Download GLUTEN DEVELOPMENT flour + water ↓ increasing adsorption

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GLUTEN DEVELOPMENT
flour
+
water
↓
increasing adsorption
coiled polypeptides drawn out
↓ kneading, adsorption
protein platelets formed with interspersed lipoprotein
↓
ELASTIC GLUTEN
GLIADIN + GLUTENIN
|
|
|
|
|
HYDRATION OF HYDROPHILIC PROTEIN
BREAKING OF PARTICLES
STRETCHING & PULLING OF GLUTENIN
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MORE WATER
|
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GLUTEN (gliadin+glutenin+H2O)
FACTORS AFFECTING GLUTEN STRENGTH AND CAUSATIVE EFFECTS
FACTOR
added sugar
added wheat germ
added fat (no surfactant)
presence of dead yeast cells (vs. living)
four times optimum liquid
increasing water 10%
added unscalded milk
addition of oxidizing agent
The affect of the factor and probable reason for the affect is best represented by which of the
following?
a. weakens the gluten because of its strong competition for water
b. weakens the gluten because it coats the flour and water does not penetrate to the
flour proteins
c. strengthens the gluten because of its strong competition for water
d. strengthens the gluten because it coats the flour and water does not penetrate to
the flour proteins
e. no significant influence of this ingredient occurs.
FACTORS AFFECTING QUALITY OF FLOUR MIXTURES
MIXTURES
• NATURE OF INGREDIENTS IN FORMULA
• CORRECT PROPORTION AND EXACT MEASUREMENTS OF INGREDIENTS
• PROPER METHODS AND ENVIRONMENT FOR COMBINING INGREDIENTS
• CORRECT HEATING TEMPERATURE, TIME, AND METHOD
MIXING OBJECTIVES
• UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION OF INGREDIENTS
• MINIMUM LOSS OF THE LEAVENING AGENT
• OPTIMUM BLENDING TO PRODUCE CHARACTERISTIC TEXTURES
• OPTIMUM DEVELOPMENT OF GLUTEN FOR VARIOUS PRODUCTS
ROLE OF INGREDIENTS
Tougheners
flour
egg
egg white
water
milk
BAKING OF FLOUR MIXTURE PRODUCTS
• melting of fat
• increased fluidity of batter/dough
• increased solvation of solutes
• chemical leavening
Tenderizers
sugar
fat
acid
egg yolk
•
•
•
•
denaturation of protein
gelatinization of starch
steam leavening
Maillard Reaction