATSUBSTITUTES
EG.UTOLENE4-6EGELINKS4-
"EANSANDLENTILS
3OYBEANTOFU
"AKEDBEANS
/THERBEANSPEASLENTILSEGKIDNEY
BORLOTTICHICKPEASDHALSPLITPEA
115
/NCEA
WEEK
nTIMES
AWEEK
$AILY
nTIMES
AWEEK
/NCE
ADAY
nTIMES
ADAY
TIMESA
DAY
Queensland
Page 7
!VERAGETIMESEATENINTHELASTMONTHS
-ONTHLYORLESS
4ICKONEBOXFOREACHFOODITEM
.EVER
,ESSTHAN
XMONTH
7EEKLY
nTIMES
AMONTH
/NCEA
WEEK
nTIMES
AWEEK
$AILY
nTIMES
AWEEK
/NCE
ADAY
nTIMES
ADAY
TIMESA
DAY
6EGETABLESFRESHFROZENCANNED
'REENMIXEDSALADEGLETTUCE
TOMATOCUCUMBERONIONETCINA
SANDWICH
'REENMIXEDSALADEGLETTUCE
TOMATOCUCUMBERONIONETCASA
SIDESALAD
3TIRFRIEDANDMIXEDCOOKEDVEGETABLES
-IXEDVEGETABLESINACASSEROLEORSTEW
6EGETABLESOUP
%XCLUDINGTHEABOVEDISHESHOWOFTENDIDYOUEATTHEFOLLOWINGVEGETABLES
0OTATOCOOKEDWITHOUTFATEGBOILED
MASHEDDRYBAKED
0OTATOCOOKEDWITHFATEGCHIPS
&RENCHFRIESGEMSWEDGESROAST
#ARROTS
0UMPKIN
3WEETPOTATOESANDOTHERROOT
VEGETABLES
'REENPEAS
'REENBEANS
Queensland
Page 8
!VERAGETIMESEATENINTHELASTMONTHS
-ONTHLYORLESS
4ICKONEBOXFOREACHFOODITEM
.EVER
,ESSTHAN
XMONTH
7EEKLY
nTIMES
AMONTH
3ILVERBEETSPINACH
#ELERYASPARAGUSORBEANSPROUTS
"ROCCOLI
#AULImOWER
"RUSSELSSPROUTSCABBAGECOLESLAW
!SIANGREENS
:UCCHINIEGGPLANTSQUASH
,ETTUCEROCKETENDIVEOTHERRAWSALAD
GREENS
#APSICUM
4OMATOESINCLUDINGCANNED
4OMATOPRODUCTSEGDRIEDPASTE
SAUCE
!VOCADO
/NIONORLEEKS
3WEETCORNCORNONTHECOB
-USHROOMS
116
/NCEA
WEEK
nTIMES
AWEEK
$AILY
nTIMES
AWEEK
/NCE
ADAY
nTIMES
ADAY
TIMESA
DAY
Queensland
Page 9
!VERAGETIMESEATENINTHELASTMONTHS
-ONTHLYORLESS
4ICKONEBOXFOREACHFOODITEM
.EVER
,ESSTHAN
XMONTH
7EEKLY
nTIMES
AMONTH
/NCEA
WEEK
nTIMES
AWEEK
$AILY
nTIMES
AWEEK
/NCE
ADAY
nTIMES
ADAY
TIMESA
DAY
&RUITFRESHFROZENCANNEDDRIED
$RIEDFRUITALLTYPESEGSULTANAS
PRUNESAPRICOTS
&RUITSALADMIXEDFRUIT
%XCLUDINGMIXEDANDDRIEDFRUITHOWOFTENDIDYOUEATTHEFOLLOWINGFRUITSFRESHFROZENORCANNED
!PPLEPEAR
/RANGEMANDARINGRAPEFRUIT
"ANANA
0EACHNECTARINEPLUMAPRICOT
CHERRIES
-ANGOPAWPAW
0INEAPPLE
"ERRIESEGSTRAWBERRIESBLUEBERRIES
