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Kingdom: Plants
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes
Kingdom
Bacteria
Kingdom
Archaeabacteria
2006-2007
Common ancestor
Domaine
Eukaryote
Plants
• General characteristics
• eukaryotes
• autotrophs, photosynthetic
• cell wall
• cellulose
• not mobile
Transition from water to land
Challenges to overcome
Water
conservation
Internal
Transport
Reproduction
without water
Support
Preventing water loss
• Cuticle - waxy layer
• Lipids do not dissolve in water
• the cuticle creates a barrier that helps prevent the
water in the plant’s tissues from evaporating into
the atmosphere
Plant Diversity
Mosses
no water
transport
system
(pipes)
Ferns
water
transport,
no seeds
Conifers
pollen &
seeds
Flowering plants
flowers
& fruit
seed plants
water transport system
colonization of land
Overcoming challenges = Adaptations
• Symbiosis
• Tissues
• Roots/stems/leaves
• Horomones
Seeds!
• Reproduction
Symbiosis
• Mutualistic associations played a key role in the
initial occupation of organisms on land
• Mycorrihzae (fungi + plant)
•
•
•
•
First plants = no roots
Fungi absorbed minerals from rocks
Plants now have access to minerals
Fungi get free food
• Commensalism
• Parasitic
Plant Tissue
• All vascular plants have tissues
• 3 types
• Dermal tissue: covers plant’s entire body; serves to protect
• Ground tissue: performs photosynthesis, stores water and carbohydrates,
surrounds and supports the transport tissues
• Vascular tissue: conducts water, minerals, nutrients and carbohydrates made
by photosynthesis
Vascular Tissue (vascular bundles)
• Function – transport
• Composed of xylem and phloem
• Xylem: made of dead cells;
transports water and minerals from
the roots up to the leaves
• Phloem: transports nutrients
and carbohydrates to other parts
of the plant
Roots
• Anchor plant in place
• Absorb water/dissolved minerals from
environment
• Store excess food
• Root hairs
• Increase absorptive surface area
Leaves
• Composed of mesophyll tissue and
veins (vascular tissue in bundles)
• Leaves vary greatly in size and
shape
• Function of leaves
• Photosythesis/energy production
• Gas exchange
• transpiration
Leaf – external anatomy
Leaf – internal anatomy
• Main organs of photosynthesis in plants
Vein
Cuticle
Epidermis
Xylem &
Phloem
Mesophyll
Epidermis
Stoma
Guard Cells
Leaf Structures
• Cuticle – waxy covering;
prevents water loss through
evaporation
• Mesophyll – majority of leaf;
contains vascular tissue;
photosynthesis
• Palisade
• Spongy
• Stomata (stoma) – tiny
openings on underside of
leaf; gas exchange
• Guard cells – control
opening and closing of
stomata
Leaves and Transpiration
• Transpiration – water loss through evaporation
Stems (shoots)
• Function – support & house vascular tissue
• Above ground
• Main axis of plant
• Structural adaptation allow plants to overcome
obstacle of gravity
• Connection between roots and leaves
XIII. Reproduction
• Seedless
• Spores
• Dependent on water for reproduction
• Seed bearing
• Seeds
• Not dependent on water for
reproduction
Interdependence within plants
• Plant systems are dependent on each other
• If one fails, the rest will fail
• Roots depend on sugars synthesized by photosynthetic leaves
• Stems depend on water/minerals absorbed from soil by roots & sugars
synthesized by leaves
• Leaves depend on water/minerals absorbed by roots & support/transport of
stem