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Name:_____________________________ Slide #1: World War II Notes Slide #2: What was World War II? ________________war in American History Involved ________________________, ______________________, and ____________________ around the entire world. By the end, over _____ million dead. It lasted from ___________-________ Slide #3: Causes o o o W___________________________________________________ A___________________________________________________ R___________________________________________________ Slide #4: WWI and the Treaty of Versailles Germany lost __________ to surrounding nations Military: o Army - was to be reduced to ____________________ men and no ___________________ were allowed Navy - Germany was only allowed 6 ____________________ and no _______________________ o Airforce - Germany was______________________________ an airforce Rhineland - The Rhineland area was to be kept ___________ German military personnel and weapons War _________________: o Germany was to pay for _______________________________________________________________________________. o Allies collect $ to pay back ________________________________________________________ o Germany pays ______________trillion (modern day equivalent) Germans are ______________,_____________________,_____________________,&_____________________ Desperate people turn to desperate leaders Slide #5: Appeasement • • • • • Slide #6 “Peace in Our Time!” Giving someone something to make them_________________________________________________________. Hitler demanded ________________that wasn’t Germany’s and ______________________ just gave it to him. On 29th September, 1938, Adolf Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Edouard Daladier and Benito Mussolini signed the _______________________________ which transferred the Sudetenland to Germany. Nations were trying to ____________________ war…it didn’t work. (Isolationism) _____________________________ just showed Hitler that he could do whatever he wanted. Slide #7: Neville Chamberlain: “Peace in our Time,” 1938 The following is the wording of the statement that Neville Chamberlain (___________________________of _______________Britain waved when he stepped off the plane after the conference in Berlin had ended on 30 September, 1938. • "We regard the agreement signed last night and the Anglo-German Naval Agreement as symbolic of the desire of our two peoples _____________________________________________________ with one another again. • "My good friends this is the second time in our history that there has come back from Germany to Downing Street peace with honor. I believe it is peace in our time." Slide #8: : Rise of Totalitarianism A system in which the___________ and its leader have nearly _____________________ control. Individual ____________________ are not viewed as important as the _________________________. No right to ____________________ No free _________________________ Government __________________________________________________________________ Often a ________________________ state Rise of ____________________________dissenters (________________________&__________________________) Slide #9: Appeasement Fails! Early 1939- two ______________ _____________ of Czechoslovakia seized by Poland and Hungary with Hitler’s “___________________”. March 15th Hitler takes Czechoslovakia through o instigating political unrest in the region, o creating propaganda that spoke of how local Germans in the area were wronged(even if not true). o Offering to help the crisis in the country by sending in the German Army to “restore order” Chamberlain’s response: "Is this the last attack upon a small state or is it to be followed by others? Is this, in effect, a step in the direction of an attempt to dominate the world by force?“ Slide #10: British and French Responses: Chamberlain declared: "No greater mistake could be made than to suppose that because it believes war to be a senseless and cruel thing, this nation has so lost its fiber that it will not take part to the utmost of its power in resisting such a challenge if it ever were made.“ Great Britain had finally declared it would ________________ to the _________________________________ and was willing to fight. The next day, March 18, British diplomats informed the ________________ that Hitler's occupation of Czechoslovakia was "a complete repudiation of the __________________________________________...devoid of any basis of legality." The French also lodged a strong protest saying they "would not recognize the legality of the German occupation." Slide #11: Slide #12: What is Fascism? Political belief that says the __________________________ is less important than the ___________________. Glorifies _________________________, believes it is needed to “prove” ____________________ of a people. Uses __________________________________and _______________________. Dictatorships. _________________and then______________________ became fascist. Slides # 13-14: Slide #15: Who was on each side? Axis Powers Allied Powers Slide #16: Adolf Hitler In 1933, Hitler promised Germans that he would ______________________________________________________. His ____________ Party won the elections and he was elected ____________________________of Germany. He quickly gathered all power in his own hands and began ________________________communists, trade unionists, and Jews. Problems Major Reforms Examples of Totalitarian Rule Slide #17: Hideki Tojo During the Great Depression, nations could not afford to buy Japanese _______________and many ___________closed. Some Japanese blamed the _______________movement for the economic problems and thought