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Transcript
The developing reader. (level 3)
How parents, carers and mentors can help.
Before reading you can:

Talk about strategies they can use if they come across an unfamiliar word.

Focus on what they do well, encouraging them to build on their strengths as
readers.
During reading you can:

Encourage the reader to try a range of strategies when reading unfamiliar words.
For example:

1.
Sound out words;
2.
Use the rest of the sentence to help with a difficult word;
3.
Use other clues on the page to help read accurately;
4.
Re-read the preceding words when stuck;
5.
Break down longer words to read them.
Use the Internet to find information on a range of topics or read newspapers
together to look for specific information, e.g. weather, television programming,
sport, etc.

Read yourself: show them that reading has a purpose and is enjoyable.
After reading you can:

Choose one or two words that they found difficult to read and practise different
strategies for reading the word.

Talk about strategies that you used when reading. Did you visualise the main
character? What questions came into your mind when reading? How did you feel
about a particular issue, character or event?
The competent reader, (level 4)
How parents, carers and mentors can help
Before reading you can:


Ask the reader to make predictions about the text. For example:
1.
What might it be about?
2.
What might happen in the story?
3.
What might be the importance of the title?
4.
What sort of text is it (a horror story, a newspaper article, etc.)?
Encourage them to take a risk, e.g. choose a book that they wouldn't normally
read.
During reading you can:

Ask the reader to predict how a story will continue. Then ask them to explain their
predictions with some reference to what has happened so far.

Talk about the way we often 'read between the lines', looking for meanings that
are implied but not stated directly. Choose a short piece of text, e.g. a short
newspaper report on a celebrity, and practise looking for facts (what we know) and
inferences (what is implied). Talk about the differences.

Ask follow-up questions that encourage the reader to explain further their
inferences through closer use of textual evidence.
After reading you can:

Encourage them to visit writers' web-sites and to attend talks and presentations by
writers. Better still, go with them.

Help the reader to reflect on what they have gained from their reading. Help them
to set new targets that build on their reading, e.g. to read two other novels by the
same author by a certain date, or to find out more about a topic by finding and
reading another source of information.

Praise or reward any positive achievements and progress, e.g. if they have read far
more than usual.
The active reader, (level 5)
How parents, carers and mentors can help
Before reading you can:

Ask the reader to create a list of speculative phrases to use when discussing a text.
You may wish to start them off with 'This makes us think that...' and 'This suggests
that...'

Ask the reader to talk about the purpose, audience and form of the text they are
about to read.
During reading you can:

Ask the reader to speculate about the writer's point of view in a text.
For example:
1.
Is the writer for or against this topic?
2.
Does the writer want us to sympathise with this character or not?

Ask the reader to comment on some of the words and sentences used by the
writer. Discuss what effect is being created by the writer and how it is being
created.
For example:
1.
What did the writer want us to think when he chose that word?
2.
That's a very short sentence. Why has he chosen to write it like that?
After reading you can:

Talk with the reader about what they liked or disliked about the way the text was
written. Try to get him or her to point out particular words or sentences and
comment on them.

Talk with the reader about why the writer might have chosen to organise a text in
a particular way.
The reflective reader, (level 6)
How parents, carers and mentors can help
Before reading you can:

Encourage the reader to read a range of texts, both fiction and non-fiction,
explaining their choices and reasons for their choices.

Encourage the reader to read a book which is linked to one they have already read,
e.g. it might be set in a similar location, it might be written by the same writer, it
might deal with a similar theme.
During reading you can:

Read the opening of the text together and ask the reader to identify what they
think the themes of the text will be. Ask them to explain why they think this.

Encourage the reader to use the Internet or reference books in the library to find a
range of information about a chosen topic. Ask them to explain which are likely to
be the most useful and reliable sources of information and why.
After reading you can:

Ask the reader to think back to the themes they identified from the opening of the
text and ask them to explain how they developed and which ones became more
important towards the end of the text.

Encourage the reader to use subject-specific vocabulary when discussing a text
with you. Make sure they are able to explain clearly to you what they understand
by it.
The versatile reader, (level 7/8)
How parents, carers and mentors can help
Before reading you can:

Discuss previous reading and potential future reads.

Help the reader to select texts of a familiar type but from another culture or time.
During reading you can:

Look at a selection of texts, e.g. websites, newspaper reports and discuss any bias
or subjectivity. Ask the reader to evaluate the reliability of each text.

Encourage the reader to explore other readers' responses to texts and discuss
whether they agree or disagree with them, explaining why.

Discuss with the reader the way ideas and issues are presented in different texts.
After reading you can:

Discuss the text as a whole and their response to it. Encourage them to take the
lead on this, explaining their judgements and preferences about a text they have
read.

