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The Cold War Begins The Cold War and American Society Learning Targets: List the causes and effects of the “Red Scare” on American Society. Describe the tactics of Joseph McCarthy and explain why few challenged him. Explain the goals of Project Venona. A New Red Scare Rumors and accusations of Communists in the United States and of Communist infiltration of the government tapped into fears that the communists were trying to take over the world. Truman started the loyalty review program to screen all federal employees which confirmed people’s fear of Communists in the government. J. Edgar Hoover (head of the FBI) went before the House Un-American Activities Committee to urge their support of the FBI sending agents to infiltrate groups suspected of subversion and to wiretap thousands of telephones Alger Hiss Served in Roosevelt’s administration, attended the Yalta Conference, and took part in organizing the United Nations Accused and found guilty of working for the Communists and releasing secret documents from the state department in 1937 and 1938 A New Red Scare The Rosenbergs Accused of leading a Soviet spy ring in the United States which sold the secrets of the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg denied the charges. Many people believed that they were not leaders or spies. They were found guilty of espionage and sentenced to death. Appeals, public expressions of support, and pleas for clemency failed The couple was executed in June of 1953 A New Red Scare Project Venona: In 1946 American cryptographers working for a project code-named “Venona” cracked the Soviet spy code of the time About 3,000 messages between Moscow and the United States were intercepted The messages confirmed extensive Soviet spying in the United States Federal investigators went on a massive hunt State and local governments, universities, businesses, unions, and churches began their own efforts to find Communists. McCarthyism Joseph R. McCarthy Wisconsin Senator often used the fear of Communism to get elected Made a claim during a speech to a Republican women’s group that: “I have here in my hand a list of 205 (men in the State Department) that were known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party” The quote caught the attention of the media and the story spread across the country giving McCarthy immediate publicity McCarthyism The McCarran Act: In case of a national emergency, it allowed the arrest and detention of Communists and communist sympathizers. Truman vetoed the bill, but congress was able to pass it anyway. Supreme Court cases ensured that the McCarran Act was ineffective McCarthy’s Tactics: McCarthy became chairman of the Senate sub-committee on investigations. McCarthy turned investigations into witch hunts—a search for disloyalty based on flimsy evidence and irrational fears His tactics of damaging reputations with vague and unfounded charges became known as McCarthyism McCarthyism McCarthy’s Downfall In 1954 McCarthy began looking for Communists in the United States Army The Army ran its own investigation and found no evidence McCarthy insisted on carrying out his own investigation The Army-McCarthy hearings were televised During weeks of televised hearings in the spring of 1954, millions of Americans watched McCarthy bully witnesses McCarthy and his tactics were exposed o His support quickly faded Life During the Early Cold War Facing the Bomb A year after their first successful test of an atomic bomb, they tested their first Hydrogen Bomb Americans began preparing for a Soviet attack Schools set aside special areas as bomb shelters Students learned to “duck under their desks, turn away from windows, and cover their heads For every person killed outright by a nuclear blast, four more would die from fallout—the radiation left over after a nuclear blast Life During the Early Cold War Popular Culture in the Cold War Cold War possibilities became frequent storylines in movies and books In 1954 author Philip Wylie published Tomorrow!, which described the horrific effects of nuclear war on an unprepared American city (later made into a movie in the early 1980s called The Day After) Essay Question Describe the tactics of Joseph McCarthy and explain why few challenged him. Essay Question Describe the tactics of Joseph McCarthy and explain why few challenged him. When McCarthy became chairman of the Senate subcommittee on investigations, he used the powers of his committee to force the government officials to testify about alleged Communist influences. He turned the investigation into a witch hunt, insinuating disloyalty based on flimsy evidence and irrational fears. He sullied reputations with vague and unfounded charges. His theatrics and sensational accusations drew the attentions of the press, which put him in the headlines and quoted him widely. Relishing the spotlight, he became bolder.When he questioned witnesses, McCarthy would badger them and then refuse to accept their answers. His tactics left a cloud of suspicion that McCarthy and others interrupted as guilt. Further more, people were afraid to challenge him for fear of becoming targets themselves.