-ELONEGWATERMELONROCKMELON
/THERFRUITEGGRAPESKIWIFRUIT
Queensland
Page 10
!VERAGETIMESEATENINTHELASTMONTHS
-ONTHLYORLESS
4ICKONEBOXFOREACHFOODITEM
.EVER
,ESSTHAN
XMONTH
7EEKLY
nTIMES
AMONTH
"READAND#EREAL&OODS
7HITEBREADTOASTORROLLS
7HOLEMEALORMIXEDGRAINBREADTOAST
ROLLS
%NGLISHMUFlNBAGELCRUMPET
FOCCACIAmATBREAD
$RYORSAVOURYBISCUITSCRISPBREAD
CRACKERSRICECAKES
-UESLI
#OOKEDPORRIDGE
"REAKFASTCEREAL
2ICEINCLUDINGWHITEORBROWN
0ASTAINCLUDINGlLLEDPASTANOODLES
LASAGNE
"AKED'OODSAND3NACKS
-EATPIESAUSAGEROLLOTHERSAVOURY
PASTRIES
0IZZA
(AMBURGERWITHBUN
117
/NCEA
WEEK
nTIMES
AWEEK
$AILY
nTIMES
AWEEK
/NCE
ADAY
nTIMES
ADAY
TIMESA
DAY
Queensland
Page 11
!VERAGETIMESEATENINTHELASTMONTHS
-ONTHLYORLESS
4ICKONEBOXFOREACHFOODITEM
.EVER
,ESSTHAN
XMONTH
7EEKLY
nTIMES
AMONTH
/NCEA
WEEK
nTIMES
AWEEK
$AILY
nTIMES
AWEEK
/NCE
ADAY
nTIMES
ADAY
TIMESA
DAY
#AKESMUFlNSSCONESPIKELETS
3WEETPIESORSWEETPASTRIES
/THERPUDDINGSANDDESSERTS
0LAINSWEETBISCUITS
&ANCYBISCUITSINCLUDINGJAMCREAM
lLLEDCHOCOLATEFRUITANDNUT
#HOCOLATEINCLUDINGCHOCOLATEBARS
EG-ARSBARS4-
/THERLOLLIESCONFECTIONERY
.UTS
0OTATOCHIPSCORNCHIPS4WISTIES4-ETC
3UGAR3PREADSAND$RESSINGS
3UGARSYRUPHONEY
*AMMARMALADE
0EANUTBUTTEROTHERNUTSPREADS
"UTTERDAIRYBLENDSMARGARINE
6EGEMITE4--ARMITE4-0ROMITE4/ILANDVINEGARDRESSING
-AYONNAISEOTHERCREAMYDRESSING
Queensland
Page 12
!VERAGETIMESEATENINTHELASTMONTHS
-ONTHLYORLESS
4ICKONEBOXFOREACHFOODITEM
.EVER
,ESSTHAN
XMONTH
7EEKLY
nTIMES
AMONTH
$AIRY&OODS
&LAVOUREDMILKSOYDRINKEGMILK
SHAKEICEDCOFFEEHOTCHOCOLATE
-ILKSOYMILKASADRINK
-ILKSOYMILKONBREAKFASTCEREALS
-ILKSOYMILKTOTOPUPHOTDRINKS
EGMILKINTEA
#REAMORSOURCREAM
)CECREAM
9OGHURTINCLUDINGPLAINFROZEN
mAVOUREDANDFROMAGEFRAIS
#OTTAGEORRICOTTACHEESE
#HEDDARANDALLOTHERCHEESES
.ONMILKDRINKS
&RUITJUICE
&RUITJUICEDRINKSEG
#ORDIAL
,OWJOULESOFTDRINKSEG$IET#OKE4-
2EGULARSOFTDRINKEG#OKE4-
3PRITE4-mAVOUREDMINERALWATER
118
/NCEA
WEEK
nTIMES
AWEEK
$AILY
nTIMES
AWEEK
/NCE
ADAY
nTIMES
