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Scalar – a quantity with only a magnitude Vector – a quantity with a magnitude and a direction Average speed – value over a certain time frame Instantaneous speed – value at a specific time Distance – total length of the path followed Displacement – length of the shortest path between two points in a specific direction Speed – rate of change of distance with respect to time Velocity – rate of change of displacement with respect to time Acceleration – rate of change of velocity with respect to time Free fall – an object moving vertically in a gravitational field with no air resistance Terminal velocity – maximum velocity of a falling object, this occurs when air resistance is equal in magnitude to the weight of the object Resultant – the sum of vector quantities Free body diagram – a diagram showing direction and magnitude of all forces acting on an object Translational equilibrium – occurs when the resultant force acting on an object is zero Momentum – product of an object’s mass and velocity Impulse – change in momentum Weight – force exerted by a body due to its acceleration in a gravitational field Law of conservation of momentum - momentum of a system is conserved provided no external forces act Elastic collision – a collision in which KE is conserved Inelastic collision – a collision in which KE is not conserved Work – product of force and the object’s displacement in the direction of the force Kinetic energy – energy associated with motion Gravitational potential energy – energy associated with an object’s position relative to the ground (height) Efficiency – ratio of useful work to total work (useful power to total power, useful energy to total energy) Power – rate of energy production/consumption (depends on the question) Centripetal motion – motion for which the acceleration is perpendicular to the motion (acceleration perpendicular to velocity) HL MECHANICS