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The Cold War Begins
The Cold War and American Society
Learning Targets:
 List the causes and effects of the “Red Scare” on American
 Describe the tactics of Joseph McCarthy and explain why few
challenged him.
 Explain the goals of Project Venona.
A New Red Scare
 Rumors and accusations of Communists in the United States
and of Communist infiltration of the government tapped into
fears that the communists were trying to take over the world.
 Truman started the loyalty review program to screen all federal employees
which confirmed people’s fear of Communists in the government.
 J. Edgar Hoover (head of the FBI) went before the House Un-American
Activities Committee to urge their support of the FBI sending agents to
infiltrate groups suspected of subversion and to wiretap thousands of
 Alger Hiss
 Served in Roosevelt’s administration, attended the Yalta Conference, and took
part in organizing the United Nations
 Accused and found guilty of working for the Communists and releasing secret
documents from the state department in 1937 and 1938
A New Red Scare
 The Rosenbergs
 Accused of leading a Soviet spy ring in the United States which sold
the secrets of the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
 Ethel and Julius Rosenberg denied the charges.
 Many people believed that they were not leaders or spies.
 They were found guilty of espionage and sentenced to death.
 Appeals, public expressions of support, and pleas for clemency failed
 The couple was executed in June of 1953
A New Red Scare
 Project Venona:
 In 1946 American cryptographers working for a project code-named
“Venona” cracked the Soviet spy code of the time
 About 3,000 messages between Moscow and the United States were
 The messages confirmed extensive Soviet spying in the United States
 Federal investigators went on a massive hunt
 State and local governments, universities, businesses, unions, and
churches began their own efforts to find Communists.
 Joseph R. McCarthy
 Wisconsin Senator often used the fear of Communism to get elected
 Made a claim during a speech to a Republican women’s group that:
“I have here in my hand a list of 205 (men in the State Department)
that were known to the Secretary of State as being members of the
Communist Party”
 The quote caught the attention of the media and the story spread
across the country giving McCarthy immediate publicity
 The McCarran Act: In case of a national emergency, it
allowed the arrest and detention of Communists and communist
 Truman vetoed the bill, but congress was able to pass it anyway.
 Supreme Court cases ensured that the McCarran Act was ineffective
 McCarthy’s Tactics:
 McCarthy became chairman of the Senate sub-committee on
 McCarthy turned investigations into witch hunts—a search for disloyalty
based on flimsy evidence and irrational fears
 His tactics of damaging reputations with vague and unfounded charges
became known as McCarthyism
 McCarthy’s Downfall
 In 1954 McCarthy began looking for Communists in the
United States Army
 The Army ran its own investigation and found no evidence
 McCarthy insisted on carrying out his own investigation
 The Army-McCarthy hearings were televised
 During weeks of televised hearings in the spring of
1954, millions of Americans watched McCarthy
bully witnesses
McCarthy and his tactics were exposed
o His support quickly faded
Life During the Early Cold War
 Facing the Bomb
 A year after their first successful test of an atomic
bomb, they tested their first Hydrogen Bomb
 Americans began preparing for a Soviet attack
 Schools set aside special areas as bomb shelters
 Students learned to “duck under their desks, turn away from
windows, and cover their heads
 For every person killed outright by a nuclear blast, four
more would die from fallout—the radiation left
over after a nuclear blast
Life During the Early Cold War
 Popular Culture in the Cold War
 Cold War possibilities became frequent storylines
in movies and books
 In 1954 author Philip Wylie published Tomorrow!, which
described the horrific effects of nuclear war on an
unprepared American city (later made into a movie in
the early 1980s called The Day After)
Essay Question
 Describe the tactics of Joseph McCarthy and explain why
few challenged him.
Essay Question
 Describe the tactics of Joseph McCarthy and explain why
few challenged him.
 When McCarthy became chairman of the Senate subcommittee on
investigations, he used the powers of his committee to force the
government officials to testify about alleged Communist influences. He
turned the investigation into a witch hunt, insinuating disloyalty based
on flimsy evidence and irrational fears. He sullied reputations with
vague and unfounded charges. His theatrics and sensational accusations
drew the attentions of the press, which put him in the headlines and
quoted him widely. Relishing the spotlight, he became bolder.When he
questioned witnesses, McCarthy would badger them and then refuse to
accept their answers. His tactics left a cloud of suspicion that McCarthy
and others interrupted as guilt. Further more, people were afraid to
challenge him for fear of becoming targets themselves.