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Name:____________________________________ Period:______________________Date:_________________ Medieval Asia and Africa Video Link: http://bit.ly/MedAsiaAfrica Big Picture: The influence of China’s advanced civilizations spread across East Asia including Korea and Japan. As societies in Africa grew, different forms of government arose to lead them. Essential Question: What social, political, and economic factors characterized life in Asia and Africa during the Middle Ages? Was Mana Musa really the richest person in the entire history of the world? Golden Hawk Historians will… Analyze the effect that social, political, and economic factors had on Asia and Africa during the Middle Ages. Evaluate the extent to which Mansa Musa was truly the richest man in the history of the world. Chinese Empires Han Dynasty After the Han Dynasty collapsed in China military leaders split China into several rival kingdoms until _______________________ reunified China under the _______________ (pronounced sway) dynasty. Wendi restored ________________________, created a _____________________________________, and _____________________________ the government. His greatest achievement was the _________________________________ that connected northern and southern China that he built through the ___________________________________________________. Tang Dynasty When Wendi was assassinated a general in his army seized control and established the ____________________ dynasty. Tang rulers established a capital in Chang’an. They improved the government by requiring ________________________________________________ in which people had to pass a written test in order to work for the government. Tang rulers also created a __________________________________________ that became a model for Japan and Korea. The Tang expanded the empire increasing their exposure to other peoples which increased _________________ along the ______________________________. Song Dynasty After the Tang Dynasty, China was not _______________________ until the Song dynasty. Under Song rule Chinese civilization became the _______________________________ in the world. The Song created a capital at Kaifeng, restored _____________________________________________, reformed the government, and reformed the civil service exam. The new exam tested prospects on _______________________________________. The Song were never able to regain the territories in the north or west. Chinese Cultural Achievements _______________________________________ allowed for faster copying of texts by carving the texts into wood and then covering it with ink to stamp onto a new sheet of paper. ____________________________ made printing much faster by creating individual letters that could be combined to make words. ____________________________________________ was used in order to improve trade because it was lighter and easier to use than coins. ___________________________________ was invented for fireworks and signals rather than weapons. ______________________________________ allowed for further sea travel. The Mongols Northern China had been attacked by a nomadic people from the north called the _______________________. The Mongols were divided into separate clans led by a __________________, or chief. Under ________________________________, meaning universal ruler, the Mongols became united and created an empire. The army was ___________________________________ and could attack quickly using brutal tactics like burning entire villages and killing the inhabitants. Under Genghis Khan the Mongols conquered much of ______________________________________________. After his death the empire was divided into four ___________________________________, or regions. Under ___________________________________ the Mongols attempted to control all of China and Korea. At one point the Mongol empire stretched from __________________________________________________. Kublai Khan started the _____________________ dynasty in China and declared himself emperor of the China. He heavily ________________ the Chinese and did not let them serve in higher government positions. Kublai Khan encouraged ____________________ and opened China to visitors including Marco Polo. The Ming and Qing Dynasties The Ming Dynasty Following the Mongol dynasties collapse the ______________ Dynasty was founded. Emperor __________________________ worked to rebuild and unify China. He passed reduced __________________ and passed reforms to improve trade. He also revived _____________________ Chinese culture. His successor, Yonglo, encouraged _________________________ and encouraged foreign leaders to visit China. Following the explorations the Ming’s ___________________________________ to all foreigners fearing the influence they had on Chinese culture. The Ming’s built the ________________________________________________ The Qing Dynasty The Ming were attacked by the _________________________ from Manchuria and renamed the empire – Qing Dynasty They gained the respect of the Chinese by allowing them to keep their ___________________________ and ____________________________ traditions. The Manchu continued their restriction of foreign trade. The Ottoman and Safavid Empire The Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire was established by the _________________ in Modern day Turkey in the 1300s. The location was strategically located between the __________________________________________ to the west and the _____________________________________ to the east. The Ottomans began to expand their empire attacking the ____________________________________ to the west and parts of the _____________________ empires to the east. When the Ottomans took the Byzantine capital of Constantinople they renamed it ____________________________ and claimed the Christian city for Islam. Overall, the Ottomans ruled their conquered subjects with __________________________________, however, non-Muslims did have to pay heavy taxes. The Ottoman Empire lasted until the early _________________________. The Safavid Empire The Persian Muslims called the __________________________ began building an empire around the 1500s and soon came into conflict with the Ottoman’s and other Muslim empires. The Safavid were ________________ and the other Muslims were ___________________________. Esma’il, whose father was killed by Sunni’s, expanded his empire through a series of military victories before taking up the title ___________________, or king, in modern day Iran. The Safavid Empire had a unique culture due to the blending of the _____________________________ __________________________ influences. They encouraged traditional products such as Persian rugs to be manufactured. The Mughal Empire After