Download 2003 New Zealand and Australia Hoki resource flow

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Shield volcano wikipedia , lookup

Mount Pinatubo wikipedia , lookup

Cascade Volcanoes wikipedia , lookup

Volcano wikipedia , lookup

Silverthrone Caldera wikipedia , lookup

Mayon wikipedia , lookup

Mount Etna wikipedia , lookup

Nevado del Ruiz wikipedia , lookup

Terceira Island wikipedia , lookup

Mount Vesuvius wikipedia , lookup

Mount St. Helens wikipedia , lookup

Cerro Azul (Chile volcano) wikipedia , lookup

Mount Pelée wikipedia , lookup

Krakatoa wikipedia , lookup

Rannsóknir á þróun lífríkis eldfjallaeyja í heiminum
[Successional studies on volcanic islands: overview]
Bjarni Diðrik Sigurðsson, Borgþór
Magnússon og Karl Gunnarsson
Landbúnaðarháskóli Íslands, Náttúrufræðistofnun
Íslands og Hafrannsóknastofnunin
[email protected]
Málstofan „Líf í Surtsey“.
Líffræðiráðstefnan 2013
Öskju, Reykjavík, 9. nóvember 2013
Let’s go to one of the earth’s
youngest surfaces: 50 years!
Eruption that started
at 130 m depth on
Nov 14, 1963 and
ended in Jul 1967
The island was protected already in 1965, to study
how life colonizes isolated volcanic islands
 UN World Heritage site in 2008
The Surtsey Research Society
It purpose is to prome research in the
earth and biological sciences on Surtsey
Chairman: Hallgrímur Jónasson, RANNÍS.
Vice-chair: Borgþór Magnússon, Náttúrufrst.
Others: Karl Gunnarsson, Vignir Thoroddsen,,
Traffic limited to one-two scientific
excursions per year – only scientists.
Hallgrímur D. Indriðason, Eyþór Einarsson, Páll
Einarsson, Bjarni Diðrik Sigurðsson, Sigvaldi
Árnason and Starri Heiðmarsson.
Sturla Friðriksson and later Borgthor Magnusson
(both plant ecologists) have led the biological research on Surtsey.
Many scientists have joint
the excursions and
published their studies.
Search on Google Scholar
yields 2600 references
on Surtsey (many
textbook chapters, etc.).
Most publications on
geomorphology and on
ecosystem structure
(colonization, succession,
biodiversity), but few
studies on ecosystem
Most publications available in pdf at
At this conference, 106
scientists presented their
research on volcanic
I will here try to give a
quick overview of what
were (few of) their findings
(...skewed towards plants ;o)
This gives introduction to
the remainder of the talks
Timothy New – La Trobe Univ. Australia
Colonisation, succession and conservation: the
invertebrates of Anak Krakatau, Indonesia.
Anak Krakatau
Early succession: continual disturbance.
“Age” = 1883  1927 + • Blown in insects first colonize (even before
eruptions ongoing; major
plants) – but later their communities depend
heavily on flora succession / human influence.
eruption in 1952 (new
start), 1972 and 1983 (30- • Only one “hardy” deep-rooted grass species
(Saccharum spontaneum) drives the primary
61 yrs)
succession on bare lava (other key-spp on
Substrate = tephra/lava
Distance = 1.5 km (1927) / • Trajectory = Bare Lava  Scattered patches of
ca. 20 km 1883
Saccharum  Patchess coalesce  2° succ
(forest succession)
Size = 0.23 km2
 This is very similar pattern as we see for
Plant spp = ?
Leymus on Surtsey! ( the for. succ.) + seagull col.
„Turists“ have now major influence on
succession on Anak Krakatau
S. spontaneum
Bruce D. Clarkson - Univ. of Waikato, New Zealand
Pattern and process of vegetation change (succession) on two
northern New Zealand island volcanoes
White Island
“Age” = Eruptions ongoing;
major eruption in 1981-3 (030 yrs)
Substrate = tephra
Distance = 50 km
Size = 0.24 km2
Plant spp = 33
Rangitoto Island
“Age” = 600 years sine last
Substrate = aa lava
Distance = 5 km
Size = 2.3 km2
Plant spp = 582
• More that ½ of the
species were exotic
Early succession: continual disturbance,
isolation and restricted flora.
• Only one “hardy” species
(Metrosideros) drives the primary
• Trajectory = Bare Lava  Scattered
patches  Patchess coalesce 
Closed forest
 This is very similar pattern as we see for
Leymus/Honckenia on Surtsey!
Late succession: Still facilitation by
Metrosideros. Slow incursion of mid-late
succession trees
Key species: Metrosideros excelsa (wind
distributed – mass seeder – large, deep root
systems, forms up to 25 m tall trees)
Carol West – Dept. Conserv., Wellington, NZ
Different trajectories of primary succession after eruption
events on Raoul Island, NZ
Raoul Island
“Age” = < 2.5 million years;
eruptionss in 1964 and 2006
Substrate = tephra(64)/mud(06)
Distance = (not applicable)
Size = 29.4 km2
Plant spp = 335
(25 endemic; 60% exotic).
Comparison of plant primary
succession after 1964 / 2006 on
the same plot!
Difference: Rats and Goats had
been eridicated in between!
„Clear“ signs that plant
succession in the affected area
is following a different
trajectory after the 2006
eruption => loss of
grazers/predators can change
1964 => Metrosideros forest
2006 => Mixed forest?
