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Pacing Guide Summary for A.P. Physics B This checklist and self evaluation tracking sheet was compiled from objectives in the College Board A.P. Physics B curriculum. The full list of objectives should be reviewed when covering a specific topic. The section on laboratory and experimental situations (not included) contain experiment design, observation and measurement, analyzing data and errors, and communication of results. Bexley students will become scientifically literate by: 1. Understanding the nature and history of scientific knowledge. 2. Accurately applying appropriate science concepts, principles, laws, and theories, in Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and advanced study course(s). 3. Using processes of science to gather information, solve problems, and make decisions. 4. Understanding and appreciating the connection between science and technology and the interrelationships of these with each other and the aspects of society. 5. Obtaining the knowledge and skills to extend their science education by using science processes in their everyday life. 6. Developing manipulative skills used in scientific inquiry. OK?=Apply the Red, Yellow, Green test OK? SECTION I- THE LANGUAGE OF PHYSICS (3 days) A. Understand physics as Inquiry 1. nature of science-how physics works 2. subdivisions of physics 3. precision, accuracy, error analysis, significant figures, SI units OK? OK? SECTION II- NEWTONIAN MECHANICS (35%) A. Kinematics and Motions in One and Two Dimensions (7%) 1. In 1-D-distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, time, coordinate systems, free fall in one dimension, Four equations of motion, Graphing: d vs t, v vs t, a vs t; slope on and area under the curve 2. In 2-D- vector math, relative displacement, and velocity, projectile motion, graphs B. Newton’s Laws of Motion (9%) 1. 1st law (Inertia)-Object at rest stays at rest, constant velocity, static equilibrium 2. 2nd law- F=ma, calculate ∆v, weight, Free Body Diagrams, net force, friction, μ, F f=μN, N=normal force, terminal velocity 3. 3rd law-Equal and opposite force pairs, multi-mass systems, simultaneous equations C. Work, Energy, Power (5%) 1. Work-Energy theorem-definition of work, W=Fdcosθ ,positive/negative, work over ∆x, area of graph, ∆KE 2. Forces and potential energy, conservative forces, spring force 3. Conservation of energy- converting forms, friction with mechanical energy, systems of objects, total energy 4. Power-calculate power for acceleration or to maintain motion, work performed by forces, average power, P=E/t D. Systems of Particles and Linear Momentum (4%) 1. Momentum (mv) and Impulse (FΔt= Δmv), total momentum of a system Δp, area of F vs t graph 2. Conservation of momentum-Inelastic and elastic collisions in 1 and 2 dimensions, systems with springs, explosions E. Circular Motion (4%) 1. Uniform circular motion- circular and tangential vectors, centripetal acceleration and force, centrifugal force, motion with horizontal and vertical circles, period, frequency F c=mv2/r; v=2π r/T, f=1/T 2. Torque- magnitude and direction, conditions for translational and rotational equilibrium F. Gravitation and Oscillations (6%) 1. Newton’s law of gravity, force between two spherical masses, strength of gravitational field, Universal Gravitation, Cavendish, FG=Gm1m2/r2 , g=Gm/r2 2. Orbits- factors of motion, Kepler’s laws 3. Simple harmonic motion- Asin(ωt), max/min/zero for displacement, velocity, acceleration, KE & PE along motion 4. Pendulum and other oscillations 5. Mass on a spring- vertical and horizontal spring systems, factors in equation for period SECTION III- FLUID MECHANICS and THERMAL PHYSICS (15 %) G. Fluid Mechanics (6%) 1. Hydrostatic pressure- pressure, force, area, in fluids, on containers, gauge pressure, as function of depth 2. Buoyancy-immersed objects total/partial immersion, Archimede’s principle, buoyant force, apparent weight, density 3. Fluid flow continuity- equation of continuity for fluids in motion 4. Bernoulli’s equation- Bernoulli’s equations for fluids in motion H. Temperature and Heat (2%) 1. Mechanical equivalent of heat- heat produced by mechanical work 2. Heat transfer and thermal expansion- factors of heat flow, thermal expansion, conduction, convection, radiation I. Kinetic Theory and Thermodynamics (7%) 1. Ideal gases-assumptions, KE & average velocity, PV=nRT, pressure and collisions, proportional to temperature, ΔU 2. Isobaric, Adiabatic, isothermic, isometric expansion/compression, relation to PV diagrams 3. 1st law of thermodynamics-work done on/by system, cyclic processes, work as area enclosed in PV diagram 4. 