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Transcript
This PPT is Dedicated to my inner controller
AMMA BHAGAVAN – ONENESS Founders.
Developed by,
S.V.G.REDDY,
Associate professor,
Dept.of CSE, GIT,
GITAM UNIVERSITY.
Huge amount of Raw DATA is available.The
Motivation for the Data Mining is to
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Analyse,
Classify,
Cluster,
Charecterize the Data etc...
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The Databases are PreProcessed i.e. Cleaned and
Integrated and the Data Warehouse is formed.
The Data Warehouse is Selected and Transformed
as per the User Requirement and it is submitted to
the Data Mining Engine.
The Data Mining Engine will run for ‘n’ iterations/
tuples.
As a Result, We will get some Patterns as Output.
Then the Patterns are Evaluated and finally we will
get an Output which is Knowledge.
RDBMSA Relational database is a collection of
tables, each ofwhich is assigned a unique name.
 Each table consists of a set of attributes (columns
or fields) and usually stores a large set of tuples
(records or rows). Each tuple in a relational table
represents an object identified by a unique key and
described by a set of attribute values.
 A semantic data model, such as an entity-

relationship (ER) data model, is often constructed
for relational databases.
An ER data model represents the database as a set
of entities and their relationships.
DataWareHouse A Data warehouse
is a repository of information collected from
multiple sources, stored under a unified schema,
and that usually resides at a single site. Data
warehouses are constructed via a process of data
cleaning, data integration, data transformation,
data loading, and periodic data refreshing.
Transactional DataBase In
general,
a
transactional database consists of a filewhere each
record represents a transaction. A transaction
typically includes a unique transaction identity
number (trans ID) and a list of the items making up
the transaction (such as items purchased in a
store).
Object Oriented RDBMS - Conceptually, the object-relational
data model inherits the essential concepts of object-oriented
databases, where, in general terms, each entity is considered
as an object. Data and code relating to an object are
encapsulated into a single unit. Each object has associated
with it the following.

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A set of variables that describe the objects. These correspond
to attributes in the entity-relationship and relational models.
A set of messages that the object can use to communicate
with other objects, or with the rest of the database system.
A set of methods, where each method holds the code to
implement a message. Upon receiving a message, the method
returns a value in response. For instance, the method for the
message get photo(employee) will retrieve and return a photo
of the given employee object.
A Temporal database typically stores relational
data that include time-related attributes.These
attributes may involve several timestamps, each
having different semantics.
A Sequence database stores sequences of ordered
events, with or without a concrete notion of time.
Examples include customer shopping sequences,
Web click streams, and biological sequences.
A Time-series database stores sequences of values
or events obtained over repeated measurements of
time (e.g., hourly, daily, weekly). Examples include
data collected from the stock exchange, inventory
control, and the observation of natural phenomena
(like temperature and wind).
Spatial
databases
contain
spatial-related
information. Examples include geographic (map)
databases, very large-scale integration (VLSI) or
computed-aided design databases, and medical
and satellite image databases.
Text databases are databases that contain word
descriptions for objects. These word descriptions
are usually not simple keywords but rather long
sentences or paragraphs, such as product
specifications, error or bug reports, warning
messages, summary reports,notes, or other
documents.
Multimedia databases store image, audio, and video data. They
are used in applications such as picture content-based
retrieval, voice-mail systems, video-on-demand systems, the
World Wide Web, and speech-based user interfaces that
recognize spoken commands.
A Heterogeneous database consists of a set of interconnected,
autonomous component databases.
The components
communicate in order to exchange information and answer
queries.
Legacy Database formed as a result of long history of IT
Development. A legacy database is a group of heterogeneous
databases that combines different kinds of data systems, such
as relational or object-oriented databases, hierarchical
databases, network databases, spreadsheets, multimedia
databases, or file systems.
Data Streams - Many applications involve the
generation and analysis of a newkind of data,
called stream data, where data flow in and out of
an observation platform (or window) dynamically.
The World Wide Web and its associated distributed
information services, such as Yahoo!, Google,
America Online, and AltaVista, provide rich,
worldwide, on-line information services, where
data objects are linked together to facilitate
interactive access.
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Characterization and Discrimination
Mining Frequent Patterns, Associations, and
Correlations
Classification and Prediction
Cluster Analysis
Outlier Analysis
Evolution Analysis
Data characterization is a summarization of the general
characteristics or features of a target class of data. The data
corresponding to the user-specified class are typically
collected by a database query. For example, to study the
characteristics of software products whose sales increased by
10% in the last year, the data related to such products can be
collected by executing an SQL query.