ADAY
TIMESA
DAY
Queensland
Page 13
!VERAGETIMESEATENINTHELASTMONTHS
-ONTHLYORLESS
4ICKONEBOXFOREACHFOODITEM
.EVER
,ESSTHAN
XMONTH
7EEKLY
nTIMES
AMONTH
/NCEA
WEEK
nTIMES
AWEEK
$AILY
nTIMES
AWEEK
/NCE
ADAY
nTIMES
ADAY
TIMESA
DAY
%LECTROLYTEORSPORTSDRINKS
EG'ATORADE4-
%NERGYDRINKSEG2ED"ULL4-64-
2ED%YE4-
7ATERINCLUDINGUNmAVOUREDMINERAL
WATERSODAWATERTAPWATER
#OFFEE
4EA
"EERnLOWALCOHOL
"EERnFULLSTRENGTH
2EDWINE
7HITEWINEORCHAMPAGNESPARKLING
WINE
7INECOOLER
3HERRYORPORT
0REMIXEDDRINKSEG"ACARDIBREEZER
3PIRITSORLIQUEURS
Queensland
Page 14
!VERAGETIMESEATENINTHELASTMONTHS
-ONTHLYORLESS
4ICKONEBOXFOREACHFOODITEM
.EVER
,ESSTHAN
XMONTH
7EEKLY
nTIMES
AMONTH
/NCEA
WEEK
nTIMES
AWEEK
$AILY
nTIMES
AWEEK
3UPPLEMENTS
6ITAMINANDMINERALSUPPLEMENTS
INCLUDINGTABLETSCAPSULESORDROPS
3PORTSSUPPLEMENTS
7EIGHTCONTROLSUPPLEMENTS
/THERDIETARYSUPPLEMENTS
7%,,$/.%
3ECTIONWASTHEHARDEST
3ECTIONISMUCHEASIERANDQUICKER
+EEPGOINGANDYOUWILLBElNISHEDINAFEWMINUTES
119
/NCE
ADAY
nTIMES
ADAY
TIMESA
DAY
Queensland
Page 15
3%#4)/.
4OCOMPLETETHISSECTIONTICKONLYONEOPTIONFOREACHQUESTIONUNLESSOTHERWISESPECIlED
1UESTIONSABOUTAMOUNTSANDTYPESOFFOODSOVERTHELASTMONTHS
(OWMANYSERVESOFFRUITDIDYOUUSUALLYEAT
EACHDAY
@SERVEMEDIUMPIECEORSMALLPIECESOFFRUITOR
CUPOFDICEDPIECES
$IDNTEATFRUIT
SERVEORLESSDAY
SERVESDAY
SERVESDAY
SERVESORMOREDAY
(OWMANYSERVESOFVEGETABLESDIDYOUUSUALLY
EATEACHDAY
@SERVECUPCOOKEDVEGETABLESOR
CUPOFSALADVEGETABLES
O
O
O
O
O
$IDNTEATVEGETABLES
SERVEORLESSDAY
SERVESDAY
SERVESDAY
SERVESDAY
SERVESDAY
SERVESORMOREDAY
Queensland
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Page 16
7HATTYPEOFMILKDIDYOUHAVE-/34/&4%.
O
$IDNTDRINKMILK
7HOLEMILK
O
,OWREDUCEDFATMILK
O
3KIMMILK
O
3OYMILK
O
/THERMILK
O
1UESTIONSABOUTMEALS
4ICKONLYONEOPTIONFOREACHOFTHEFOLLOWINGQUESTIONS
)RREGULARLYMEANSTHATINSOMEWEEKSTHEFOODMAYBEEATEN
QUITEOFTENEGTODAYSOFTHEWEEKSBUTINOTHERWEEKSIT
ISNOTEATENATALL
7HATTYPEOFBREAKFASTCEREALDIDYOUHAVE
-/34/&4%.
