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Multimedia Devices
Definitions and Terms
Chapter Objectives
After completing this chapter you will:
• Understand various CD and DVD technologies.
• Understand the meaning of a CD or DVD’s X factor.
• Understand how a CD drive works.
• Know the different interfaces used with CD and DVD drives and be able
to configure the drive.
• Understand the basic operation of a sound card.
• Understand the software associated with CD and DVD drive installation.
• Be able to install a sound card.
• Be able to use various operating system tools to verify drive and sound
card installation.
Chapter Objectives (cont.)
After completing this chapter you will:
• Troubleshoot CD drive, DVD drive, and sound card problems.
• Understand the basics of how a scanner works and be able to install a
USB or parallel port scanner.
• Understand basic digital camera concepts.
Multimedia Overview
• The term multimedia has different meanings to different people because
there are so many different types of multimedia devices. This chapter
focuses on the most popular areas and you will find that other devices
are similar to install and troubleshoot.
• Multimedia devices:
– CD and DVD technologies
– Sound cards
– Speakers
CD-ROM Drive Overview
• CD-ROM terms:
– CD-ROM (Compact Disk-Read Only Memory) Drive is a device that
holds CDs and is used for audio and data files.
– CD (Compact Disk) is a disk that holds large amounts of data
(628MB and higher), such as audio, video, and software applications.
– A list of common controls can be found on 10-4.
CD-ROM Drive Speeds
• CD-ROM drives operate much slower than hard drives.
• CD-ROM drive specifications:
– Average Seek Time is the time required for a drive to move randomly
about the disk.
– Average Access Time is the time required to find and retrieve data
on a disk or in memory.
CD-ROM Drive Speeds
CD-ROM Transfer Speeds
Multimedia – Table # 1
CD-ROM Drive Speeds
CD-ROM Access Times
Multimedia – Table # 2
CD-ROM Drive Buffers/Cache
• Ways to increase CD-ROM data transfers:
– Buffer memory located on the CD-ROM drive
– Adjust the CD-ROM cache
Theory of CD-ROM Drive Operation
• Data is stored on a CD with pits and flats.
– Pits are indentations along the track of a CD.
– Flats are lands that separate the pits in a CD.
Theory of CD-ROM Drive Operation
Inside a CD-ROM Drive
Multimedia – Figure #2
Internal and External CD-ROM Drives
• Types of CD-ROM drives
– Internal CD-ROM drives using either IDE or SCSI interface
– External CD-ROM drives using the SCSI interface
CD-ROM Disk Loading
• Methods for inserting a compact disk into a CD-ROM drive:
– Tray Loaded is a method to insert a CD or DVD into a drive. They
are less expensive but more likely to have lower MTBFs.
• MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) is the average number of
hours before a device fails.
– Caddy Loaded is a term used to describe how a CD inserts into a CD
drive using a special holder.
• Caddy is a holder for a compact disk that inserts into the CD drive.
– Slot Loaded is a term used to describe how a CD loads into a slot in
the CD drive. This has the disadvantage of disk jams.
CD-ROM Disk Loading
CD-ROM Drive with Tray and CD-ROM Caddy
Multimedia – Figure #3
CD-R and CD-RW
• CD-R (Compact Disk Recordable) is a CD drive that can create a
compact disk by writing once to the disk.
– UDF (Universal Disk Format) is a CD-R drive standard used by
some manufacturers.
– DDCD (Double Density CD) is a CD disk format that extends to
1.3GB. Drives that use this specification can also read regular CDs,
CD-R disks, and CD-RW disks.
• WORM (Write Once-Read Many) is a technology that writes data once
to a disk. It is often used to make backups or distribute software.
CD-R and CD-RW
• CD-RW (Compact Disk ReWritable) or CD-E is a CD drive that can
write data multiple times to a particular disk.
– PD (Phase-Change Dual) is a laser technology used to make CD-E
and CD-RW disks.
– Dye-Polymer is a technology for making CD-E or CD-RW disks by
laser-heating the disk surface to produce light reflecting bumps.
• MultiRead or MultiRead2 is an OSTA specification that states the CDRW drive is backward compatible with CD-ROM and CD-R disks.
CD Standards
CD Standards
Multimedia – Table # 3
Magneto-Optical Drives
• MO (Magneto-Optical) Drive is a type of drive that uses a special
technology for reading and writing multiple times to a compact disk. After
the disk is heated by the laser to produce a bump, a magnet applies a
charge to the surface.
• DVD-ROM is a technology that produces disks with superior audio and
video performance and increased storage capacity.