a return to _________________rule would be the solution to Japan’s _____________________. Problems Major Reforms Examples of Totalitarian Rule Slide #18: Benito Mussolini Mussolini and his _____________folowers, know as the “________________________” marched on Rome and seized power in Italy in 1922. Mussolini became ___________________ (“The Leader”) and set up an efficient but _________rule over ____________. Problems Major Reforms Examples of Totalitarian Rule Slide #19: Joseph Stalin 1924:__________________________________________________________________________________ Goal:_______________________________________________________________________ o ______________________________________________________________________ o ______________________________________________________________________ Soviet Union becomes a ______________________after ________, which starts the ____________________. Slide #20: Key Players in the War Axis Powers: Allied Powers Slide #21: What did Hitler Want? Militarism- soon after becoming chancellor he begins ____________________ Germany breaking the ____________________________________(remember the military clauses of the treaty?) Rhineland- moves ________________ into the Rhineland territory again breaking the Treaty of Versailles Lebensraum- “____________ ________________” was the argument Hitler gave for pursuing land. o Austria - ____________________________________________in 1938 o Sudetenland – territory in ________________________________________ o Given to Germany by Great Britain and France o Hitler then invades the rest of Czechoslovakia What’s this called? __________________________________________________________ On to Poland Slide #22 How did WWII start? Germany invaded _____________________________. ______________________________declare war on ______________________________. Germany then invades ____________________, _________________, ect... Then Hitler invades _______________________. Germans use “______________________________________” to overwhelm other armies. Blitzkrieg means “__________________ _____________________” in German. Surround with tanks and troops in trucks. Slide #23: Timeline: The Early Years *full size printable PDF on my website’s WWII page! 1939 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct. Nov. Dec. 1940 Slide #24: Fall of France On June 22, France signed an _________________ with Germany, agreeing to German __________________________ of northern France and the coast. The French military was __________________, and the French government, now located at Vichy, in the south, would ____________________ with the German authorities in occupied France. Refusing to recognize defeat, _________________________________________ escaped to London and organized the ____________________________________. Britain now _______________________________ against ________________ Slide #25: The Battle of Britain Hitler expected Britain to make _________________, however, Britain, led by a new Prime Minister_____________ ______________________, refused to ____________________________. Hitler proceeded _________________________ plans. The Luftwaffe _____________________began massive attacks _____________________________________ to destroy its air defenses. Britain held firm during the Blitz despite devastating destruction to English cities. The British resistance __________________________________________________________________ but he continued the bombing attacks Slide #26: Not Looking Great for the Allied Powers By the end of 1942, the Allies faced ______________________________ The chain of victories ____________________________________ within the ___________Axis alliance: • Japan and Germany fought separate wars, each on two fronts. They never coordinated strategies. The early ________________ also _______________________ the Allies’ ________________________: • The _____________________________ of the Soviet Union and the ___________________________________________ of the United States. Slide # 27 and Slide # 28:Invasion of the Soviet Union • • • It was then that Hitler made his ________________________________. He invaded the ______________________________________________. – The obliteration of Bolshevism (a political revolution in USSR) was a key element of Hitler’s ____________; however, it was a gigantic ________________mistake. On June 22, 1941, Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa, consisting of an attack army of _____ million men spread out along __________mile front in ______ massive offensives. The German army quickly advanced, but at a terrifying cost. For the next three years, _______ of German deaths would happen on the _____________ front. Slide # 29: Turn of the Tide in Europe Defeat of the Axis Powers -The turning point of the war came in_____________ -Allied victory in North _____________ was followed by an invasion of ____________, which stopped the ____________powers’ string of victories. -The decisive _________________ of war, however, was the __________________front. Slide #30: The Battle of Stalingrad: • • • • The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point of the war. The __________________ had already lost ____________ million men on the eastern front. In 1942-43, a German army of over 300,000 was ______________________________________ at the Battle of Stalingrad. The Germans then lost the battle of Kursk and began a long _____________. The____________Army crossed into ___________ in January 1944. Slide#31: How did WWII end in Europe? • • Operation Overlord- Allied invasion of ______________________. Also called _________________________. – Within a month ___________________________ Allied troops were stationed