Data discrimination is a comparison of the general features of
target class data objects with the general features of objects
from one or a set of contrasting classes. The target and
contrasting classes can be specified by the user, and the
corresponding data objects retrieved through database
queries. For example, the user may like to compare the
general features of software products whose sales increased
by 10% in the last year with those whose sales decreased by
at least 30% during the same period.
Frequent patterns, as the name suggests, are patterns that occur
frequently in data. There are many kinds of frequent patterns,
including itemsets, subsequences, and substructures.A frequent
itemset typically refers to a set of items that frequently appear
together in a transactional data set, such as milk and bread. A
frequently occurring subsequence,such as the pattern that
customers tend to purchase first a PC, followed by a digital
camera, and then a memory card, is a (frequent) sequential
pattern.
buys(X; “computer”))buys(X; “software”)
[support = 1%; confidence = 50%]
age(X, “20:::29”)^income(X, “20K:::29K”))buys(X, “CD player”)
[support = 2% , confidence = 60%]
Classification is the process of finding a model (or
function) that describes and distinguishes data
classes or concepts, for the purpose of being able
to use the model to predict the class of objects
whose class label is unknown.
“How is the derived model presented?” The derived
model may be represented in various forms, such
as classification (IF-THEN) rules, decision trees,
mathematical formulae, or neural networks.
Prediction is the amount of revenue that each item
will generate during an upcoming sale, stock etc..
What is cluster analysis?”Unlike classification and
prediction, which analyze class-labeled data
objects, clustering analyzes data objects without
consulting a known class label.
The objects are clustered or grouped based on the
principle of maximizing the intra class similarity
and minimizing the interclass similarity.
A database may contain data objects that do
not comply with the general behavior or
model of the data. These data objects are
outliers.
However, in some applications such as fraud
detection, the rare events can be more
interesting than the more regularly occurring
ones.
Data evolution analysis describes and models
regularities or trends for objects whose
behavior changes over time. Although this
may include characterization, discrimination,
association
and
correlation
analysis,
classification, prediction, or clustering of time
related data, distinct features of such an
analysis include time-series data analysis,
sequence or periodicity pattern matching,
and similarity-based data analysis.
A data mining system has the potential to generate
thousands or even millions of patterns, or rules. “So,” you
may ask, “are all of the patterns interesting?” Typically not—
only a small fraction of the patterns potentially generated
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would actually be of interest to any given user. Those are
Rules that do not satisfy a confidence threshold of, say, 50%
can be considered uninteresting. Rules below the threshold
likely reflect noise , exceptions, or minority cases and are
probably of less value.
patterns are interesting if they are unexpected (contradicting
a user’s belief).
Patterns that are expected can be interesting if they confirm a
hypothesis that the user wished to validate, or resemble a
user’s hunch.
The Data Mining Systems are classified according to
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kinds of databases mined- relational , transactional,
object-relational, or data warehouse mining system
etc..
kinds
of
knowledge
minedcharacterization,
discrimination, association and correlation analysis,
classification, prediction, clustering, outlier analysis,
and evolution analysis.
kinds of techniques- autonomous systems, interactive
exploratory systems, query-driven systems.
applications adapted- finance , tele communications,
DNA, stock markets etc..
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The set of task-relevant data to be mined
The kind of knowledge to be mined
The background knowledge to be used in the
discovery process
The interestingness measures and thresholds for
pattern evaluation
The expected representation for visualizing the
discovered patterns
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Mining methodology and user interaction issues
◦ Mining different kinds of knowledge in databases
◦ Interactive mining of knowledge at multiple levels of abstraction
◦ Incorporation of background knowledge
◦ Data mining query languages and ad hoc data mining
◦ Presentation and visualization of data mining results
◦ Handling noisy or incomplete data
◦ Pattern evaluation—the interestingness problem.
Performance issues.
Efficiency and scalability of data mining algorithms
Parallel, distributed, and incremental mining algorithms

Issues relating to the diversity of database types
Handling of relational and complex types of data
Mining information from heterogeneous databases and
global information systems
Why Preprocess the Data ?
Imagine that you are a manager at AllElectronics and have been charged with analyzing
the company’s data with respect to the sales at your branch.You carefully inspect the
company’s database and data warehouse, identifying and selecting the attributes or
dimensions to be included in your analysis, such as item, price, and units sold.
Alas! You notice that several of the attributes for various tuples have no recorded value.
For your analysis, you would like to include information as to whether each item
purchased was advertised as on sale, yet you discover that this information has not been
recorded.
Furthermore, users of your database system have reported errors, unusual values, and
inconsistencies in the data recorded for some transactions.