– In DVD drives, the MPEG-2 video must be converted, and the
decoder is the way to convert the data.
– DirectX is a Microsoft DVD technology that integrates multimedia
drivers, application code, and 3-D support for audio and video.
– Region Code is a setting on a DVD drive or disk that specifies a
geographic region.
DVD Region Codes
Multimedia – Table # 5
• Decoders are used to decompress the video and audio from a DVD.
– Hardware Decoder requires a PCI adapter and handles the
– Software Decoder is a type of DVD decoder that puts the burden on
the CPU to decode and uncompress the MPEG-2 video data from the
Other DVD Technologies
• Types of DVD Technologies:
– DVD-RAM uses a phase technology like CD-RW and allows data to
be rewritten on a DVD-RAM disk.
– DVD-R uses WORM technology to use one or two sides of the disk.
– DVD-RW (DVD-ReWritable) uses 4.7GB disks that can be erased
and rewritten to the disk.
– DVD+RW (DVD Read and Write) is a drive that can be read from,
written to, and holds 3GB.
DVD Standards
DVD Specifications
Multimedia – Table # 5
CD/DVD Drive Interfaces and Connections
• Types of CD and DVD Drive Interfaces:
– IDE – most common
– FireWire
– Proprietary
Installing a DVD Drive and Hardware Decoder Adapter
• To install a DVD drive and hardware decoder adapter, always follow the
manufacturer’s instructions.
– General guidelines are given for this installation procedure on page
Drive Upgrades
• Questions to analyze a CD-ROM Drive Upgrade:
– Are speakers or sound wanted?
– What microprocessor is installed in the computer?
– Is a slot available in the computer for a sound card?
– Will video-intensive CDs be used?
– Does the computer have enough RAM?
– Does the computer have a sound system that accepts digital audio
input and support Dolby Digital Surround Sound?
Preventive Maintenance for CD and DVD Drives
• If the laser lens gets dust, dirt, or moisture on it, the drive may report data
or read errors.
– Laser Lens or Objective Lens is a special component of the CDROM drive that is responsible for reading information from the CD
New Technologies
• FML/C (Flourescent MultiLayer Disk/Card) is a new CD/DVD-type
technology that uses a fluorescent dye embedded in pits and grooves on
each layer of the disk or card.
CD and DVD Drive Installation
• CD and DVD Drive Installation Steps:
– Install any necessary mounting brackets on the drive.
– Set the appropriate master/slave, SCSI ID, or termination for the drive
– Set any interrupt, I/O address, or DMA channel.
– Attach the appropriate cables to the drive.
CD and DVD Driver Installation
• Device Driver is a small piece of software that stays in RAM to allow
communication with a piece of hardware.
– MSCDEX.EXE is a program provided with DOS and Windows 3.x that
assigns a drive letter to the CD-ROM drive.
– Device Name is an eight-character name unique for each CD-ROM
The MSCDEX.EXE Program
• MSCDEX.EXE is a program provided with DOS and Windows 3.x that
assigns a drive letter to the CD-ROM drive. It is included as a line in the
The MSCDEX.EXE Program
Multimedia – Table # 6
Troubleshooting the MSCDEX.EXE Installation
• Troubleshooting the MSCDEX.EXE Installation
– Verify the CD-ROM device driver in the CONFIG.SYS file loads
– Verify the correct device name is used with the MSCDEX.EXE
– Verify the number of drive letters available.
CD/DVD Drives (Windows 9x/NT/2000/XP)
• CDFS (CD-ROM File System) is the Windows 9x/NT/2000/XP 32-bit
protected mode CD drive file system driver.
• Steps to disable the CD Autorun feature are given on page 10-30.
Troubleshooting CD/DVD Drive Problems
• Troubleshooting CD/DVD Drive Problems:
– Always use the latest drivers.
– Correct any interrupt, DMA channel, and I/O address conflicts.
– Verify that the CD or DVD is installed in the drive.
– Check power connections, cabling, and configuration settings.
– Additional troubleshooting tips can be found on page 10-31.
Sound Cards
• Sound Card Features:
– MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is used to create
synthesized music and found on a sound card.
– MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3) is a sound format that compresses an
audio file and has the extension of MP3.
– AAC (Advanced Audio Compression) is a sound file format that
provides file compression.
Sound Cards
CD Drive with Sound Card
Multimedia – Figure # 6
Sound Cards
Sound Blaster Live Platinum 5.1 Sound Card Ports
Multimedia – Figure # 7
Sound Cards
PC Design Symbols
Multimedia – Figure # 8
Sound Card Theory of Operation
• The sound card must take the analog signal and convert it to a digital
format to send the sound into the computer. To convert an analog
waveform to 1s and 0s, samples of data are taken.
