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Latin I Notebook
Ch 1 & 2 notes
*Nouns ending in –a change to –ae in the plural
*s/he/it verbs ending in –t change to –nt in the plural [they]note→ facit/ faciunt, scribit/ scribunt, legit/ legunt, est/ sunt
number: singular or plural
noun: person, place, thing, idea
adjective: describes noun/ pronoun
pronoun: replaces a noun
verb: action/ state of being
adverb: describes verb, adjective, other adverb
conjunction: joins words, phrases, & sentences
complement: “completes” idea/ action of sentence ex. predicate nominative
derivative: English word that comes from Latin
Romance language: modern language descended from Latin →English, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian
Ch 1& 2 ex
Names Notes: see other doc
Ch 3 & 4 notes
gender: masculine, feminine, neuter, both m/f
case: ending on noun/ adjective that tells use in sentence
direct object: receives action of verb; answer who/ what? complement
nominative case: names/ refers to subject
accusative case: direct object or objects of some prepositions
1f
2m
3 m or f
nom
a
us, r
------acc
am
um
em
pl
nom
ae
i
es
acc
as
os
es
Ch 3&4 ex
Dress Notes (see other doc)
Ch 5&6 notes
infinitive: unconjugated verb
*2nd dictionary listing
*Latin ones usually end in –re
* translate “to ___”
* complement [can have its own direct object ]
conjugation: 1. writing out a verb’s forms with the different subjects [I run, you run, …]
2. a group of Latin nouns written out with their endings in the same way
To identify conjugation (group):
1. go to dictionary, get infinitive, look at vowel before –re
2. if the vowel is… a = 1st conj.; ē =2nd; e =3rd; e and an –io ending in the 1st dictionary listing =3io;
i =4; if none of these, verb is irregular
ex.
impersonal verb: supply “it” as subject [when the subject is not a specific neuter object!]
ex. necesse est : it is necessary or est: it is [it’s] or there is
verb list: singular [s/he/it]; pl [they]; infinitive [to___]; other seen forms
5&6 ex
Ch 7&9
Review-Nouns
Gender- masculine, feminine, both m/f, neuter (neither)
Number –sing/ pl
Case- ending on noun, adj, or pronoun that determines its use in sentence
Noun-adjective agreement: adj agree with the nouns they describe in gender, number, & case
* Declension: group of nouns that use the same case endings
* Identify declension: Look up noun in dictionary, get 2nd dictionary listing. Look at the ending
If you see… ae=1st decl, i=2nd , is=3rd , ūs=4th, ei=5th
Nominative case: subjects, and renaming subjects
Accusative case: direct objects, objects of some prepositions
* Ablative case: objects of some prepositions; if no preposition word, translate “by, with, from ____”
* Preposition: describes relationship between 2 nouns, especially position
Chart
1st decl fem.
2nd decl masc.
3rd decl. masc & fem
Nominative
A
US or R
----------------------------------Accusative
AM
UM
EM
Ablative
O
E or (I)
Ā
Nominative pl
AE
I
ES
Accusative pl
AS
OS
ES
Ablative pl
IS
IS
IBUS
Prepositions- preposition word plus the object that follows it =prepositional phrase
Accusative
Both
Ablative
per
in + acc: into, onto, against
e/ex
ad
cum
prope
in + abl: in, on, among
sub
preposition box
Myth notes: see other handout
7& 9 exercises
Ch 8 & 10
Vocative case: used for direct address/ talking to someone "YOU" verbs, commands
* vocative case looks exactly like the nominative singular & plural forms
EXCEPT: 2nd declension -us -e [Marcus  Marce]
-ius-i [Cornelius Corneli, Gaius  Gai]
meus mi
Pronoun: replaces a noun
person: perspective of speaker to action
1st person [I, we] -speaker does action
2nd person [you] -speaker addresses doer of action
3rd person [he, she, it, they] -speaker talks about doer of action
personal pronoun: pronoun that indicates person/ subject of verb
English
1st
2nd
3rd
singular
I
You
He/ She/ It
Irregular verb "to be"
English
singular
1st
I am
2nd
you are
3rd
he/she/it is
plural
We
You
They
Latin
1st
2nd
3rd
singular
Ego
Tu
Is, Ea, Id
plural
Nos
Vos
Ei, Eae, Ea
plural
we are
you are
they are
esse
Latin
1st
2nd
3rd
singular
sum
es
est
plural
sumus
estis
sunt
* relatives of sum like adesse & abesse -add prefix to above forms
Imperative verbs: commands
* subject is implied "you" [tu/ vos] or a vocative noun
* translate _____!