In other words, the data you wish to analyze by data mining techniques are incomplete
(lacking attribute values or certain attributes of interest, or containing only aggregate
data), noisy (containing errors, or outlier values that deviate from the expected), and
inconsistent (e.g., containing discrepancies in the department codes used to categorize
items).
Real-world data tend to be incomplete, noisy, and inconsistent. Data
cleaning (or data cleansing) routines attempt to fill in missing
values, smooth out noise while identifying outliers, and correct
inconsistencies in the data.
Missing Values –
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Ignore the tuple
Fill in the missing value manually
Use a global constant to fill in the missing value
Use the attribute mean to fill in the missing value
Use the attribute mean for all samples belonging to the same class as the given tuple
Use the most probable value to fill in the missing value.
Noisy Data - Noise is a random error or variance in a measured variable.
Noise is Removed in the following three ways
Binning – see the next page
Regression - Data can be smoothed by fitting the data to a function
Clustering - Outliers may be detected by clustering, where similar values are
organized into groups, or “clusters.”
Sorted data for price (in dollars): 4, 8, 15, 21, 21, 24, 25, 28, 34
Partition into (equal-frequency) bins:
Bin 1: 4, 8, 15
Bin 2: 21, 21, 24
Bin 3: 25, 28, 34
Smoothing by bin means:
Bin 1: 9, 9, 9
Bin 2: 22, 22, 22
Bin 3: 29, 29, 29
Smoothing by bin boundaries:
Bin 1: 4, 4, 15
Bin 2: 21, 21, 24
Bin 3: 25, 25, 34
To Detect that Data cleaning is required for a particular Data is
called Discrepancy Detection and it can be done by using Knowledge
and metadata.
It is likely that your data analysis task will involve data integration,
which combines data from multiple sources into a coherent data
store, as in data warehousing. These sources may include multiple
databases, data cubes, or flat files.
There are a number of issues to consider during data integration –
Schema integration and object matching
customer id in one database and cust _number in another
Redundancy
Hence we will perform Data integration by using
Metadata
Normalisation
Correlation analysis using ϰ2
The data are transformed or consolidated into forms appropriate
for mining in the following ways.
Smoothing – can be done by binning, regression, clustering
Aggregation - the daily sales data may be aggregated so as to
compute monthly and annual total amounts.
Generalization – low level data are Replaced by high level data
i.e. street can be generalized to city or country.
Normalization – the data is normalized.
Attribute construction – the new attributes are constructed and
added from the given set of attributes.
The data to be Mined will be Generally very Huge, Hence the Data is
Reduced in the following ways
Data cube aggregation
Attribute subset selection
Dimensionality reduction
Numerosity reduction
Discretization and concept hierarchy generation
By using the Data cube, all the quarter sales can be aggregated to
yearly sales.
Hence the Huge data of quarterly is Reduced to yearly..
Data sets for analysis may contain hundreds of attributes, many of
which may be irrelevant to the mining task or redundant. For
example, if the task is to classify customers as to whether or not
they are likely to purchase a popular new CD at AllElectronics when
notified of a sale, attributes such as the customer’s telephone
number are likely to be irrelevant, unlike attributes such as age or
music taste.
The attribute subset selection is done in the following ways
Stepwise forward selection
Stepwise backward elimination
Combination of forward selection and backward elimination
Decision tree induction
Wavelet Transforms
The discrete wavelet transform(DWT) is a linear signal processing technique
that, when applied to a data vector X, transforms it to a numerically different
vector, X0, of wavelet coefficients. The two vectors are of the same length.
When applying this technique to data reduction, we consider each tuple as
an n-dimensional data vector, that is, X = (x1;x2; : : : ;xn), depicting n
measurements made on the tuple from n database attributes.
“How can this technique be useful for data reduction if the wavelet
transformed data are of the same length as the original data?” The usefulness
lies in the fact that the wavelet transformed data can be truncated. A
compressed approximation of the data can be retained by storing only a
small fraction of the strongest of the wavelet coefficients.
Principal Components Analysis
Suppose that the data to be reduced consist of tuples or data vectors
described by n attributes or dimensions. Principal components analysis, or
PCA (also called the Karhunen-Loeve, or K-L, method), searches for k ndimensional orthogonal vectors that can best be used to represent the data,
where k <= n. The original data are thus projected onto a much smaller
space, resulting in dimensionality reduction.
“Can we reduce the data volume by choosing alternative, ‘smaller’
forms of data representation?”. This can be done as
Regression and Log-Linear Models - the data are modeled to fit a
straight line
Histograms - A histogram for an attribute, A, partitions the data
distribution of A into disjoint subsets, or buckets.
Clustering - They partition the objects into groups or clusters, so
that objects within a cluster are “similar” to one another and
“dissimilar” to objects in other clusters.