• Frequency Response is the number of samples taken by a sound card.
• It is recommended to purchase a PCI sound card that uses a minimum of
16 bits for sampling.
Sound Card Theory of Operation
Sound Wave
Multimedia – Figure #9
Sound Card Theory of Operation
8-Bit Sampling
Multimedia – Figure #10
Sound Card Theory of Operation
16-Bit Sampling
Multimedia – Figure # 11
Installing Sound Cards
• The steps to installing a sound card are similar to any other adapter. The
onboard sound must be disabled before installing a new sound adapter.
Sound Cards Using Windows 9X/NT/2000/XP
• Audio Drivers:
– WDM (Windows Driver Model) is a kernel mode process that
handles audio management such as multiple streams of real-time
– DS3D (DirectSound3D) is a Microsoft development included in
DirectX3 that adds more 3D audio effect commands.
– A3D is an audio standard developed by Aureal Semiconductor that
supports hardware acceleration and allows simulation of sounds in
certain environments such as a tunnel or under water.
– EAX (Environmental Audio Extensions) is Creative Labs’
development that allows software and game developers to create a
realistic audio environment such as muffling effects and audio
directional effects.
Sound Cards Using Windows 9X/NT/2000/XP
NT’s Multimedia Control Panel Tabs
Multimedia – Table # 9
Sound Cards Using Windows 9X/NT/2000/XP
2000’s Sounds and Multimedia Control Panel Tabs
Multimedia – Table # 10
• Speaker Features:
– Power Rating is how loud the volume can go without distorting the
sound and is expressed in watts-per-channel.
– Frequency Response Range is the range of sounds a speaker can
– Shielding cancels out and keeps magnetic interference from devices.
– Listen to speakers with an audio CD and without headphones to hear
the quality of the speakers.
• The following is a list of extras for speakers:
– An external volume control
– Headphone jacks
– Headphone and microphone pass-through connectors
– AC adapter
– Proper connectors to connect speakers to the sound card
– If the sound card is capable of 3D sound, a four or six speaker
system is an enhancement.
Troubleshooting Sound Problems
• Troubleshooting Sound Problems:
– Verify that the sound card is secured in a PCI or ISA slot and no cuts
are present in the speaker wires.
– Verify installation of the correct sound drivers.
– Verify that there are not any resource conflicts.
– Check the speaker’s connection to the back of the computer.
• An enhanced list can be found on 10-45.
Troubleshooting Sound Problems (MS-DOS Mode)
• Troubleshooting Sound Problems for DOS applications or DOS games:
– Verify the audio CD is inserted in the CD-ROM drive.
– Play the audio CD from the DOS CD-ROM control panel.
– Check the connection of the speaker cables.
– Verify that there are not any resource conflicts.
– Verify installation of the correct sound drivers.
– Check the speaker’s connection to the back of the computer.
– Locate the speakers away from the monitor.
– Always refer to the documentation of the sound card or CD drive
• A Scanner is an input device that allows documents including text and pictures to
be brought into the computer and displayed, printed, etc.
• The most common types of scanners:
– Flatbed
– Sheetfed
– Handheld
– Film
• Scanners attach to the computer using one of three methods:
– Parallel
How a scanner operates can be found on page 10-50.
The most common scanner file formats:
– JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) is good for web pictures and master copies
– GIF (Graphic Interchange Format) is limited to 256 colors and good for web pictures
– TIFF (Tag Image File Format) is good for master copies
– PNG (Portable Network Graphics) is the newest type and supports 24 and 48-bit color.
Scanner Terms:
– Resolution is measured in dots per inch and determined by the number of sensors in the CCD array
– Bit depth is the number of bits used for color. The more bits, the more colors and color depth
– Interpolation is software used by the scanner to achieve a greater resolution
– OCR (Optical Character Recognition) is software that processes printed or written text characters
– TWAIN is a driver used that allows applications to access and acquire images directly from the
Digital Cameras
• Digital camera stores photographs in digital form.
• Digital cameras connect to the computer with several different interfaces:
– Serial
– Parallel
– FireWire
• The most common types of Digital Camera Batteries:
– AA
– NiCad
– NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride)
– Li-Ion (Lithium Ion)
Digital Cameras
The most common types of Digital Camera Data Storage:
– CF (Compact Flash)
– SmartMedia
– Memory Stick
– Secure Digital
– PC Card drives