Download Sonoluminescence

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Quantium Medical Cardiac Output wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Medical Imaging
Ultrasound
Edwin L. Dove
1412 SC
[email protected]
335-5635
3D Reconstruction
Why Ultrasound in Cardiology?
• Portable, relatively cheap
• Non-ionizing
• During the echocardiogram, it is possible for the
cardiologist to:
– Watch the heart’s motion – in 2D real-time
– Ascertain if the valves are opening and closing
properly, and view any abnormalities
– Determine the size of the heart chambers and major
vessels
– Measure the thickness of the heart walls
– Calculate standard metrics of health/disease
• e.g., Volume, EF, SV, CO
– Dynamic evaluation of abnormalities
Sinusoidal pressure source
Quantitative Description
p pressure
applied in
z-direction
 density
 viscosity
  p  
 p
 p


    k    k   

z   
t
 z t

2
k
p  Pm exp  az  cos t  kz 
2

k

2 f
c 
k
k
cf
Speed of Sound in Tissue
• The speed of sound
in a human tissue
depends on the
average density 
(kg·m3) and the
compressibility K
(m2·N-1) of the
tissue.
1
c
0 K
Sound Velocity for Various Tissues
Tissue
Air
Fat
Human tissue (mean)
Brain
Blood
Skull bone
Water
Mean Velocity (m·s-1)
330
1450
1540
1541
1570
4080
1480
Tissue Characteristics
• Engineers and
scientists working in
ultrasound have
found that a
convenient way of
expressing relevant
tissue properties is
to use characteristic
(or acoustic)
impedance Z (kg·m-2
·s-1)
Z  0 c
Pressure Generation
• Piezoelectric crystal
• ‘piezo’ means pressure, so piezoelectric
means
– pressure generated when electric field is
applied
– electric energy generated when pressure is
applied
Charged Piezoelectric Molecules
Highly simplified effect of E field
Piezoelectric Effect
Piezoelectric Principle
Vibrating element
Transducer Design
Transducer
Reflectance and Refraction
Snells’ Law
sin i 1 c1


sin t 2 c2
(Assumes i = r)
Reflectivity
Z2
Z1
_
pr cos t cos i
R

Z2
Z1
pi

cos t cos i
At normal incidence, i = t = 0 and
Z 2  Z1
R
Z2  Z 1
Reflectivity for Various Tissues
Materials at Interface
Brain-skull bone
Fat-muscle
Fat-kidney
Muscle-blood
Soft tissue-water
Soft tissue-air
Reflectivity
0.66
0.10
0.08
0.03
0.05
0.9995
Specular Reflection
• The first, specular echoes, originate
from relatively large, strongly reflective,
regularly shaped objects with smooth
surfaces. These reflections are angle
dependent, and are described by
reflectivity equation . This type of
reflection is called specular reflection.
Scattered Reflection
• The second type of echoes are scattered that
originate from small, weakly reflective,
irregularly shaped objects, and are less angledependent and less intense. The
mathematical treatment of non-specular
reflection (sometimes called “speckle”)
involves the Rayleigh probability density
function. This type of reflection, however,
sometimes dominates medical images, as you
will see in the laboratory demonstrations.
Circuit for Generating Sharp Pulses
Pressure Radiated by Sharp Pulse
Ultrasound Principle
Echoes from Internal Organ
Attenuation
• Most engineers and scientists working
in the ultrasound characterize
attenuation as the “half-value layer,” or
the “half-power distance.” These terms
refer to the distance that ultrasound will
travel in a particular tissue before its
amplitude or energy is attenuated to
half its original value.
Attenuation
•
•
•
•
Divergence of the wavefront
Elastic reflection of wave energy
Elastic scattering of wave energy
Absorption of wave energy
Ultrasound Attenuation
Material
Water
Blood
Soft tissue
except muscle
Bone
Air
Lung
Half–power distance (cm)
380
15
5 to 1
1 to 0.6
0.7 to 0.2
0.08
0.05
Attenuation in Tissue
• Ultrasound energy can travel in water 380 cm before
its power decreases to half of its original value.
Attenuation is greater in soft tissue, and even greater
in muscle. Thus, a thick muscled chest wall will
offer a significant obstacle to the transmission
of ultrasound. Non-muscle tissue such as fat does
not attenuate acoustic energy as much. The halfpower distance for bone is still less than muscle,
which explains why bone is such a barrier to
ultrasound. Air and lung tissue have extremely short
half-power distances and represent severe obstacles
to the transmission of acoustic energy.
Attenuation
• As a general rule, the attenuation
coefficient is doubled when the
frequency is doubled.
I avg  I 0 exp 2 z
Pressure Radiated by Sharp Pulse
Beam Forming
• Ultrasound beam can be shaped with
lenses
• Ultrasound transducers (and other
antennae) emit energy in three fields
– Near field (Fresnel region)
– Focused field
– Far field (Fraunhofer region)
Directing Ultrasound with Lens
Beam Focusing
• A lens will focus the
beam to a small
spot according to
the equation
 lf 
d  2.44   
 D
Linear Array
Types of Probes
Modern Electronic Beam Direction
Beam Direction (Listening)
Wavefronts Add to Form Acoustic Beam
Phased Linear Array
A-mode Ultrasound
Amplitude of reflected signal vs. time
A-mode
M-mode Ultrasound
M-mode
B-mode Ultrasound
Fan forming
B-mode Example
Cardiac Ultrasound
Standard Sites for Echocardiograms
Conventional Cardiac 2D Ultrasound
Short-axis Interrogation
B-mode Image of Heart
Traditional Ultrasound Images
End-diastole
End-systole
B-mode
Ventricles
Mitral stenosis
Geometric problems
New developments of Phase-arrays
2D Probe Elements
Recent 2D array
• 5Mz 2D array from
Stephen Smith’s
laboratory, Duke
University
2D and 3D Ultrasound
a. Traditional 2D
b, c. New views possible with 3D
3D Pyramid of data
3D Ultrasound
•
•
•
•
2D ultrasound transmitter
2D phased array architecture
Capture 3D volume of heart
30 volumes per second
3D Ultrasound
Traditional 2D
New 3D
Real-time 3D Ultrasound
Real-time 3D Ultrasound
Velocity of Contraction
Normal
Abnormal
Normal artery
Progression of Vascular Disease
CAD
Severe re-canalization
Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS)
• Small catheter introduced into artery
• Catheter transmits and receives
acoustic energy
• Reflected acoustic energy used to build
a picture of the inside of the vessel
• Clinical assessment based on vessel
image
IVUS Catheter
•
•
•
•
1 - Rotating shaft
2 - Acoustic window
3 - Ultrasound crystal
4 - Rotating beveled acoustic
mirror
Slightly Diseased Artery in Cross-section
Plaque
Catheter
An array of Images
3D IVUS
Doppler Principle
Doppler
Doppler measurements
fDc
V
2 f cos 
f D Doppler shift
f Excitation frequency
c Speed of sound in tissue
 Angle of excitation
Doppler angle
Normal flow
Diseased flow
Blood Flow Measurements