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Transcript
Image Processing in Java:
A Technical Guide
Daniel Bryant
Dept. of Computing
University of Surrey
[email protected]
January 2006
Daniel Bryant
1
The Purpose of the Tutorial Labs

These labs are designed to help you!

More information on the technical (Java) concepts that we will
be looking at in the regular labs

Introduce object-orientated/Java techniques

I can also provide help with any problems from the regular
labs or coursework

If you want information about a specific topic/concept within
Java or have any comments please let me know!
January 2006
Daniel Bryant
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Resources

Please download a copy of these slides from the module
website

An excellent book to learn Java from the beginning is

Head First Java (Second Edition) by Kathy Sierra and Bert
Bates

The Head First books contain a unique style (with lots of
pictures and funny techniques), but they make learning a lot
more enjoyable and really do work!
January 2006
Daniel Bryant
3
Resources

You can download Java and NetBeans free for home use at
http://java.sun.com/javase/downloads/index_jdk5.jsp
Download Java 5.0
and NetBeans 5.5
(the newest version
of NetBeans)
January 2006
Daniel Bryant
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Today’s Lab

Running code



Arguments
Working directory
Coursework hints


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Class variables
Methods (in particular for MirrorXReflection)
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5
What happens when you specify
an image name in the arguments?

Arguments are essentially the
parameters that are passed
from the operating system into
the Java Application that you
are running (your Main class).
In this example it is
ImageViewer.

NetBeans allows us to specify
arguments in an easy way. If
we didn’t have NetBeans we
would have to invoke our Java
application at the command
line like this:
java ImageViewer Argument1 Argument2 Argument3
N.B. Remember regardless of whether you use NetBeans or the command line the arguments
must separated by spaces (not commas) and try not to use hyphens in the arguments. You would
also have to set your classpath to include the two library JAR files
January 2006
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The Working Directory

The working directory is the location where the Java Virtual
Machine (JVM) will by default load or save any input/output
from your application


We have seen in the first lab that the argument name
‘mattgrey.jpg’ or ‘l1.jpg’ was the name of an image located in the
working directory (the Images directory)
You can of course navigate through a file system in Java (and
you are not restricted to doing everything in one directory), but
we will cover this in a later lab
January 2006
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7
Processing the Arguments

So, how is the specified image name argument transformed
into a representation of the image in our application?

Remember back to last semester – when you run a Java
application, which method is run first?

The answer is the main method, which always has a method
signature like this:

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public static void main(String[] argv)
Daniel Bryant
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Processing the Arguments

Hopefully you can remember what the public static void part
means, but the main item of interest here is the String[] argv

This creates an array of Strings that contain all of the arguments
specified at the command line or in NetBeans in the order they were
supplied.

For example if we supplied the arguments “matthew2.jpg output.txt”
then the first position in the String array (argv[0]) would contain
“matthew2.jpg” and the second (argv[1]) would contain “output.txt”.

This is equivalent to the statements:

argv[0] = “matthew2.jpg”;

argv[1] = “output.jpg”;
January 2006
Daniel Bryant
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The Examples

The remaining slides assume that you have set up your
NetBeans environment correctly and have loaded in a project
that:

Contains the two JAR file Libraries specified in the first
regular lab

Includes the Chap05 directories

Remember in NetBeans the top toolbar contains useful icons:
Save all files
January 2006
Build and Clean
Daniel Bryant
Run your Main Class
10
The First Coursework

I would recommend creating a new Java class for each image
operation that you have to implement

So, for the ShrinkBySkipping operation I would create a new
class called Shrink and copy the MirrorXReflection code into
this class

You will then have to alter the class name and the name of the
constructor to the same name as the new Java file you have
created (i.e. Shrink)

You will then have to modify the code as described over the
remainder of the slides
January 2006
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Coursework Hints

I thought it would be useful to examine the MirrorXReflection
class (which was adapted from Nick Efford’s Dither code) in
more detail to help you incorporate the image operations as
specified in the regular lab sheet

MirrorXReflection contains 2 class variables and 4 methods (a
constructor, a main method and two general methods)
January 2006
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Class Variables

Recall from last semester’s labs class variables represent
“state” in an object (such as a persons age or the current gear
in a car) and can be accessed by all methods in the class

Class variables can be marked private (only code in this class
can access the variable) or public (code from any
class/package can access the variable)
January 2006
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Class Variables

In the MirrorXReflection class the two class variables are
The type of the variable is
BufferedImage – an internal
representation of an image
private BufferedImage sourceImage
The type of the variable is an
array (indicated by [ ]) of
ImageView. More detail is
included later in the slides
The name of the variable
private ImageView[] views
January 2006
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Class Methods

