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Transcript
Similarities and differences
between developing countries and
Australia
Chapter 8.2
The Global Burden of Disease study
• First study in 1990- looks at health effects of more
than 100 diseases and injuries for eight regions of
the world.
• GBD study includes:
• causes of death (mortality);
• disease incidence, prevalence disability
(morbidity);
• burden of disease (DALYs).
• http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/global_burde
n/facts/en/index.html
Life expectancy
• Revision:
• Life expectancy at birth is the average number
of years a newborn can expect to live if
existing mortality patterns continue over an
individual’s Lifetime
• health adjusted life expectancy (HALE) is a
measure of the expected number of years to
be lived in the equivalent of ‘full health’.
Mortality
• Mortality statistics give a very general picture
of the number of deaths around the world.
• indicators used:
• infant mortality rate (for infants under 12
months of age
• under-five mortality rate (U5MR)
• maternal mortality ratio (MMR).
• Adult mortality
Mortality
• During 2008, an estimated 57 million people
died.
• In high-income countries more than two thirds
of all people live beyond the age of 70 and
predominantly die of chronic diseases:
cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive
lung disease, cancers, diabetes or dementia.
Lung infection remains the only leading
infectious cause of death.
• In low-income countries less than one in five
of all people reach the age of 70, and more
than a third of all deaths are among children
under 15. People predominantly die of
infectious diseases: lung infections, diarrhoeal
diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria.
Complications of pregnancy and childbirth
together continue to be leading causes of
death, claiming the lives of both infants and
mothers.
The 10 leading causes of death by
broad income group (2008)
Middle income
High income
What are the main differences between rich
and poor countries with respect to causes of
death?
• http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/f
s310/en/index1.html
• Read page 270- 274
Differences between rich and poor countries with
respect to causes of death?
High income country
Medium income
Low income
More than two-thirds of all
people live beyond the age
of 70.
nearly half of all people
live to the age of 70.
less than a quarter of all
people reach the age of 70
Leading cause of death :
CVD, COPD,
diabetes and dementia.
tuberculosis and road
traffic accidents are top 10
leading causes of death
more than a third
of all deaths are among
children under the age
of 14.
Nine out of the 10 leading
causes of death
are non-communicable
conditions
infectious diseases,
including lung infections,
diarrhoeal diseases, HIV/
AIDS, tuberculosis and
malaria.
Complications of
pregnancy and childbirth
together continue to be
leading causes of death
Child mortality
Child mortality
• More than 8 million deaths in 2008 were
among children under five years of age, and
99% of them were in low- and middle-income
countries.
• Almost one in five deaths in the world was of
a child under the age of five years.
Child mortality
• Pg 277