in _________________. – Germany is __________________________________with the USSR to the east Germany surrenders in ______________________ after Hitler commits ___________________________. Slide #32: D-Day Invasion June 6, 1944: ________________ Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified ___________________________________________ to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches _____________________, France. General Dwight D. _________________________called the operation a crusade in which “we will accept nothing less than full victory.” More than 5,000 ________________ and 13,000 __________________ supported the D-Day invasion, and by day’s end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot- hold in Normandy. The D-Day cost was high -more than ______________________ Soldiers were killed or wounded -- but more than _____________________________________________________________________________________. Slide #33: Troop Movement: D-Day Slide #34-36: Storming the shores of Normandy, France http://bcove.me/msfc2e1d Slide #37: Battle of the Bulge late 1944, after the ____________forces' successful D-Day invasion of Normandy, France, it seemed the Second World War was all but over. But on December 16, with the onset of winter, the ___________________________ launched a counteroffensive to _________________ Allied forces & turn the tide of the war in Hitler's favor. Allied victory ultimately meant the victory of freedom over tyranny. http://www.army.mil/botb/slideshow.html Slide # 38: Significance of the BOB Never again would Hitler be able to launch an _______________________________________ on such a scale. British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill stated, "This is undoubtedly the greatest American battle of the war and will, I believe, be regarded as an ever-famous American victory.” In terms of participation and losses, the battle of the Bulge is arguably the ___________________________________________________________________________________________ http://www.army.mil/botb/newsreel.html Slide #39: Allies take Berlin: VE Day • ___________________ &__________________. surround Germany. • Question was which _____________________ would take Berlin. Soviets took Berlin in April ____________. • April 30th 1945 ______________________ commits suicide • May 7th 1945 _____________________________________________________________. • May 8th =__________________________________________. Slide #40: European Victory • Mussolini was _________________________&_____________________ by Italian partisans and __________________ committed suicide in April 1945, as the Russian troops took Berlin. • Fighting in the _____________________ would continue until ______________________________. Slide #41: Changes in Land Ownership resulting in WWII How did WWII end in Europe? • Allies divide _________________________________up between them. – This helps start the Cold War. • ______________________________ are held in Germany (and Japan) to try the people responsible for the war. – Many are executed and jailed for war crimes. Slide #42: Map of Germany after the War Ownership of land: PinkOrangeGreen Blue *draw lines to each area so you can use this to study. Slide #43: What was the Holocaust? Nazi plan to kill all __________________. Why? Hitler’s provided a __________________________________to Germany’s problems ________________________ million Jews murdered in camps in Europe. ________________________ million others (gypsies, mentally ill, homosexuals) Total of 11 million _________________________________________________________ What is genocide? __________________________________________________________________________ Slide #44: What about the Pacific War? The US (mostly) fought the _____________________________. December 7, 1941 Japan bombed _________________________ in__________________ to sink US ships there. Two hours = most ___________________destroyed and _______________________ sailors killed Japan surrenders after US drops ____________________ bombs on ______________________ and ______________________________ Slide #45-48: Pictures of Pearl Harbor Attack & Memorial Slide #49: Major Battles in the Pacific American Forces halted the Japanese advances in two decisive naval battles. Coral Sea (May 1942) • U.S. stopped a fleet convoying Japanese troops to New Guinea • Japanese designs on Australia ended +Midway (June 1942) • Japanese Admiral Yamamoto hoped to capture Midway Island as a _________________________________________________________________________ • U.S. Admiral Chester Nimitz caught the Japanese by surprise and ______________________________________________________________________________ • American cryptanalysts __________________________________________________________ Slide #50: War in the Pacific Slide # 51: Battle of Midway: The Battle of Midway __________________________ naval battle in the _______________during WWII June 4-7, 1942, (6 months after _____________________ the US Navy defeated an Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) attack of Midway Island, inflicting _______________________________________________________________ Military historian John Keegan called it "the most ________________and decisive blow in the history of ______________________warfare.