To make an imperative verb:
1. get infinitive [2nd dictionary listing]; identify conjugation [a = 1st conj.; ē =2nd; e =3rd; e and an –io ending in the 1st dictionary listing =3io; i =4; if none of
these, verb is irregular]
2. if singular: remove -re from infinitive
3. if plural: make singular/ remove -re from infinitive, then add -te [if verb is 3rd/ 3io conj., change e to i before adding -te
4. exceptions to rules above: dic, duc, fac, fer ["dic, duc, fac, and fer should have an e but it isn't there"], also irregular verbs
5. if negative- "Don't ___!" use noli (singular) or nolite (plural) with the infinitive
ex.
PRESENT TENSE VERBS
tense: when a verb happens
present tense: action happening now/ concurrent with talking about it
present tense translation: "am/is/are ____ing; do/ does ____, ____(s)"
Conjugating verbs -writing them out with all their subject forms/ endings
*note: a Latin verb does NOT NEED an expressed pronoun/ noun as a subject -refer to its ending
Latin person/
singular
plural
subject endings
1st
-o or -m
-mus
2nd
-s
-tis
3rd
-t
-nt
"MOST MUST ISNT" M or O-S-T-MUS-TIS-NT
To conjugate a Latin Verb:
1. get its infinitive [2nd dictionary listing], identify conjugation number[a = 1st conj.; ē =2nd; e =3rd; e and an –io ending in the 1st dictionary listing =3io; i =4; if
none of these, verb is irregular]
2. a. if the verb is 1st or 2nd conj.remove -re from infinitive, add endings
b. if the verb is 3rd conj., remove -re from infinitive, change e to i, add endings; use -unt
c. if the verb is 3io conj., remove -re from infinitive, change e to i, add endings; use -iunt, -io
d. if the verb is 4th conj., remove -re from infinitive, add endings; use -iunt, -io
e. if the verb is irregular, we will cover it later, there are charts given in the back of the book for reference; see forms of sum above
* the 1st person singular form [-m or -o] is ALWAYS given in the 1st dictionary listing
Ch 8 & 10 ex
Ch 11 & 12
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
PLURAL
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
1f
A
AE
AE
AM
Ā
XXXXXXXX
AE
ARUM
IS
AS
IS
2m
US/R
I
O
UM
O
XXXXXXX
I
ORUM
IS
OS
IS
2n
UM
I
O
UM
O
XXXXXXXX
A
ORUM
IS
A
IS
3 m/f
----IS
I
EM
E/ (I)
XXXXXXXX
ES
(I)UM
IBUS
ES
IBUS
3n
----IS
I
----E/ (I)
XXXXXXXXX
(I)A
(I)UM
IBUS
(I)A
IBUS
case: ending on a noun, adjective, or pronoun that determines its use in a sentence
nominative: stating, renaming the subject
genitive: [identifies declension & stem]; shows possession “of ___” or “_____’s”
dative: indirect object; “to/ for ____”
accusative: direct objects, object of some prepositions
ablative: object of some prepositions; “by/ with/ from ___”
vocative: direct address
declension: group of nouns that use the same case endings
stem: part of a word that you add endings to [constant]
indirect object: receives direct object
To identify declension: Look up noun in dictionary, get 2nd dictionary listing. Look at the ending
If you see… ae=1st decl, i=2nd , is=3rd , ūs=4th, ei=5th
To identify stem: 2nd dictionary listing; everything BEFORE the ending
neuter nouns are always nominusative. All nouns are d/ablative in plural
Founding of Rome notes- other
11 & 12 ex
Ch 13 & 14
Verbs
conjugation
identify conjugation
number
person
tense
*imperfect tense
translate the imperfect tense:
___ed; was/were/ kept __ing
began/ used to ___
Form the imperfect tense:
infinitive [2nd dictionary listing], -re, +ba+ m
mus
s
tis
t
nt
* if verb is 3io or 4th conj, need -ie- before -baex
sum, esse: to be
Present tense
English
1st
2nd
3rd
singular
I am
you are
he/she/it is
plural
we are
you are
they are
Latin
1st
2nd
3rd
singular
sum
es
est
plural
sumus
estis
sunt
Imperfect tense
English
1st
2nd
3rd
singular
I was
you were
he/she/it was
possum, posse: to be able, can