O
$IDNOTEATCEREAL
O
0ORRIDGE
0LAINWHEATmAKESBISCUITSPUFFED
WHEATEG7EET"IX4-6ITA"RITS4- O
0LAINCORNANDRICEBASEDCEREALS
EGCORNmAKESRICEBUBBLES
O
0LAINBRANBASEDCEREALS
EG!LLBRAN4-"RAN&LAKES4-
O
#EREALSWITHADDEDSUGARmAVOUR
EG.UTRIGRAIN4-#OCO0OPS4-
O
#EREALSINCLUDINGMUESLIWITHADDED
FRUITANDORNUTSEG3USTAIN4-
3ULTANA"RAN4--UESLI&LAKES4- O
"REAKFASTBARSEG&RUITYBIX4-BARS O
,IQUIDBREAKFASTEG5PAND'O4-
O
120
(OWMANYDAYSPERWEEKDIDYOUUSUALLYHAVE
SOMETHINGFORBREAKFAST
2ARELYORNEVER
O
O
nDAYSWEEK
nDAYSWEEK
O
nDAYSWEEK
O
%VERYDAY
O
(OWMANYDAYSPERWEEKDIDYOUPREPARE
ORHELPTOPREPAREYOURBREAKFAST
O
2ARELYORNEVER
nDAYSWEEK
O
O
nDAYSWEEK
)RREGULARLY
O
Queensland
(OWMANYDAYSPERWEEKDIDYOUEATYOUREVENING
MEALWITHTHEFAMILYINCLUDINGATLEASTONEADULT
O
2ARELYORNEVER
O
nDAYSWEEK
nDAYSWEEK
O
)RREGULARLY
O
(OWMANYDAYSPERWEEKDIDYOUHELPTOPREPARE
THEFAMILYEVENINGMEAL
O
2ARELYORNEVER
nDAYSWEEK
O
nDAYSWEEK
O
)RREGULARLY
O
Page 17
(OWOFTENDIDYOUEATMEALSORSNACKSFROMFAST
FOODCHAINSEG-AC$ONALDS(UNGRY*ACKS
0IZZA(UT2ED2OOSTER+&#
.EVER
O
/NCEAFORTNIGHTORLESS
O
/NCEAWEEK
O
nTIMESAWEEK
O
nTIMESAWEEK
O
1UESTIONSABOUTSPECIALDIETS
4ICKONLYONEOPTIONFOREACHOFTHEFOLLOWINGQUESTIONSUNLESS
INDICATED
(OWMANYDAYSPERWEEKDIDYOUEATYOUREVENING
MEALWHILEWATCHINGTELEVISION
2ARELYORNEVER
O
nDAYSWEEK
O
nDAYSWEEK
O
)RREGULARLY
O
(OWWOULDYOUDESCRIBEYOURCURRENTBODY
WEIGHT
4OOTHIN
O
O
!BOUTRIGHT
4OOFAT
O
Queensland
Page 18
A $IDYOUEATSPECIALFOODSORHAVEASPECIALDIET
OVERTHELASTMONTHS
.O
O 'OTO1
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Queensland
Page 19
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Entry 1
Entry 2
Queensland
Page 2
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123
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Page 4
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Queensland
Page 7
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Page 11
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Entry 2
Queensland
Page 2
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Page 6
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Entry 1
Entry 2
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Appendix VII Adjustment of food intake values
As detailed in Section 4.2, in order to compare
individual micronutrient intakes from the 24 hour
record with recommended EARs, the food intake data
were adjusted to take into account the fact that the
food intake was from a one day record. To this end,
in a sub-sample of the HKQ participants, a second 24
hour food record was completed and analysed. Thus
information is available on within subject as well as
between subject variation in food intake. Knowing this
information allowed for a new “adjusted” value to be
calculated for the individuals taking part in the survey.
This process is described in detail in the National
Nutrition Survey 36, suffice it to note here that the
adjusted value is obtained as;
It is important to note that Sb and Sobs are calculated
only from the repeated dataset but can be then applied
to the entire sample. The effect of this adjustment is
that the mean nutrient intake for any given group will
not change, however, the standard deviation and hence
coefficient of variation will shrink
For this analysis, Year 1 data were adjusted with male
and female data together, Year 5 data were adjusted
with male and female data together and Year 10 data
were adjusted separately for males and females.
Adjusted value = X + (X1-X) * (Sb/Sobs)
Where, X = group mean value for any given nutrient
X1 = the individuals actual nutrient intake
Sb = the between subject standard deviation
Sobs = the group standard deviation
143