“ Slide #52: Video on the Battle of Midway http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7OBw0r28qC0 Slide 53: Beginning of the end in the Pacific Yamamoto is _____________________________by the U.S. (April 1943) Loss of Saipan (August 1944) “the naval and military heart and brain of Japanese defense strategy” Political crisis in Japan • The government could no longer hide the fact that they were losing the war. • Tōjō resigns on _____________________________________ Intensive air raids over _______________________________________ Iwo Jima (February, 1945) • American marines _______________this island, which was needed to provide fighter escort for bombings over ___________________ Slide 54: A Grinding War in the Pacific In 1945, the U.S. began ____________________________________ in order to coerce Japan to surrender _________________major Japanese cities bombed ______________________ civilians killed Battle for Leyte Gulf Total blockade of _______________ Japanese navy virtually destroyed ______________________________________ (divine wind) flights begin Okinawa (April, 1945) All ___________________________ Japanese defenders killed U.S. invaded this island, which would provide a staging area for the invasion of the ________________________________________________________________________ Slide 55: Turning Points of the War in the Pacific August 6, 1945 – Enola Gay drops bomb on __________________________________ 140,000 dead; tens of thousands injured; radiation sickness; 80% of buildings destroyed August 9, 1945 – ________________________________________________ 70,000 dead; 60,000 injured Emperor ______________________ surrenders on ___________________. (V-J Day) Formal surrender signed on September 2 onboard the battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay Slide #56: Losses of the Major Wartime Powers in WWII, 1939-1945 • Germany • China _____million military _____ million military _____ million civilian _____ million civilians • Japan ________ million military • USSR ________ civilians _______ million military • Italy _______ million civilians ____________ military _____________civilian • Great Britain ______ military _______civilians • France ______ military _____civilian • United States _____military Slide#57: Deaths of Japanese (civilians and soldiers) Slide #58: Effects of WWII Creation of the United Nations________________________________________________________________ Nuremburg Trials_________________________________________________________________________ Superpowers:_____________________________________________________________________________ Atomic Age:________________________________________________________________________________ Slide #59: America Creates a “War Machine” • The war effort required all of America’s huge ____________________ and full ____________________of the workforce. – Government ___________________________ soared. • U.S. budget increases – 1940 $_________________________ – 1944 $__________________________ – Expenditures in WWII _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________ (150 years) – GNP (Gross National Product/or amount of goods sold) • 1939 $_____________ billion • 1945 $______________million Slide #60: Quick Facts: War Costs US Debt 1940 - $_____ Billion US Debt 1945 - $_____ Billion WWII cost $330 billion – 10 times the cost of WWI & equivalent to all previous federal spending since 1776 Slide # 61: WWII & the Great Depression • World War II ended the Great Depression. • Factories run at full capacity – Ford Motor Company – one bomber plane per hour • People save money (rationing) • Army bases in South provide economic boom (most bases in South b/c of climate) • The national debt grew to $260 billion (6 times its size on Dec. 7, 1941) Slide # 63Postwar Efforts at Revenge • The Nuremberg Trials of 1945-46 – After, WWII the Allied powers decided to place on trial the highest-ranking Nazi officers for “crimes against humanity” – Allied forces had attempted to do this after WWI, but had released them on the grounds that they “were just following orders” – Hitler, Goebbels, and Himmler were dead; but, 22 Nazi leaders (including Goring) were tried at an international military tribunal at Nuremburg, Germany. 12 were sentenced to death. Similar trials occurred in the east and throughout the world. • The Tokyo Trial (1946-48) Slide # 64: Postwar Efforts at Peace • The United Nations – There was some hope when, in 1945, the United Nations was created; an organization to promote international stability – A General Assembly where representatives from all countries could debate international issues. – The Security Council had 5 permanent members – U.S., Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China could veto any question of substance. There were also 6 elected members. – Key: the U.S. joined in contrast to League of Nations Slide # 64: Wartime Agreements • Unlike WWI, there was no Peace of Paris to reshape Europe. – Instead, the Yalta agreement of February 1945, signed by Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin, turned the prevailing military balance of power into a political settlement. – Potsdam Conference, in suburban Berlin (July 1945)—Truman, Stalin, Churchill – Finalized plans on Germany. Germany would be demilitarized and would remain divided. Slide # 66: Postwar Reality: Soviet Control of Eastern Europe • Europe was politically cut in half; Soviet troops had overrun eastern Europe and penetrated into the heart of Germany. • During 1944-1945, Stalin starts shaping the post-war world by occupying SE Europe with Soviet troops that should have been on the Polish front pushing toward Berlin. • Roosevelt did not have postwar aims because he still had to fight Japan; Stalin did have postwar aims. Slide # 67: Map of Post-War Europe Slide # 68: Postwar Reality • Consequences of World War II – Soviet Union with agenda – Unlike the isolation after WWI, the U.S. was engaged in world affairs – The triumph of Communists in China – Decolonization • The independence of nations from European (U.S. & Japan) colonial powers.