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Chapter 24 – World War Looms
Section One – Dictators Threaten World Peace
I. Nationalism Grips Europe and Asia
a. Failures of the WWI Peace Settlement
i. Treaty of Versailles Causes Anger and Resentment in Europe
ii. Germany resents blame for war, loss of colonies, border territories
iii.Russia resents loss of lands used to create other nations
iv.New democracies flounder under social and economic problems
v. Dictators rise; drive by nationalism, desire for more territory
b. Joseph Stalin Transforms the Soviet Union
i. 1922 Lenin establishes Soviet Union after civil war
ii. 1924 Joseph Stalin takes over:
- replaces private farms with collectives
- creates second largest industrial power; famines kill millions
- purges anyone who threatens his power; 8–13 million killed
- Totalitarian government exerts almost complete control over people
c. The Rise of Fascism in Italy
i. Unemployment, inflation lead to bitter strikes, some communist-led
ii. Middle, upper classes want stronger leaders
iii.Fascism stresses nationalism, needs of state above individual
iv.Benito Mussolini plays on fears of economic collapse, communism
v. Supported by government officials, police, army
vi.1922 appointed head of government, establishes totalitarian state
d. The Nazi’s Take Over Germany
i. Adolf Hitler leader of National Socialist German Workers’ Party
-Mein Kampf—basic beliefs of Nazism, based on extreme nationalism
i. Wants to unite German-speaking people, enforce racial “purification”
ii. 1932, 6 million unemployed; many men join Hitler’s private army
iii.Nazis become strongest political party; Hitler named chancellor
iv.Dismantles democratic Weimar Republic; establishes Third Reich
e. Militarists Gain Control in Japan
i. 1931, Nationalist military leaders seize Manchuria
ii. League of Nations condemns action; Japan quits League
iii.Militarists take control of Japanese government
f. Aggression in Europe and Africa
i. 1933, Hitler quits League; 1935, begins military buildup
- sends troops into Rhineland, League does nothing to stop him
i. 1935, League fails to stop Mussolini’s invasion of Ethiopia
g. Civil War Breaks Out in Spain
i. 1936, General Francisco Franco rebels against Spanish republic
- Spanish Civil War begins
i. Hitler, Mussolini back Franco; Stalin aids opposition
- Western democracies remain neutral
i. War leads to Rome-Berlin Axis—alliance between Italy and Germany
ii. 1939, Franco wins war, becomes fascist dictator
II. The United States Responds Cautiously
a. Americans Cling to Isolationism
i. Public is outraged at profits of banks, arms dealers during WW I
ii. Americans become isolationists; FDR backs away from foreign policy
iii.1935 Neutrality Acts try to keep U.S. out of future wars
- outlaws arms sales, loans to nations at war
a. Neutrality Breaks Down
i. 1937 Japan launches new attack on China; FDR sends aid to China
ii. FDR wants to isolate the aggressor nations to stop war.
Section Two – War in Europe
I. Austria and Czechoslovakia Fall
a. Union with Austria
i. Post WW I division of Austria-Hungary creates fairly small Austria
ii. Majority of Austrians are German, favor unification with Germany
iii.1938, German troops march into Austria unopposed, union complete
iv.U.S., rest of world do nothing to stop Germany
b. Bargaining for the Sudetenland
i. Three million German-speakers in Sudetenland
ii. Hitler claims Czechs abuse Sudeten Germans, masses troops on border
iii.1938, Prime Ministers Daladier, Neville Chamberlain meet with Hitler
iv.Sign Munich Agreement, hand Sudetenland over to Germany
v. Winston Churchill condemns appeasement policy, warns war will follow
vi.Appeasement—giving up principles to pacify an aggressor
II. The German Offensive Begins
a. The Soviet Union Declares Neutrality
i. March 1939, German troops occupy rest of Czechoslovakia
ii. Hitler charges Poles mistreat Germans in Poland
iii.Many think he’s bluffing; invading Poland would bring two-front war
iv.Stalin, Hitler sign nonaggression pact—will not attack each other
v. Sign second, secret pact agreeing to divide Poland between them
b. Blitzkrieg in Poland
i. Sept. 1939, Hitler overruns Poland in blitzkrieg, lightning war
ii. Germany annexes western Poland; U.S.S.R. attacks, annexes east
iii.France, Britain declare war on Germany; World War II begins
c. The Phony War
i. French, British soldiers on Maginot Line face Germans in sitzkrieg
ii. Stalin annexes Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; defeats Finland
iii.1940, Hitler invades Denmark, Norway, then Low Countries
III. France and Britain Fight On
a. The Fall of France
i. German army goes through Ardennes, bypassing French, British
ii. British, French trapped on Dunkirk; ferried to safety in UK
iii.1940, Italy invades France from south; Germans approach Paris
iv.France falls; Germans occupy northern France
v. Nazi puppet government set up in southern France
vi.General Charles de Gaulle sets up government-in-exile in England
b. The Battle of Britain
i. Summer 1940, Germany prepares fleet to invade Britain
ii. Battle of Britain—German planes bomb British targets
iii.Britain uses radar to track, shoot down German planes
iv.Hitler calls off invasion of Britain