Sampling - it allows a large data set to be represented by a much
smaller random sample (or subset) of the data.
Data Discretization and Concept Hierarchy Generation – pls see the
next page..
Data discretization techniques can be used to reduce the number of values
for a given continuous attribute by dividing the range of the attribute into
intervals. This is done in the following ways
Binning – Here we will take the bins with some intervals
Histogram Analysis – Here, the histogram partitions the values into buckets.
Entropy-Based Discretization - The method selects the value of A that has
the minimum entropy as a split-point, and recursively partitions the resulting
intervals to arrive at a hierarchical discretization.
Interval Merging by using ϰ2 Analysis – This contrasts with ChiMerge, which
employs a bottom-up approach by finding the best neighboring intervals and
then merging these to form larger intervals, recursively.
Cluster Analysis - A clustering algorithm can be applied to discretize a
numerical attribute, A, by partitioning the values of A into clusters
or groups.
Discretization by Intuitive Partitioning - For example, annual salaries broken
into ranges like ($50,000, $60,000] are often more desirable than ranges
like ($51,263.98, $60,872.34], obtained by, say, some sophisticated
clustering analysis.
Here the concept hierarchy is generated in the following manner. if
there are some attributes like state, street, city, country..then the
concept hierarchy is generated as
Traditional Databases uses OLAP, whereas DatawareHouse uses OLTP.
The entity-relationship data model is commonly used in the design
of relational databases, where a database schema consists of a set
of entities and the relationships between them. Such a data model is
appropriate for on-line transaction processing.
A data warehouse, however, requires a concise, subject-oriented
schema that facilitates on-line data analysis. The most popular data
model for a data warehouse is a multidimensional model. Such a
model can exist in the form of a star schema, a snowflake schema,
or a fact constellation schema. Let’s look at each of these schema
types.
Star schema: The most common modeling paradigm is the star schema, in
which the data warehouse contains (1) a large central table (fact table)
containing the bulk of the data, with no redundancy, and (2) a set of smaller
attendant tables (dimension tables), one for each dimension. The schema
graph resembles a starburst, with the dimension tables displayed in a radial
pattern around the central fact table.
Snowflake schema - For example, the item dimension table now contains the
attributes item key, item name, brand, type, and supplier key, where supplier
key is linked to the supplier dimension table, containing supplier key and
supplier type information. Similarly, the single dimension table for location in
the star schema can be normalized into two new tables: location and city.
Fact constellation. A fact constellation schema is shown in Figure 3.6. This
schema specifies two fact tables, sales and shipping. The sales table
definition is identical to that of the star schema (Figure 3.4). The shipping
table has five dimensions, or keys: item key, time key, shipper key, from
location, and to location, and two measures: dollars cost and units shipped.
A fact constellation schema allows dimension tables to be shared between
fact tables. For example, the dimensions tables for time, item, and location
are shared between both the sales and shipping fact tables.
Roll-up: The roll-up operation (also called the drill-up operation by
some vendors) performs aggregation on a data cube, either by
climbing up a concept hierarchy for a dimension or by dimension
reduction. This hierarchy was defined as the total order “street < city
< province or state < country.”
Drill-down: Drill-down is the reverse of roll-up. It navigates from
less detailed data to more detailed data. Drill-down can be realized
by either stepping down a concept hierarchy for a dimension or
introducing additional dimensions. Drill-down operation performed
on the central cube by stepping down a concept hierarchy for time
defined as “day < month < quarter < year.”
Slice and dice: The slice operation performs a selection on one
dimension of the given cube, resulting in a subcube. The dice
operation defines a subcube by performing a selection on two or
more dimensions.
Pivot (rotate): Pivot (also called rotate) is a visualization operation
that rotates the data axes in view in order to provide an alternative
presentation of the data.
1. The bottom tier is a warehouse database server that is almost
always a relational database system. Back-end tools and utilities are
used to feed data into the bottom tier from operational databases or
other external sources (such as customer profile information
provided by external consultants). These tools and utilities perform
data extraction, cleaning, and transformation (e.g., to merge similar
data from different sources into a unified format), as well as load
and refresh functions to update the data warehouse.
2. The middle tier is an OLAP server that is typically implemented
using either (1) a relational OLAP (ROLAP) model, that is, an
extended relational DBMS that maps operations on multidimensional
data to standard relational operations; or (2) a multidimensional
OLAP (MOLAP) model, that is, a special-purpose server that directly
implements multidimensional data and operations.
3. The top tier is a front-end client layer, which contains query and
reporting tools, analysis tools, and/or data mining tools (e.g., trend
analysis, prediction, and so on).