2nd law of thermodynamics- Entropy, max/actual efficiency of engine, heat exchange, Carnot cycle OK? SECTION IV- WAVES, LIGHT and OPTICS (15%) J. Wave Motion and Sound (5%) 1. Traveling waves-graphs, amplitude, pulse, wavelength, frequency, period, Doppler effect, factors of velocity, v=fλ, slinky and ripple tank behavior, nodes, antinodes, fundamental, harmonics 2. Wave propagation- transverse, longitudinal, torsional, polarization, intensity, power, inverse-square law 3. Sound-sonic spectrum, properties of sound waves, intensity, loudness, measurement of dB, harmonics and overtones, resonance and beats 4. Superposition principle and standing waves- constructive and destructive interference, system of open/closed pipes, sketch standing waves, calculate f and λ 5. Wave properties: reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, polarization 6. Light- properties, speed, color, sky and sunsets K. Physical Optics (5%) 1. Diffraction- diffraction gratings, thin films, Newton’s rings 2. Dispersion of light-relate frequency, λ, and index of refraction, n 3. Interference-from two sources, factors of maxima & minima location, intensity, single & double slit patterns L. Geometric Optics (5%) 1. Reflection and Refraction- velocity, frequency, and λ when changing mediums, indicies of refraction, Snell’s law, n1sinθ1 = n2sinθ2, total internal reflection- when it occurs, critical angle 2. Mirrors- plane, convex and concave, formation of images by plane, convex, and concave mirrors, ray tracing and types of images, focal point, center of curvature, mirror equation 1/do + 1/di = 1/f, magnification, M=hi/ho= -di/do 3. Lenses- converging and diverging thin lenses, changing index/medium/curvature, multiple lenses, ray tracing, lens equation 1/do + 1/di = 1/f, magnification M=hi/ho= -di/do OK? SECTION V- ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM (25%) M. Electrostatics (5%) 1.Charge and Coulomb’s law- types of electrostatic charge, properties of conductors and insulators charging by conduction and induction, current, direction of forces on charges, properties, Coulomb’s law F E= kQ1Q2/r2 2. Electric fields and potential- test and point charges, fields, diagrams around point charges, dipoles, and parallel plates, lines of force, electric potential and potential difference, work required, E=kQ/r2, F=qE, W=qEd, V=Ed, potential difference between points in electric field N. Conductors, Capacitors, and Dielectrics (4%) 1. Electrostatics with conductors- fields inside and on surface, equipotentials and diagrams, induction 2. Capacitors- voltage, charge, stored energy, electric field and strength inside, capacitors in parallel and series, Q= CV, function of dielectric O. Electrical Circuits (7%) 1. Current, resistance, and power- current direction, Ohm’s law V=IR, drift velocity, factors of resistance, heat, relationship between resistance due to composition, length, and cross sectional area R=ρl/A 2. DC Circuits- batteries, schematics, symbols, resistors in series and parallel, finding equivalent resistance by reducing resistor networks, voltage and current, connecting voltmeters and ammeters in circuits–correct placement, power P=IV=I2R= V2/R, battery terminal voltage, Kirchoff laws- energy and charge conservation P. Magnetic Fields (4%) 1. Domain theory of magnetism, conditions necessary to produce a magnetic field 2. sketch magnetic field about magnets and Earth, Auroras 3. Forces on moving charges, - direction, work in field, path of particles traveling parallel, perpendicular or circular to field and their velocity, right hand rules 4. Forces on current carrying wires- direction, straight segments, loops, rotation F=qvB, F=BIL 5. Fields on long current carrying wires- attract/repel, calculate force Q. Electromagnetism (5%) 1. Electromagnetic induction- induced currents, requirements, Faraday & Lenz’s laws, flux, Ф=BA, flux with loops & changing fields,/areas, induced Emf, transformers- operation and calculate input/output voltage, current, and power 2. EM spectrum and Maxwell- Maxwell basics, EM propagation, names and types of EM spectrum waves and properties, compare and contrast AC and DC electricity R. Electronics (2%) (7 days) 1. N and P-type semiconductors, doping, diode semiconductors 2. diode & transistor function compared to tubes 3. Integrated Circuit formation, logic gates OK? SECTION VI- ATOMIC and NUCLEAR (10%) S. Atomic Physics and Quantum Effects (7%) 1. Photons- energy in Joules and eV, momentum, emission/absorption/reflection, relate the number of photons, λ, power 2. Photoelectric effect- experiment for and implications, KE vs λ & intensity, stopping potential vs frequency, h/e (slope), Planck’s constant KE= hf-W 3. Compton and Thomson- Experiment & implications, scattering, effect, wavelength, production of X-rays and minimum wavelength, perform a J.J. Thomson q/m experiment 4. Atomic energy levels- gas spectra, calculate λ and energy of transition levels, transition diagram 5. Wave-particle duality- Cases for both waves/particles, DeBroglie λ vs momentum, Davisson-Germer experiment & implications (electron diffraction) T. Nuclear Physics (3%) 1. Nuclear properties- explain radioactivity; alpha, beta, gamma, positron, and neutrino properties, symbols, isotopes, types of decay, transformations/transmutations, fission, fusion, nuclear force, chain reactions, compare matter and anti-matter 2. Mass-Energy Equivalence- energy released in nuclear processes, ΔE=mc2, calculate binding energy from nuclear mass defect 3. calculate half-lives and determine remaining isotope after a given number of half-lives. OK? SECTION VII- Post A.P. Exam U. Relativity 1. Special relativity- state the two postulates of special relativity, relativistic velocities, effect on mass, length, time, analyze changes in mass, momentum, and energy for objects moving at relativistic speeds, “simultaneity” V. Robotics 1. construct small autonomous robot, proper electric, mechanical, and electronic parts placement and soldering, perform testing and evaluation of our robot