v. Germans, British continue to bomb each other’s cities
Section Three – The Holocaust
I. The Persecution Begins
a. Jews Targeted
i. Europe has long history of anti-Semitism
ii. Germans believe Hitler’s claims, blame Jews for problems
iii.Nazis take away citizenship, jobs, property; require Star of David
iv.Holocaust—murder of 11 million people, more than half are Jews
b. Kristallnacht
i. Kristallnacht—Nazis attack Jewish homes, businesses, synagogues
ii. About 100 Jews killed, hundreds injured, 30,000 arrested
c. A Flood of Jewish Refugees
i. 1938, Nazis try to speed up Jewish emigration
ii. France has 40,000 refugees, Britain 80,000; both refuse more
iii.U.S. takes 100,000, many “persons of exceptional merit”
iv.Americans fear strain on economy, enemy agents; much anti-Semitism
d. The Plight of the St. Louis
i. Coast Guard prevents passengers on St. Louis from disembarking
ii. Ship forced to return to Europe; most passengers killed in Holocaust
II. Hitler’s Final Solution
a. The Condemned
i. Hitler’s Final Solution—slavery, genocide of “inferior” groups
ii. Genocide—deliberate, systematic killing of an entire population
iii.Target Jews, gypsies, freemasons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, unfit Germans
iv.Nazi death squads round up Jews, shoot them
b. Forced Relocation
i. Jews forced into ghettos, segregated areas in Polish cities
ii. Some form resistance movements; others maintain Jewish culture
c. Concentration Camps
i. Many Jews taken to concentration camps, or labor camps
- families often separated
i. Camps originally prisons; given to SS to warehouse “undesirables”
ii. Prisoners crammed into wooden barracks, given little food
iii.Work dawn to dusk, 7 days per week
iv.Those too weak to work are killed
III. The Final Stage
a. Mass Exterminations
i. Germans build death camps; gas chambers used to kill thousands
ii. On arrival, SS doctors separate those who can work
iii.Those who can’t work immediately killed in gas chamber
iv.At first bodies buried in pits; later cremated to cover up evidence
v. Some are shot, hanged, poisoned, or die from experiments
b. The Survivors
i. About Six million Jews killed in death camps, massacres
ii. Some escape, many with help from ordinary people
iii.Some survive concentration camps
- survivors forever changed by experience
Section Four – America Moves Toward War
I. The United States Musters It’s Forces
a. Moving Cautiously Away from Neutrality
i. 1939, FDR persuades Congress to pass “cash-and-carry” provision
ii. Argues will help France, Britain defeat Hitler, keep U.S. out of war
b. The Axis Threat
i. 1940, FDR tries to provide Britain “all aid short of war”
ii. Germany, Japan, Italy sign Tripartite Pact, mutual defense treaty
- become known as Axis Powers
i. Pact aimed at keeping U.S. out of war by forcing fight on two oceans
c. Building U.S. Defenses
i. Nazi victories in 1940 lead to increased U.S. defense spending
ii. First peacetime draft enacted—Selective Training and Service Act:
- draftees to serve for one year in Western Hemisphere only
d. Roosevelt Runs for the 3rd Term
i. FDR breaks two-term tradition, runs for reelection
ii. Republican Wendell Willkie has similar views on war
iii.FDR reelected with 55% of votes
II. The Great Arsenal of Democracy
a. The Lend-Lease Plan
i. FDR tells nation if Britain falls, Axis powers free to conquer world
- U.S. must become “arsenal of democracy”
i. By late 1940, Britain has no more cash to buy U.S. arms
ii. 1941 Lend-Lease Act—U.S. to lend or lease supplies for defense
b. Supporting Stalin
i. 1941, Hitler breaks pact with Stalin, invades Soviet Union
ii. Roosevelt sends lend-lease supplies to Soviet Union
c. German Wolf-Packs
i. Hitler deploys U-boats to attack supply convoys
ii. Wolf packs—groups of up to 40 submarines patrol North Atlantic
- sink supply ships
i. FDR allows navy to attack German U-boats in self-defense
III. FDR Plans for War
a. The Atlantic Charter
i. FDR’s proposal to extend the term of draftees passes House by one vote
ii. FDR, Churchill issue Atlantic Charter—joint declaration of war aims
iii.Charter is basis of “A Declaration of the United Nations” or Allies
iv.Allies—nations that fight Axis powers; 26 nations sign Declaration
b. Shoot on Sight
i. Germans fire on U.S. ship, FDR orders navy to shoot U-boats on sight
ii. U-boat attacks lead Senate to repeal ban on arming merchant ships
IV. Japan Attacks the United States
a. Japan’s Ambitions in the Pacific
i. Hideki Tojo—chief of staff of army that invades China, prime minister
ii. Japan seizes French bases in Indochina; U.S. cuts off trade
iii.Japan needs oil from U.S. or must take Dutch East Indies oil fields
b. Peace Talks are Questioned
i. 1941 U.S. breaks Japanese codes; learns Japan planning to attack U.S.
ii. Peace talks with Japan last about 1 month
iii.December 6, Japanese envoy instructed to reject all U.S. proposals
c. The Attack on Pearl Harbor
i. December 7, 1941 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor
ii. 2,403 Americans killed; 1,178 wounded
iii.Over 300 aircraft, 21 ships destroyed or damaged
d. Reaction to Pearl Harbor
i. Congress approves FDR’s request for declaration of war against Japan
ii. Germany, Italy declare war on U.S.
iii.U.S. unprepared to fight in both Atlantic, Pacific Oceans