Enterprise warehouse: An enterprise warehouse collects all of the
information about subjects spanning the entire organization. It
provides corporate-wide data integration, usually from one or more
operational systems or external information providers, and is crossfunctional in scope.
Data mart: A data mart contains a subset of corporate-wide data
that is of value to a specific group of users. The scope is confined to
specific selected subjects. For example, a marketing data mart may
confine its subjects to customer, item, and sales.
Virtual warehouse: A virtual warehouse is a set of views over
operational databases. For efficient query processing, only some of
the possible summary views may be materialized.
Relational OLAP (ROLAP) servers: These are the intermediate servers
that stand in between a relational back-end server and client frontend tools.
Multidimensional OLAP (MOLAP) servers: These servers support
multidimensional
views
of
data
through
array-based
multidimensional storage engines.
Hybrid OLAP (HOLAP) servers: The hybrid OLAP approach combines
ROLAP and MOLAP technology, benefiting from the greater
scalability of ROLAP and the faster computation of MOLAP.
Specialized SQL servers: To meet the growing demand of OLAP
processing in relational databases, some database systemvendors
implement specialized SQL servers that provide advanced query
language and query processing support for SQL queries over star
and snowflake schemas in a read-only environment.
Data generalization summarizes data by replacing relatively low-level values
(such as numeric values for an attribute age) with higher-level concepts
(such as young, middle aged, and senior). Given the large amount of data
stored in databases, it is useful to be able to describe concepts in concise
and succinct terms at generalized (rather than low) levels of abstraction.
Attribute-Oriented Induction for Data Characterization
Before Attribute Induction 1) First, data focusing should be performed before attribute-oriented
induction. This step corresponds to the specification of the task-relevant
data (i.e., data for analysis). The data are collected based on the information
provided in the data mining query.
2) Specifying the set of relevant attributes. For example, suppose that the
dimension birth place is defined by the attributes city, province or state, and
country. Of these attributes, let’s say that the user has only thought to
specify city. In order to allow generalization on the birth place dimension, the
other attributes defining this dimension
should also be included.
3) A correlation-based (Section 2.4.1) or entropy-based (Section 2.6.1)
analysis method can be used to perform attribute relevance analysis and
filter out statistically irrelevant or weakly relevant attributes from the
descriptive mining process.
Attribute Induction takes place in two phases
1) Attribute Removal - If there is a large set of distinct values for an attribute
of the initial working relation, but either (1) there is no generalization
operator on the attribute (e.g., there is no concept hierarchy defined for the
attribute), or (2) its higher-level concepts are expressed in terms of other
attributes, then the attribute should be removed from the working relation.
2) Attribute Generalization - If there is a large set of distinct values for an
attribute in the initial working relation, and there exists a set of
generalization operators on the attribute, then a generalization operator
should be selected and applied to the attribute.
Attribute Generalization can be controlled in 2 ways
1) Attribute generalization threshold control - sets one threshold for
each attribute. If the number of distinct values in an attribute is
greater than the attribute threshold, further attribute removal or
attribute generalization should be performed.
2) Generalized relation threshold control - sets a threshold
for the generalized relation. If the number of (distinct) tuples in the
generalized relation is greater than the threshold, further
generalization should be performed.
Presentation of the Derived Generalization
The above table is represented in the form of a Bar chart & Pie chart
in the following manner.
It is Represented in the form of a 3-D cube in the following way.
Mining Class Comparisons - In many applications, users may not be
interested in having a single class (or concept) described or
characterized, but rather would prefer to mine a description that
compares or distinguishes one class (or concept) from other
comparable classes (or concepts).
The class comparison is done in the following procedure
1) Data collection - The set of relevant data in the database is
collected by query processing and is partitioned respectively into a
target class and one or a set of contrasting class(es).
2) Dimension relevance analysis - If there are many dimensions,
then dimension relevance analysis should be performed on these
classes to select only the highly relevant dimensions for further
analysis. Correlation or entropy-based measures can be used for
this step.
3) Synchronous generalization – Generalization is performed on the
target class to the level controlled by a user- or expert-specified
dimension threshold, which results in a prime target class relation.
4) Presentation of the derived comparison - The resulting class
comparison description can be visualized in the form of tables,
graphs, and rules.
Frequent patterns are patterns (such as itemsets,
subsequences, or substructures) that appear in a data set
frequently. For example, a set of items, such as milk and
bread, that appear frequently together in a transaction data
set is a frequent itemset. A subsequence, such as buying first
a PC, then a digital camera, and then a memory card, if it
occurs frequently in a shopping history database, is a
(frequent) sequential pattern.
Finding such frequent patterns plays an essential role in
mining associations, correlations, and many other interesting
relationships among data.