the fall of the ___________________ Empire in the 500s India broke into several smaller kingdoms with no single ruler. Muslim traders appeared during this period and attacked North India creating a capital in __________________. The Muslims allowed the Indians to keep their traditional customs and religions but also spread ______________________ religion and culture through India. _______________________ founded the ___________________ Empire known for its wealth and power, after Babur died his grandson ___________________ took the throne. Akbar attempted to unify his empire through ____________________________________________ – he abolished taxes on people of different faiths and encouraged discussion between people of different religions. After Akbar died ____________________________, his son, became ruler who continued the policy of religious tolerance and ________________________________. Jhangir’s son Shah Jahan also encouraged art and learning. He had the _________________________________ built as a tomb for his beloved wife. Following Shah Jahan, Aurangeb expanded the Mughal empire to its greatest size. Japan Japan consists of a series of thousands of islands that form an ________________________________________, or large island chain. Japanese practice __________________________, or “way of kami.” According to Shinto beliefs everything in nature has a “________________” Shintoism does not have a formal text or structure but followers build ______________________ and pray to the “kami.” The first emperor of the Japanese were the ____________________ clan, thought to be descendants of one of the Sun gods. Other clans gained power over the Yamato but did not get rid of the _________________________________, instead they controlled him. By the 1100s Japan’s central government had begun to lose control of the empire and local clans began to fight for power. Large landowners hired ____________________________, or trained professional warriors, for protection. Japan adopted a _____________________________________________ very similar to Europe. In exchange for their service Landowners paid samurai with ____________________, usually rice. Samurai were trained warriors that wore ______________________, were trained in weapons, and rode on horseback. Samurai followed a strict code of ethics called _____________________, which means “the way of the warrior.” Samurai’s were required to be courageous, honorable, obedient, and loyal. Many samurai adopted ________________________________________, a form of Buddhism that spread from China to Japan and stressed discipline and meditation as ways to focus the mind and gain wisdom. After many years of warfare Japan was united by the ____________________________ family who became the _________________________________, or generals, of Japan. The emperor of Japan acted as a _________________________________, or ruler with no political power. During Tokugawa rule ______________________________ production rose, population grew, and economic activity increased. Under Tokugawa rule feudal society hierarchy became rigid. Ruling Class: ________________________ ____________________ ____________________ (landowners) ____________________________ Below the ruling class were the _______________________________________________________________. Korea The Korean _____________________________ lies southwest of China and just northwest of Japan, leaving them open to invasion by the Chinese and the Japanese. The first Koreans were _______________________ and travelled in clans that formed their own culture. China defeated these nomadic tribes and shared Confucianism as well as their writing system, agricultural practices, and government systems. The __________________________ dynasty in Korea continued some of the Chinese practices and worked to develop a distinct Korean identity. Korean society was sharply divided between the ___________________________________________________. African Civilizations Africa’s ________________________________________ has contributed to the wide variety of cultures that have emerged in Africa. Each section has its own ________________________ and provides different ____________________________ for the people who live there. Northern Africa is dominated by the ___________________________ desert while central and southern Africa is characterized by plains called the _____________________________. In the early phase of their history most Africans lived as _____________________________________________. Their villages were based around their _________________ or families with very strict division of labor between men and women. They were __________________________________, meaning they believed that bodies of water, animals, trees, and other natural objects have spirits. They did not develop a system of writing but rather passed down their histories through ____________________________________________. After the Iron Age, Africans began to migrate throughout the rest of the continent sharing their culture, beliefs, and languages. The ____________________ language formed and was shared through southern and eastern Africa creating a more common culture. African Kingdoms Aksum The Aksum kingdom developed in east Africa and controlled __________________ along the Red Sea. This made it the richest of the kingdoms in east Africa. Aksum was a center of trade for _____________________ goods like frankincense, ivory, and gold, but also had a sustainable agriculture. Aksum became a _____________________________ nation after Christianity was brought from traders. Aksum began to decline in the 700s due to Muslim invaders. Ghana Ghana did not have access to the ____________, however, it still became a trading empire. They used _________________ to cross the Sahara and trade with the other African kingdoms. Ghana controlled all of the _____________________________________ trade in West Africa. They ______________ the goods that were brought to their empire’s markets which built them great wealth. Mali After Ghana declined due to Muslim invaders, Mali rose to power expanding the empire to the Atlantic Ocean. Mali reached it’s height under _______________________________________. He gained most of his wealth by taxing the _________________________________ trade. Mansa Musa was a devout ____________________________. In 1324 he set out with 60,000 other Muslims to complete the ______________________. When he returned he built large mosques, schools, and libraries to spread Islam in Timbuktu, the capital. Songhai The rulers following Mansa Musa were not as strong as he had been and was eventually overshadowed by the smaller kingdom of the Songhai. The Songhai were _______________ along the _______________________________________ trade route that became Muslim.