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WS/BIOL 350: Quiz 10 (Last one!)
1) Which organ takes over the role of the corpus luteum after the 1st trimester of a pregnancy, by producing
enough progesterone and estrogen to maintain the endometrium and inhibit ovulation?
a) uterus (endometrium)
b) cervix
c) placenta
d) pituitary gland
2) What physiological event, which occurs during the 1st trimester of pregnancy, is believed to be primarily
responsible for the nausea called morning sickness?
a) surge in level of hCG from the placenta
b) surge in level of LH from pituitary gland
c) sharp drop in levels of estrogen and progesterone
d) production of prostaglandins
What dangerous condition, whose cause is still unknown, develops in 5-10% of women during the 3rd
trimester of their pregnancy, characterized by high blood pressure, edema, and protein in the urine?
a) endometriosis
b) ectopic pregnancy
c) placenta previa
d) pre-eclampsia
4) What type of blood cell does the HIV virus attack, infect and destroy? (For full credit, your answer must
be fairly specific). CD4 T-cells (also accept helper T-cells or just T-cells for full credit) Give ½ credit
(0.5 pts) for white blood cells or lymphocytes, but no credit for any other answers.
5) If an HIV-infected person does not receive effective drug treatment, at what point is their HIV infection
diagnosed as AIDS? (Hint: What is the difference between HIV infection and AIDS?)
When CD4 T-Cell count falls below 200 cells/ug. Also accept “when the T-cell count below 200” or
“when the T-cell count falls below a certain number” for full credit. Half credit (0.5 pts) for more
general answers like “when the body’s immune system collapses” but NOT for really vague answers like
“when the body gets weak” or “when the body becomes susceptible to illness” and no credit for incorrect
information such as “when there is a higher amount of virus in the body” (because viral counts can also
be very high during the initial stages of infection.)
Extra credit (1 pt): Briefly explain how HIV attacks, infects and destroys the targeted cells.
For full credit, the answer should include all (or nearly all) of the following 6 steps:
1. Virus attaches to receptor cells on the T-cell (they don’t have to specify CD4 helper T-cell)
2. It injects its RNA strand into the cell, where it gets transcribed into DNA
3. Viral DNA is then carried into the nucleus, where it gets incorporated into the cell’s own DNA
5. T-cell is enslaved to produce more copies of the viral RNA
6. New copies of viiral RNA strands break out of the T-cell cell, killing the cell in the process
I gave 0.5 for including at least half of this info and 0.25 for including at least some of it, unless they
also gave false info (in which case they get no points). Vague answers like “HIV attacks white blood cells
and dominates the cells, destroying the body’s ability to fight back by” received no points.