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CS 445 / 645: Introductory Computer Graphics Review Final Exam Thursday, December 13th from 7 – 10 p.m. – Room Olsson 011 You may use one sheet of notes (8.5 x 11’’) – You can write on both sides of paper Not everything from semester will be on test – Class on Thursday will outline material and review Review If you’re going to print out all the slides from my lectures, please try to keep our costs down. – Render multiple slides to a page. – Keep the amount of black ink down Review Slide from Midterm Hearn and Baker – – – – – – – – – Chapter 2 (NOT ON FINAL) Chapter 3 (84-102, 117-126) (NOT ON FINAL) Chapter 5 Chapter 6 (225-248) (NOT ON FINAL) Chapter 11 (No Quaternions) (FINAL WILL INCLUDE QUATS) Chapter 12 (432-456) Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Appendix 1 – 4 OpenGL Red Book – Chapter 1 - 3 Review Since Midterm Hearn and Baker – – – – – – Chapter 4 (171 - 180) Chapter 10 (315 - 355) Chapter 11 (413 – 422) Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Appendix (617-618) Red Book – Chapter 5 – Chapter 9 Class Material – – – – – Antialiasing Cube Maps Visible Surface Making Movies Animation Review – Vector Arithmatic Add, subtract Dot (to determine angle between and length of projection (when normalized vectors) – Do math to understand why normalization required Cross product (Right-hand rule) – Did you know the length of the cross product of two vectors equals the area of the parallelogram formed by the two vectors? Equations of lines Distance from line to plane – Point of intersection Review – Coordinate Space Coordinate space – Right-handed coordinate system – openGL camera initialized to look down –z axis Review - OpenGL No significant coding required I might ask you to tell me what a function does – One you’ve used for the projects I might ask you to tell me what order to put the transformation commands Direction of rotations Ordering of polygon vertices Back-face rendering Textures – – – – – – Filtering Mipmap Bump Map Displacement Map Alpha blending Multi texturing Review Rendering Pipeline (model, light, view, clip, project) Review Homogeneous Coordinate System – What does w do? Modeling Transformations – Rotate, translate, scale, rotate about arbitrary axis Viewing Transformations – Orthographic (parallel) and Perspective Understand how matrix formed by compositing many modeling and viewing transformations effects the vertices of a model and its rendering Review Color – – – – Metamers Relative changes versus absolute values RGB sensitivity Color spaces Intuitive spaces, distance between similar colors Lighting Equations – Dependent on what factors – Calculate the reflection vector – Know how parameters effect images Review Shading – Flat, Gouraud, Phong Improvements versus cost – Indirect lighting Ray tracing, radiosity Viewer dependent/independent Costs/benefits Hemicube Form Factors Understand geometry of how they are computed Understand simultaneous solution of all factors Review - Antialiasing Sampling and Quantization Area Sampling (Weighted and unweighted) What is a filter? Super Sampling – Stochastic Supersampling Nyquist Rate How is this done in hardware? Review – Textures Filtering Mip Map – Construction – Switching between layers – Advantages and disadvantages Bump Map Displacement Map Alpha Blending Repeating vs. Clamping Review – Game Consoles How can we really compare game consoles? – – – – Triangles/Second versus 48 Pixel Quads / Sec Texture Bandwidth Antialiasing MultiTexturing How do these things influence system performance and how do they relate to the rendering pipeline? Review - Visibility Canonical View Volume – Advantages? – Used for Clipping Back-face culling Manifolds Occlusion (Painter’s Algorithm) Fragments (Analytic Visibility Algorithm) BSP Tree – Multiple polygons aligned on same plane – Construction of tree / traversal of tree – Pros and cons Warnock’s Algorithm Z-buffer – What is its depth – Pros and cons Review - Rotations Euler Angles Gimbal Lock How many DOFs do we require Math of axis angle – Why does axis angle use 4 DOFs to model 3 Quaternion – Why better than Euler? – How is it similar to axis-angle – When is it better than axis-angle? Review Splines Know how to build M matrix – Hermite, bezier, b-spline Understand each spline’s G matrix Continuity terms What’s a duck? Uniform vs. non-uniform b-splines Review – Environment Mapping How is environment mapping done in hardware Understand the basic problem we discussed in class that allows us to project an intersection with one face of cube to another face of cube Review - Animation Keyframing – Pros/cons Inverse Kinematics – Know what it is Motion Capture – Pros/cons Review – Making Movies What is compositing? What is matchmoving? – How can we automate this? What is a story board? How can we preserve real-world lighting when compositing digital characters?