Stephen Jewett – Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks
Recolonization of the intertidal and shallow subtidal community
following the 2008 eruption of Alaska’s Kasatochi Volcano
Kasatochi Island
“Age” = Old - Erupted Aug 7-8, Main focus - establish baseline
2008 (5 yrs)
info for future studies...
Substrate = tephra
• Intertidal flora/fauna not
Distance = 80 km
existing in 2009 – rapid
Size = 3 km2
Plant spp = ?
colonization from 2010 in
Montoring: 12 yrs – birds/sea
the small area with hard
• 52 active volcanos
• 16 large erupt. in 25 yrs
NOTE: Specal Issue in AAAR •
After +400 m shoreline
Kelp recovery: dependent
on rate of erosion of
recently deposited
pyroclastic flows
=> Important „Physical
thresholds“ for early
succession similar as we find
in Surtsey!
Roger del Moral – Univ.Washington, Seattle
Mount St. Helens and Surtsey: a Comparison of Early
Succession Rates
Mt. St. Helens
“Age” = Eruptions/explosion in
1980 (0-33 yrs)
Substrate = tephra
Distance = (not island)
Size = 320 km2
Plant spp = 140
• Surtsey & Mount St. Helens differ
dramatically, yet…
– Establishment follows similar rules.
On Both Volcanoes:
– Isolation limits the available species while…
– Stress further excludes some arriving species.
– Together they produce initially variable
vegetation so that…
– Different species may dominate similar
habitats (Alternate Stable States?)
– Reduced stress, through facilitation (seabirds
or native Lupinus), accelerates succession.
Robert J. Wittaker– Univ. Oxford, UK
Volcanic island biogeography: development and evaluation
of dynamic models for dynamic platforms
The MacArthur & Wilson (1963, 1967)
Equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography
BUT – volcanic islands tend to be dynamic
systems (in time)…
Island diversity = ƒ(Immigration,
Speciation, Extinction)
Evolution requires time
Speciation / persistence of endemics
requires space and isolation
Islands display a life-cycle
(ontogeny) - Hotspot archipelagos
can demonstrate a clear age gradient
 The Area + Time-Time2 model
provides a more satisfactory general
explanation than standard diversity–
area models for data sets from various
archipelagos and taxa.
 Surtsey now 1.3 km2  0.4 km2 in 200
There will be a special issue on volcanic islands and
Surtsey in the journal Biogeosciences in 2014
No Leading author
1 Pérez, Nemesio M.
[email protected]
Deep-seated and non deep-seated CO2 degassing through the surface environment of oceanic volcanic islands
2 Arnalds, Olafur
[email protected] of iron rich volcanogenic aeolian dust from Iceland into the North-Atlantic Ocean
3 Forjaz, Victor-Hugo
[email protected]
A volcano arriving from the sea – Capelinhos, Azores 1957–58.
4 New, Tim
[email protected]
Colonsaton, succession and conservation of Anak Krakatau, Indonesia.
5 Marteinsson, Viggó Th.
[email protected]
Microbial colonisation in different soils of Surtsey, Iceland
6 Jewett, Stephen
[email protected]
Recolonization of the intertidal and shallow subtidal community following the 2008 eruption of Alaska's Kasatochi volcano
7 Ragnarsson, Stefán Áki
[email protected]
Colonization of benthic mesofauna in the deeper slopes at Surtsey
8 Gunnarsson, Karl E.
[email protected]
Sublittoral colonisation at Surtsey
9 Ingimundardóttir, Gróa Valgerður
[email protected]
Bryophytes on Surtsey
10 del Moral, Roger
[email protected]
Succession rates on Surtsey and Mount St.Helens
11 Sonsthagen, Sarah
[email protected]
Legacy or colonization? Post-eruption establishment of peregrine falcons on Kasatochi Island.
12 Magnusson, Sigurdur H.
[email protected]
Colonisation and distribution of vascular plant species on Surtsey
13 Magnusson, Borgthor
[email protected]
Plant succession and ecosystem developement on Surtsey
14 Leblans, Niki
[email protected]
Effects of seabird nitrogen inputs on biomass and carbon accumulation on Surtsey, Iceland
15 Stefánsdóttir, Guðrún
[email protected]
Accumulation of organic matter and nitrogen in Leymus arinarius conlonies on Surtsey, Iceland
16 Ilieva-Makulec, Krassimira [email protected]
Soil nematode foodwebs in Surtsey: impact of biological and physical factors
17 Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.
[email protected]
Annual variation in ecosystem carbon fluxes during primary succession on Surtsey, Iceland
18 Garvin, James B.
[email protected]
Monitoring evolution of Surtsey from space-borne remote sensing
19 Zeglin, Lydia
[email protected]
Soil microbial structure and function post-volcanic eruption on Kasatochi Island.
20 West, Carol
[email protected]
Different trajectories of primary succession after eruption events on Raoul Island, New Zealand
21 Árnason, Sigurður H.
[email protected]
Spatial genetic structure of the most successful colonizer, sea sandworth, on Surtsey
22 Jónsson, Kesara A.
[email protected]
Birch integration in Iceland: New evidence
Paradise on earth!
Takk fyrir mig!
Photo: BDS