Present tense
can
English
singular
1st
I am able
2nd
you are able
he/she/it is able
3rd
Imperfect tense
could
English
singular
1st
I was able
2nd
you were able
he/she/it was able
3rd
plural
we were
you were
they were
Latin
1st
2nd
3rd
era + ends
singular
eram
eras
erat
plural
we are able
you are able
they are able
Latin
1st
2nd
3rd
singular
possum
potes
potest
plural
we were able
you were able
they were able
Latin
1st
2nd
3rd
pot + era + ends
singular
poteram
poteras
poterat
plural
eramus
eratis
erant
plural
possumus
potestis
possunt
plural
poteramus
poteratis
poterant
abesse & adesse: add prefix to forms of sum
Kings of Rome notes
1. Romulus-founding, laws, Sabine women
2. Numa Pompilius- laws, religion
3. Tullus Hostilius-wars [with Alba Longa], killed by lightning
4. Ancus Marcius-construction: walls, prison, bridge over Tiber [Pons Sublicius], Rome's seaport at Ostia
5. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus- fraud, murdered
6. Servius Tullius-organization: census, classes based on wealth, enlarged Rome to 7 hills, walls; murdered by daughter, wife of next king, and his supporters
7. Tarquinius Superbus- "Proud" sewer; temple of Jupiter on Capitoline, war; executed& ignored senators; rape of Lucretia-wife of Tarquinius Collatinus
509 BC- Republic founded; Brutus & Collatinus were 1st co-consuls
Ch 15
Roman numerals
I
II
III
IV
1
2
3
4
(also IIII)
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
11
12
13
14
XXX
XL
L
LX
30
40
50
60
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
5
6
7
8
9
10
CD
D
DC
DCC
DCCC
400
500
600
700
800
(also IIX)
XV
XVI
XVII
XVIII
XIX
XX
15
16
17
18
19
20
LXX
LXXX
XC
C
CC
CCC
70
80
90
100
200
300
CM
900
* L→R: small before large, subtract small from large
M
1000
* L→R: large then small, add them
MM
2000
* only 3 letter repeats, except IIII (only 4 not others like 14)
MMM 3000
* only 1 small before large, except IIX
* after 3000 multipliers and words were used for numbers
* Long mark over numeral multiplies by 1000
Ch 16 & 18: "Noun-Adjective Agreement"
Review
noun
adjective
gender
number
case
nominative
genitive
dative
accusative
ablative
vocative
stem
declension
identify declension
noun
adjective
look at adj's dictionary listings [MFN nom/sing. forms; nom/sing, gen/sing; see 2nd listing for stem]
if us,a,um or er,a,um= 1st /2nd decl [use 1st decl for fem, 2nd for masc & neuter]
bonus -a -um miser, misera, miserum
if anything else =3rd
omnis, -is, -e loquax, loquacis celer, celeris, celere
all 3rd decl adj are i-stem--- use (i) ends
[a noun is i-stem if the dict listing gives -ium as its gen. pl form]
civis, civis, gen pl civium
*noun-adjective agreement: same gender, number, case ... does not mean they will match
visually/ have same spelling-ending
To make an adjective agree with a noun [writing Latin]
A. Noun
1. in dictionary, find gender & declension of noun
2. on noun chart [using info from #1], find possible case/ number combinations of given noun
3. record noun's gender, number, case
B. Adjective
1. get adjective's declension [dictionary]
2. add noun's gen/#/case ending from ADJECTIVE'S declension to stem of adjective
*remember, noun & adjective will agree in gen/#/case, but not necessarily declension
To see if adj. agrees with a particular noun [reading Latin-usually adj is next to noun, but not always]
1. Find possible gen/#/case combinations of both noun & adj. [see A1-2 above].
2. Do any combos match? yes, they agree; no, the adj describes something else.
note on VISUAL MATCHES: a 1st or 2nd decl noun and a 1/2 adj will have SAME endings except -er/us in nom sing and e/i/r in voc sing;
a 3rd decl noun and a 3 adj will have same ends except voc/nom sing, and i-stem ends (unless noun is also i-stem)
Noun/Adj chart [p 267 ]
1st f.
