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Namaste and Welcome Association of Youth Organization Nepal Pradip pariyar Justice lived by unarmed nations in the face of odds. Peace is not merely the absence of war but the presence of justice, of law, of order- in short,of government. Peace is not the absence of the war: it is the presence of Justice UN and World Bank: 15-24 Save the Children : 13- 25 India: 16-35 Nepal Youth policy-16-40 Philippines and Bangladesh-15-30 Japan- 0-24 Australia, Newzeland: 15- 25 Malysiya:15-40 (15-24-25-40) before the maturity One third of the average age Age of investment After bartdband and before marriage (nepali context) Late childhood and early adulthood a time of passage between childhood and adulthood, period between puberty and parenthood • “Youth is less an age range than a life phase marking the movement from childhood into adulthood.” (Sommers 2007) • “(The category is) created in everyday practice at the intersection of the global and the local” (Shepler 2005) • “Youth figure centrally in debates and transition in membership, belonging & the hybridization of identities” (Durham 2000) • “Young people personify a given society's deepest anxieties and hopes about its own transformation” (Maira & Soep 2005) • “Young people – whether depicted by chronological age or socially constructed roles – incarnate unique combinations of social vulnerabilities and transformative potential within their communities.” (Hamilton 2010) Between 1970 and 1999, 80 percent of civil conflicts occurred in countries where 60 percent of the population or more were under the age of thirty There are 67 countries in the world with such "youth bulges" now and 60 of them are undergoing some kind of civil war or mass killing. All wars, just or unjust, desastrous or victorious are waved against the young people- Englantyne Jebb, Founder SC 1931 Development is for youth- youth utilize this for longer period . Youth will monitor the achievement and will be the witness WHEN 15-29 year-olds make up more than 30 per cent of a society, violence is practically inevitable. Young men start fighting for prestige and standing, positions their society simply can't provide in sufficient numbers. - Gunnar Heinsohn, social scientist at the University of Bremen, Germany, 1995 • “Building of constituencies for peace (and) the fostering of trust, good will, reciprocity, and mutuality among youth from different ethnic or religious groups.” (Academy for Educational Development 2005) • “Conflict transformation is to envision & respond to the ebb & flow of social conflict as life-giving opportunities for creating constructive change processes that reduce violence, increase justice… & respond to real-life problems in human relationships.” (Lederach 2003) • “Strategies designed to promote a secure and stable lasting peace in which the basic human needs of the population are met and violent conflicts do not recur” (Lambourne 2004) • “Process of engaging with & transforming the relationships, interests, discourses and, if necessary, the very constitution of society that supports the continuation of violent conflict.” (Miall 2004) • “Mutually supporting (but also sometimes antagonistic) challenges of violence prevention & societal reconstruction.” (McEvoy-Levy 2001) “Organizations that are successful in involving young people in meaningful ways are able to translate this attitude into policies & programs that incorporate youth as partners in community building.” (International Youth Foundation 2002) “Whenever and wherever there is violence… young and usually unmarried males are most often the perpetrators.” (Mesquida & Weiner 1998) “The young generation is traditionally seen as one of the most dynamic mediums of social change.” (Glinski 1998) “Young people are key ‘engines’ of socio-political change, if not its primary ‘engineers’. When effectively mobilized – by ideational leaders & power brokers in government, civil society, and/or militant networks – youth provide necessary energy & mass power to get the wheels turning for divergent ‘vehicles’ of social & political change.” (Hamilton 2010) Youth have a great potential to contribute to peace building in every society and Nation. It is important that youth peace building willingness be supported and facilitated at all levels. Youth need to be equipped with conflict transformation skills and there is a need for change in adult’s perceptions in relation to youth’s roles as problem-solvers and decision-makers at local to national levels youth participation in Peacebuilding at all levels is essential in order to attain sustainable peace in every Nation.