The MirrorXReflection contains four methods public MirrorXReflection(String imageFile)
throws IOException, ImageDecoderException
public void readImage(String filename)
throws IOException, ImageDecoderException
public BufferedImage xReflectionInPlace(BufferedImage image)
public static void main(String[] argv)
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Anatomy of a Method
Access modifier – public, private etc.
This determines if the method can be
called outside of class it belongs to
Parameters that are passed into the method. These
parameters must be specified when calling the method
E.g. xReflectionInPlace(sourceImage);
You can include any number of parameters for a
method e.g. public BufferedImage
average(BufferedImage image, int n) must be
passed a BufferedImage and an int (such as 5) i.e.
BufferedImage image = average(image,5);
public BufferedImage xReflectionInPlace(BufferedImage image) { … }
Return type – This is the type of the variable that will be returned to the calling code
when the method completes. This example shows that when a call to the
xReflectionInPlace method completes the statement that called the method will
have access to a new BufferedImage variable.
E.g. BufferedImage myImage = readImage(fileName);
January 2006
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Anatomy of another Method
Parameters that are passed into the code in
the method. These parameters must be
specified when calling the method
Access modifier – public, private etc.
This determines if the method can be
called outside of class it belongs to
E.g. readImage(“myImageFile.jpg”);
public void readImage(String filename)throws IOException, ImageDecoderException
Return type – void means no variable is returned and
so when calling this method you use the call the
method without loading the result into a variable
try {
readImage(filename);
readImage(fileName);
}
and NOT void voidValue = readImage(filename);
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Which Exceptions are thrown. These
two specified Exceptions must be
caught when calling the method using
try/catch blocks like last semester
Daniel Bryant
catch(IOException ioe) { … }
catch(ImageDecoderException idx)
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{… }
MirrorXReflection

public MirrorXReflection(String ImageFile)

This is the constructor method. Remember that the constructor
name must match the name of the class exactly and also have
no return type (i.e. not public void MirrorXReflection() or
public String MirrorXReflection() )

The constructor method is called whenever a new object with
this class type is created using the statement
new MirrorXReflection(filename)

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(This is located in the main method of our example)
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Modifications Needed
public MirrorXReflection(String imageFile) throws IOException, ImageDecoderException {
super("xReflect: " + imageFile);
readImage(imageFile);
views = new ImageView[2];
views[0] = new ImageView(sourceImage);
views[1] = new ImageView(xReflectionInPlace(sourceImage));
JTabbedPane tabbedPane = new JTabbedPane();
tabbedPane.add(new JScrollPane(views[0]), "input");
tabbedPane.add(new JScrollPane(views[1]), "xReflect");
getContentPane().add(tabbedPane);
addWindowListener(new WindowMonitor());
}
Create a tabbed pane
and add the two ImageView variables
January
2006 array
from the
views
Daniel Bryant
You will need to change
the name of the method
being called
(highlighted) for each
image operation and you
may also need to pass
in different parameters
to this method (i.e.
shrink takes a
BufferedImage and an
int, such as 2)
19
ImageView

The ImageView class is included as part of the standard Java
libraries and is intended to act in a manner similar to the
image tag <img> in HTML

You can load a BufferedImage (named sourceImage in this
example) in an ImageView variable


ImageView view = new ImageView(sourceImage);
You can then add the ImageView variable to a window created
in Java, much like including the <img> tag in a piece of HTML
code.
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readImage

public void readImage(String filename)

This method reads the image file (specified as a String
variable filename parameter) from the file system and
loads an internal representation of the image into the
BufferedImage sourceImage class variable

This method currently includes code that converts the
specified image into a grayscale picture. Can you identify
this code?
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xReflectionInPlace

This is the method where the image processing takes place

Therefore when you create a new class for each image
operation (shrink, average, etc…) you will have to replace
this method

Be aware that each method for an operation may require
different parameters. For example, the average method
requires that you pass in an array of BufferedImages and not
just a single image

You will need to find out what the average operation does,
how many images you will need to pass in and how to
create an array (Hint look at how the ImageView array
named views is created and loaded in the constructor)
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main
Check if the argv array contains more than one element (i.e. the number
of arguments you have specified in NetBeans separated by a space)
Try and create a JFrame (a
GUI window) and load a
try {
JFrame frame = new MirrorXReflection(argv[0]); new MirrorXReflection (with
the argv[0] filename passed
frame.pack();
frame.setVisible(true);
as a parameter) into that
} catch (Exception e) {
System.err.println(e);
window
System.exit(0);
public static void main(String[] argv) {
if (argv.length > 0) {
Catch any
exceptions
(errors) and
print the error
to the
terminal. Then
exit the
application
}
} else {
System.err.println("usage: java MirrorXReflectionion <imagefile> ");
System.exit(1);
}
}
If the argv array contains no elements print an error message to the
terminal and shutdown the application
January 2006
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main – modifications needed
You will need to modify this statement to load the results of the correct image
operation into the JFrame variable
public static void main(String[] argv) {
if (argv.length > 0) {
try {
JFrame frame = new MirrorXReflection(argv[0]);
frame.pack();
frame.setVisible(true);
} catch (Exception e) {
System.err.println(e);
System.exit(0);
}
} else {
System.err.println("usage: java MirrorXReflectionion <imagefile> ");
System.exit(1);
}
}
Remember you may also have to pass in additional arguments to certain
image operations (for example the extra int required for Shrink) and two or
more images for the average operation
January 2006
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The remainder of the lab

Have a go at the coursework…

Hopefully, you have everything you need to complete Shrink
and Enlarge

You will require slightly different techniques for Average and
Subtract due to processing multiple images
January 2006
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Extra Work

You could also combine all the image operations (i.e. methods
into a single class file)


To do this you will need to pass in appropriate arguments from
NetBeans that will enable you to do all the operations (Hint: you
may need to pass more than one image filename in the
arguments)
You could also ask the user to specify any values required
(such as the n value on the Shrink methods) using a
JOptionPane Dialogue Box like we used last semester
January 2006
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