Moreover, it helps in data classification, clustering, and other
data mining tasks as well.
Mainly Association mining deals with





Efficient and Scalable Frequent Item set Mining
Methods – using Apriori Algorithm
Mining Multilevel Association Rules
Mining Multidimensional Association Rules
from Relational Databases and Data Warehouses
Association Mining to Correlation Analysis
Constraint-Based Association Mining
Consider a particular Departmental store
where it shows some transactions
Tid
items
1
Bread, milk
2
Bread, diapers, beer, eggs
3
Milk, diapers, beer, cola
4
Bread, milk, diapers, beer
5
Bread, milk, diapers, cola
The above table can be represented in binary
format as below
Tid
Bread
milk
diapers
Beer
Eggs
cola
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
1
1
1
0
3
0
1
1
1
0
1
4
1
1
1
1
0
0
5
1
1
1
0
0
1
Total
4
4
4
3
1
2
Then the 1-item sets are generated from the binary
table ..i.e.
Item
Count
Beer
3
Bread
4
Cola
2
Diapers
4
Milk
4
Eggs
1
Then by taking the support threshold value as 60% (5
transactions) i.e. minimum support count as 3, the cola and
eggs are discarded from the item sets as they have less than
3(threshold).
from the 1-item sets, 2-item sets are generated as 4c2.
i.e. out of the 6 items in 1-item set, 2 are discarded and 4
are remaining and 2 is to generate 2-item set. Then the
2-item sets are..
Item set
Count
Beer, bread
2
Beer, diapers
3
Beer, milk
2
Bread, diapers
3
Bread, milk
3
Diapers, milk
3
In the 2-item sets, (beer, bread) & (beer, milk) are
discarded as they have less than 3(threshold).
And the 3-item sets are generated as 4c3.
The item set which is having more than 3
(threshold).
we will not have 4-item set as there is only 1 pair
formed in 3-item set. if we have 2 pairs, then the
4-item set can be formed by combining 2 pairs.
Item set
Count
Bread, diapers, milk
3
As a conclusion, Apriori generated 1,2,3-item sets
as
6c1+4c2+4c3 = 6+6+4 =16
But according to brute force strategy, the same is
done as
6c1+6c2+6c3=6+15+20 = 41.
Hence, Apriori generates Optimum and Required
number of item sets.
If we have any database which is following concept
hierarchy as below,
Then, we will adopt two methods as follows


Using uniform minimum support for all levels (referred to as
uniform support) i.e. it checks for the minimum support value for all
levels.
Using reduced minimum support at lower levels (referred to as
reduced support) i.e. Here the support values are reduced to some
extent to have the Associations.
1) buys(X, “laptop computer”))buys(X, “HP printer”)
[support = 8%, confidence = 70%]
2) buys(X, “IBM laptop computer”))buys(X, “HP printer”)
[support = 2%, confidence = 72%]
From the above 2 Rules, Rule 1 is considered as it is the Generalized one and
also the support value is more comparing with Rule 2.
1) buys(X, “digital camera”))->buys(X, “HP printer”)
Rule 1 is having only one Predicate “buys” and we will call it as
single dimensional Rule.
2) age(X, “20:::29”)^occupation(X, “student”))->buys(X, “laptop”)
Rule 2 is having 3 predicates “age”, “occupation”, “buys”. Hence we
will call this as multi dimensional Rule.
We will Represent the multi dimensional Rules in the following way..
We will follow 3 methods to this type of Rules
Equal-width binning:
Eg:
age(X, “30:::35”)^income(X, “40:::45K”))->buys(X, “HDTV”)
age(X, “35:::40”)^income(X, “45K:::50K”))->buys(X, “HDTV”)
If we observe, the same interval is taken and the Rules are generated.
Equal-frequency binning:
age(X, “30:::31”)^income(X,
age(X, “31:::32”)^income(X,
age(X, “32:::33”)^income(X,
age(X, “33:::34”)^income(X,
“40:::41K”))->buys(X, “HDTV”)
“41K:::42K”))->buys(X, “HDTV”)
“42:::43K”))->buys(X, “HDTV”)
“43K:::44K”))->buys(X, “HDTV”)
Here ,for a Bin,equal number of tuples will be taken.
Clustering-based binning:
Consider the following tuples, then we can group/cluster them as
below.
age(X, 34)^income(X, “31K:::40K”))->buys(X, “HDTV”)
age(X, 35)^income(X, “31K:::40K”))->buys(X, “HDTV”)
age(X, 34)^income(X, “41K:::50K”))->buys(X, “HDTV”)
age(X, 35)^income(X, “41K:::50K”))->buys(X, “HDTV”)
Then we can form a 2-D Grid and cluster them to get the “HDTV”
Purchase Zone.