Discuss the reader's strengths and aspects of reading they would like to develop.
The developing reader
Level 3 (working to secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Choose the best reading strategy to work out the meaning of
words I do not know.
2.
Scan long sentences to make sure that I know where they end
and how they are organised.
3.
Use at least two of the following reading strategies:
questioning a text, making mental pictures based on what I
read, predicting what might happen next in a text.
4.
Find information in the fiction and non-fiction texts I am
reading.
The developing reader
Level 3 (secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Find a quotation which could support my ideas.
2.
Skim and scan to find information quickly.
3.
Understand the connection between the purpose of a text and
its layout and organisation.
4.
Use empathy to make judgements about a character.
The competent reader
Level 4 (working to secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Use clues from the text to work out what the writer means
even when it is not stated directly.
2.
Use a range of imaginative reading strategies when I read,
such as speculation, prediction, questioning, empathy and
visualisation.
3.
Find the main ideas in a text and support them with evidence.
4.
Explain why I like or dislike a text.
The competent reader
Level 4 (secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Read between the lines to infer the writer's meaning.
2.
Make sure that I can find evidence in the text to support my
inferences.
3.
Pick out and comment on some of the words chosen by the
writer.
4.
Understand the writer's point of view in a text I am reading.
The active reader
Level 5 (working to secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Explain why I think a writer has organised a text in a
particular way.
2.
Explain why I think a writer has chosen certain words or
phrases.
3.
Understand that a writer can create different types of
narrators in fiction texts.
4.
Write a PEE paragraph with a point, some evidence and some
explanation.
The active reader
Level 5 (secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Comment on the way a writer puts across a point of view in a
text.
2.
Comment on the way the writer's choices affect the reader's
response.
3.
Use a short, well-chosen quotation within a sentence to show
that I can refer closely to a text.
4.
Understand that a text may have more than one meaning.
The reflective reader
Level 6 (working to secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Follow some themes and ideas throughout a whole text that I
am reading.
2.
Understand how the small decisions a writer makes can
contribute to the bigger picture in a text.
3.
Use key vocabulary when I comment on a writer's techniques.
4.
Pull together information from a range of non-fiction texts and
decide which parts of it might be relevant for my purpose.
The reflective reader
Level 6 (secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Compare the way writers present me with similar ideas in
different texts.
2.
Explain the position of the reader, writer and director/narrator
in relation to a text.
3.
Show my understanding of a writer's use of irony, including
dramatic irony.
4.
Explore the way a text is informed and influenced by the time
and place of its writing.
The versatile reader
Level 7 (working to secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Select and read independently a range of fiction and nonfiction texts.
2.
Evaluate a range of information in order to decide whether it
is reliable.
3.
Show how writers develop key ideas across a range of texts.
The versatile reader
Level 7 (secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Evaluate my reading habits: my strengths as a reader and
areas I would like to develop.
2.
Make and sustain detailed links between texts, including those
written in different times and from unfamiliar cultures.
3.
Write a critical response that is well-argued and securely
rooted in evidence.
The developing writer
Level 3 (working to secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Plan and organise my writing so that my reader will be able to
follow it easily from beginning to end.
2.
Join my ideas in sentences using other connectives as well as
and, but, then, so.
3.
Add detail and interest to my sentences by the words I use.
4.
Use a range of strategies to improve my spelling.
The developing writer
Level 3 (secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Begin to use paragraphs/sections to organise my writing using
topic sentences to help my reader make sense of the text.
2.
Use complex sentences in my writing with a wider range of
connectives.
3.
Use adjectives and adverbial words and phrases to add detail,
interest and variety to my writing.
4.
Improve my knowledge of common spelling patterns.
The competent writer
Level 4 (working to secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Show my reader how I have organised my ideas by using
paragraphs.
2.
Vary my sentences in length and structure.
3.
Use commas correctly in long sentences.
4.
Choose words for accuracy and impact.
5.
Identify my most common spelling mistakes and find my own
way to reduce them.
The competent writer
Level 4 (secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Plan my writing so that I know how it will develop all the way
through.
2.
Add more detail to my writing to make it clearer and more
interesting.
3.
Use a wider range of connectives to show the links between
my ideas.
4.
Choose the kind of sentence to write by thinking how it will
affect my reader.
5.
Use commas correctly in long sentences to mark clause
boundaries.
6.
Choose more words that will have an impact on my reader.
7.
Identify my most common spelling mistakes and find my own
way to reduce them.
The active writer
Level 5 (working to secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Plan my writing so that I am using an appropriate style.
2.
Always use paragraphs and try to link them together clearly.
3.
Choose to write the kinds of sentences that will give the effect
I want.
4.
Use commas and other punctuation correctly in longer
sentences to help the reader follow my meaning.
5.
Always choose the best words to match the subject of my
writing.
6.
Check my writing for the mistakes I commonly make.
The active writer
Level 5 (secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Sustain an appropriate style right through my writing and
adapt the conventions of the text type where this will add
originality and interest.
2.
Link paragraphs together so my reader can see clearly how
my piece of writing is developing.
3.
Connect the sentences within paragraphs so that my meaning
and purpose are clear.
4.
Use commas and other punctuation correctly in longer
sentences to help the reader follow my meaning.
5.
Choose my words carefully and ambitiously so that my writing
is precise and has an impact on the reader.
The reflective writer
Level 6 (working to secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Write with my reader in mind, using the conventions of text
types flexibly.
2.
Organise my paragraphs so my reader is led clearly towards
the ending.
3.
Use a variety of sentences to create effects that emphasise
what I want to say.
4.
Use the full range of punctuation correctly in longer sentences
to help the reader follow my meaning.
5.
Choose my words carefully and ambitiously so that my writing
is precise and has an impact on the reader.
The reflective writer
Level 6 (secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Widen the range of writing that I do well to include formal
essays and balanced analysis.
2.
Organise my paragraphs for a wider range of purposes.
3.
Use the full range of punctuation to create an effect on my
reader.
4.
Choose my words carefully and ambitiously, so that my
writing is precise and has an impact on the reader.
The versatile writer
Level 7 (working to secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Maintain the quality of my writing when working
independently and under pressure of time.
2.
Organise my paragraphs in a range of ways depending upon
the audience and purpose of the text.
3.
Confidently use a variety of sentences to create effects, add I
interest and emphasis.
4.
Use commas, semi-colons and colons effectively to allow my
reader to follow my arguments/ideas.
5.
Use sophisticated and appropriate vocabulary to suit the
audience and purpose.
The versatile writer
Level 7 (secure)
Relevant targets
1.
Improve the types of writing that I know I need to develop.
2.
Continue to improve the way I build my paragraphs.
3.
Continue to improve the way I choose vocabulary.
The developing writer, (level 3)
How parents, carers and mentors can help
Before writing you can:

Remind the writer of his/her writing target.

Ask the writer how they like to plan their writing. Ask them to tell you what they
are doing while they do a spider diagram, bullet points or whatever their chosen
style of planning is.

Encourage the writer to get started. Developing writers may need plenty of
encouragement, so show a lot of interest in the topic and confidence in their ability
to do the task.
During writing you can:

Suggest the writer could join some sentences together. Ask how that could be
done.

Ask them to think if they could improve certain sentences by choosing a more
powerful word.

Suggest, if necessary, that the writer could add more detail. Help the writer to
think of more detail by asking questions.
After writing you can:

Use plenty of praise, focusing particularly on specific parts of the writing where the
writer has made progress towards a target.

Help the writer to check spelling. Where there are errors in commonly used words
discuss an idea for how they could remember these words in future.

Point out a particular word that the writer has chosen and praise it because it is
either precise or has a powerful impact.
The competent writer, (level 4)
How parents, carers and mentors can help
Before writing you can

Remind about targets.

Ask the writer to talk through with you how the writing will be organised.
During writing you can:

Ask the writer to say some sentences out loud before writing. If all the sentences
are written in very much the same way, encourage variation in length and
structure.

Ask the writer to explain why they have chosen a certain word and ask if there are
alternatives that might be better.
After writing you can:

Read a first draft and see whether the writer has focused on his or her targets.

Praise/reward any positive achievements and progress.
The active writer, (level 5)
How parents, carers and mentors can help
Before writing you can:

Remind the student of his/her writing target.

Ask the student to plan his/her work with you, explaining their planning, saying
who the piece of writing is for, what form it will take, and what its purpose is.
During writing you can:

Suggest the writer uses a dictionary or thesaurus to select more vivid or more
precise vocabulary.

Ask the writer to tell you how they are trying to make links between their
paragraphs.

Ask the writer to tell you how the style of their writing is appropriate to its purpose
and intended reader.
After writing you can:

Ask the writer to check what they have done against their target.

Praise positive achievement and ask the writer to identify areas they want to
develop in their own work.
The reflective writer, (level 6)
How parents, carers and mentors can help
Before writing you can:

Discuss the writing task, its purpose and the type of writing that will be needed.
Talk about whether the usual conventions of this type of writing might be adapted
to make the writing more original.
During writing you can:

Talk to the writer about how they are building up their paragraphs, and ask them
to explain how they are linking their sentences together.

Ask if the writer is using the full range of punctuation to help make meaning clear.
After writing you can:

Ask pupils to read their first draft aloud, and ask them to identify where they have
attempted to meet their targets.

Praise and reward any positive achievement and progress, but focus particularly on
any aspects of the writing where the writer's individual voice is evident.
The versatile writer (level 7/8)
How parents, carers and mentors can help
Before writing you can:

Remind the writer about his or her personal targets, and ask them to be explained
to you.

Discuss the purpose and intended reader for the writing. Ask the writer what style
of writing they will need to use.
During writing you can:

Talk to the writer about how they are building up their paragraphs and ask them to
explain how they are linking their paragraphs together.

Focus on one or two words and ask if the writer could have been more
precise/stylistically appropriate (e.g. formal/informal/ambitious/vivid).
After writing you can:

Read a first draft and see whether the writer has focused on his or her targets.

Discuss the effect on you as the reader.

Praise/reward any positive achievements and progress focusing particularly on the
way they were able to work independently, quickly and confidently.