2nd m.
Nom. a ae
us/r
Gen. ae arum
i
Dat. ae is
2nd n.
um
a
orum
i
orum
is
o
is
o
is
Acc. am as
um
os
um
Abl. ā
o
is
o
is
i
3rd m&f
---
3rd n.
es
------
(i)a
(i)um
is
(i)um
i
ibus
i
ibus
a
em
es
------- (i)a
is
e/(i)
ibus
e/(i)
ibus
Ch 17 -Irregular verbs
Pres
sum
Impf
eram
Pres
possum
Impf
poteram
pres
eo
impf
ibam
es
eras
potes
poteras
is
ibas
est
erat
potest
poterat
it
ibat
sumus
eramus
possumus
poteramus
imus
ibamus
estis
eratis
potestis
poteratis
itis
ibatis
sunt
erant
possunt
poterant
eunt
ibant
Pres
Impf
Pres
Impf
pres
impf
volo
volebam
nolo
nolebam
fero
ferebam
vis
volebas
non vis
nolebas
fers
ferebas
vult
volebat
non vult
nolebat
fert
ferebat
nolumus
nolebamus
ferimus
ferebamus
volumus volebamus
vultis
volebatis non vultis
nolebatis
fertis
ferebatis
volunt
volebant
nolebant
ferunt
ferebant
nolunt
sum, esse, fui, futurus
volo, velle, volui
possum, posse, potui
nolo, nolle, nolui
eo, ire, ii or ivi, iturus
fero, ferre, tuli, latus
3rd Qtr
Ch 19/20
verb review
person
number
tense
present
imperfect
principal parts: verb's dictionary listings
1st: 1st pers. sing, present; -o or -m; I___
2nd: [present active] infinitive; present stem; to ____ [or _____ing- gerund]; identify conjugation
3rd: perfect stem [-given i]; 1st pers. sing, perfect; -i; I [have]__ed/ did __
4th: Perfect Passive Participle [PPP]; [having been] ___ed; 1st/2nd decl adj
perfect tense: completed past action
translate: ___ed, did _____, has/have ______ed
form: perfect stem + i
[3rd pr. pt -i]
isti
it
imus
istis
erunt
Ch 22/23
verb
conjugation
person
number
principal parts
tense
present
imperfect
perfect
Future Tense: incomplete/ continuous action hasn't happened yet
translate: will ___; shall ___; am/is/are going to ____
Form- 1st, identify conjugation
if 1st/ 2nd: inf. -re +
bo
bis
bit
bimus
bitis
bunt
ex:
if 3rd: inf. -ere +
am
ēs
et
ēmus
ētis
ent
ex:
if 3io: inf. -ere + i +
am
ēs
et
ēmus
ētis
ent
ex:
if 4th: inf. -re +
am
ēs
et
ēmus
ētis
ent
ex:
*required long marks
[keep i]
Irregulars
sum: ero
eris
erit
eo:
ibo
ibis
ibit
volo:
volam
volēs
volet
erimus "will be"
eritis "am/is/are going to be"
erunt
possum: potero
poteris
poterit
poterimus "will be able"
poteritis
poterunt
ibimus "will go"
ibitis "am/is/are going to go"
ibunt
fero:
feram
ferēs
feret
ferēmus
ferētis
ferent
nolo:
nolam
nolēs
nolet
nolēmus
nolētis
nolent
volēmus
volētis
volent
Ch 24
perfect system
* comprises the perfect, pluperfect, & future perfect tenses
* completed action
*uses perfect stem [3rd pr.pt -i]
* irregular verbs form regularly
pluperfect tense: past action completed before another past action
transl: had __ed
form: perfect stem + eram eramus
eras
erat
eratis
erant
future perfect tense: future action completed before another future action
transl: will/ shall have ____ed; am/is/are going to have _____ed
form: perfect stem + ero
erimus
eris
eritis
erit
erint
note: poteram
ero
fuero
potero
potueram
eram fueram
Ch 25
4th m/f
4th n
5th m/f
Nom us
us
u
ua
es
es
Gen
ūs
uum
ūs
uum
ei
erum
Dat
ui
ibus
u
ibus
ei
ebus
Acc
um
us
u
ua
em
es
Abl
u
ibus
u
ibus
e
ebus
potuero
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