Correlation between A and B is measured not only by its support and
confidence but also by the correlation between item sets A and B.
It is done by using two parameters.
1)lift(A, B) =P(A∪B)/P(A)P(B).
2) Correlation analysis using ϰ2
Consider an example: Of the 10,000 transactions analyzed, the data
show that 6,000 of the customer transactions included computer
games, while 7,500 included videos, and 4,000 included both
computer games and videos.
P(game) = 0.6 , p(video)=0.75 & p(game,video)=0.4.
Then for the Rule
buys(X, “computer games”))-> buys(X, “videos”)
[support = 40%, confidence = 66%]
lift(game,video) =
p(game,video) / (P(game) * p(video) )
lift(game,video) = 0.4/(0.6*0.75) = 0.89.
If lift < 1, A & B are said to have negative correlation
If lift > 1, A & B are said to have positive correlation
If lift = 1, A & B are said to be Independent.
Hence lift(game, video) have negative correlation.
Correlation analysis using ϰ2 :
Here we will consider, !game, !video ..i.e. people not playing games,
watching videos..
From the above example,
P(video,game) = 0.4
p(video,!game)=7500-4000/10000 = 0.35
P(!video,game)= 6000-4000/10000 = 0.20
P(!video,!game) = 500/10000=0.05.
Lets look at the table below for the calculation
Correlation analysis using ϰ2 = 555.6
As Correlation analysis using ϰ2 >1 ,then A and B are negatively
correlated and if <1 they are positively correlated.
Lets consider the Rule
age(X, “30:::39”)^income(X,
software”)
“41K:::60K”))->buys(X,
“office
We have not only “age”, “income” predicates, but we will have
lot of other predicates..and each predicate will have some
Range of values..
So, for which set of predicates and for which set of values, the
predicate “buys” will be maximum..
We will consider the best set of predicates, best set of values to
have the maximum “buys” predicate.
That is Constraint-Based Association Mining.
classification is where a model or classifier is constructed to analyse
“safe” or “risky” for the loan application data, “yes” or “no” for the
marketing data etc..as in the following table.
prediction is to predict the “yes” or “no” for a particular new tuple
X = (age = youth, income = medium, student = yes, credit rating = fair)
Buys_computer Table
Mainly Classification is done in 5 ways
1) Decision tree Classification
2) Bayesian Classification
3) Rule Based Classification
4) Back propagation Classification
5) Associative Classification
Decision tree classification - Decision tree induction is the learning
of decision trees from class-labeled training tuples. A decision tree
is a flowchart-like tree structure, where each internal node (non leaf
node) denotes a test on an attribute, each branch represents an out
come of the test, and each leaf node (or terminal node) holds a class
label. The topmost node in a tree is the root node.
Information Gain /Entropy – from the above Buys_computer table,
Gain(A) = Info(D) – Infoa (D)
Info(D) – for the complete table – 9 yes, 5 no, 14 tuples
Info(D) = -9/14 log2 (9/14) - 5/14 log2 (5/14) = 0.940 bits
Infoa (D) – for the attribute “Age” which has
Youth – total 5 values out of 14 tuples, 2 yes and 3 no
Middle aged - total 4 values out of 14 tuples, 4 yes and ‘0’ no
Senior - total 5 values out of 14 tuples, 3 yes and 2 no
Infoage (D)=5/14 x (-2/5 log2 2/5 – 3/5 log2 3/5)+
4/14 x (-4/4 log2 4/4 – 0/4 log2 0/4)+
5/14 x (-3/5 log2 3/5 – 2/5 log2 2/5)
=0.694 bits
Gain(A) = 0.940 – 0.694 = 0.246 bits
Best Classifier Attribute - Entropy or Gain is calculated for all the
Attributes Age, Income, Student, Credit_rating and the Attribute
having Maximum Entropy value will be the Best Classifier Attribute.
Entropy(Age) is having the Max value..Hence “Age” is acting as the
Best classifier Attribute in the following figure.
They can predict class membership probabilities, such as the probability that
a given tuple belongs to a particular class.
Bayes Theorem Let X be a data tuple. In Bayesian terms, X is considered “evidence.” As usual,
it is described by measurements made on a set of n attributes. Let H be some
hypothesis, such as that the data tuple X belongs to a specified class C. For
classification problems, we want to determine P(H/X), the probability that the
hypothesis H holds given the “evidence” or observed data tuple X. In other
words, we are looking for the probability that tuple X belongs to class C,
given that we know the attribute description of X.
P(H/X) is the posterior probability..
P(H/x) =P(X/H)P(H) / p(X)
The above Buys_computer Table is classified and if we need to predict for a
new tuple X,
X = (age = youth, income = medium, student = yes, credit rating = fair),
By using Bayes Theorem, we can calculate in the following way..
P(buys computer = yes) = 9/14 = 0.643
P(buys computer = no) = 5/14 = 0.357
To compute PX/Ci), for i = 1, 2, we compute the following conditional
probabilities:
P(age = youth / buys computer = yes) = 2/9 = 0.222
P(age = youth / buys computer = no) = 3/5 = 0.600
P(income = medium / buys computer = yes) = 4/9 = 0.444
P(income = medium / buys computer = no) = 2/5 = 0.400
P(student = yes / buys computer = yes) = 6/9 = 0.667
P(student = yes / buys computer = no) = 1/5 = 0.200
P(credit rating = fair / buys computer = yes) = 6/9 = 0.667
P(credit rating = fair / buys computer = no) = 2/5 = 0.400
Using the above probabilities, we obtain
P(X/buys computer = yes) = P(age = youth / buys computer = yes) x
P(income = medium / buys computer = yes) x
P(student = yes / buys computer = yes) x
P(credit rating = fair / buys computer = yes)
= 0.222x0.444x0.667x0.667 = 0.044
Similarly,
P(X/buys computer = no) = 0.600x0.400x0.200x0.400 = 0.019
To find the class, Ci, that maximizes P(X/Ci) P(Ci), we compute
P(X/buys computer = yes) P(buys computer = yes) = 0.044x0.643 = 0.028
P(X/buys computer = no) P(buys computer = no) = 0.019x0.357 = 0.007
Therefore, the naïve Bayesian classifier predicts buys computer = yes for
tuple X.
Rule Based Classification -
In this section, we look at rule-based
classifiers, where the learned model is represented as a set of IF-THEN rules.
Rules are a good way of representing information or bits of knowledge. A
rule-based classifier uses a set of IF-THEN rules for classification. An IFTHEN rule is an expression of the form
IF condition THEN conclusion.
An example is rule R1,
R1: IF age = youth AND student = yes THEN buys computer = yes.
The “IF”-part (or left-hand side)of a rule isknownas the rule antecedent or
precondition. The “THEN”-part (or right-hand side) is the rule consequent.
R1 can also be written as
R1: (age = youth) ^ (student = yes))->(buys computer = yes).
The process of grouping a set of physical or abstract objects into classes of
similar objects is called clustering. A cluster is a collection of data objects
that are similar to one another within the same cluster and are dissimilar to
the objects in other clusters.
Types of Data in Cluster Analysis
1) Data matrix
2) Dissimilarity matrix
3) Interval scaled variables - examples include weight and height, latitude
and longitude coordinates (e.g., when clustering houses), and weather
temperature.
4) Binary variables – 0 & 1
Partitioning Methods –
Given D, a data set of n objects, and k, the number of clusters to form, a
partitioning algorithm organizes the objects into k partitions (k n), where
each partition represents a cluster.
THE K-MEANS METHOD
Input:
k: the number of clusters,
Output: A set of k clusters.
D: a data set containing n objects.
Method:
(1) arbitrarily choose k objects from D as the initial cluster centers;
(2) repeat
(3) (re)assign each object to the cluster to which the object is the most
similar, based on the mean value of the objects in the cluster;
(4) update the cluster means, i.e., calculate the mean value of the objects for
each cluster;
(5) until no change;
Clustering by k-means partitioning.
Suppose that there is a set of objects located in space as depicted in the
rectangle shown in Figure 7.3(a). Let k = 3; that is, the user would like the
objects to be partitioned into three clusters.
According to the algorithm in Figure 7.2, we arbitrarily choose three objects
as the three initial cluster centers, where cluster centers are marked by a “+”.
Each object is distributed to a cluster based on the cluster center to which it
is the nearest. Such a distribution forms silhouettes encircled by dotted
curves, as shown in Figure 7.3(a).
Next, the cluster centers are updated. That is, the mean value of each cluster
is recalculated based on the current objects in the cluster. Using the new
cluster centers, the objects are redistributed to the clusters based on which
cluster center is the nearest. Such a redistribution forms new silhouettes
encircled by dashed curves, as shown in Figure 7.3(b).
This process iterates, leading to Figure 7.3(c). The process of iteratively
reassigning objects to clusters to improve the partitioning is referred to as
iterative relocation. Eventually, no redistribution of the objects in any cluster
occurs, and so the process terminates.
The resulting clusters are returned by the clustering process.
Clustering of a set of objects based on the k-means method. (The mean of
each cluster is marked by a “+”.)