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Transcript
Name:_____________________________
Slide #1:
World War II Notes
Slide #2: What was World War II?
________________war in American History
Involved ________________________, ______________________, and ____________________ around the
entire world.
By the end, over _____ million dead.
It lasted from ___________-________
Slide #3: Causes
o
o
o
W___________________________________________________
A___________________________________________________
R___________________________________________________
Slide #4: WWI and the Treaty of Versailles
Germany lost __________ to surrounding nations
Military:
o Army - was to be reduced to ____________________ men and no ___________________ were allowed
Navy - Germany was only allowed 6 ____________________ and no _______________________
o Airforce - Germany was______________________________ an airforce
Rhineland - The Rhineland area was to be kept ___________ German military personnel and weapons
War _________________:
o Germany was to pay for _______________________________________________________________________________.
o Allies collect $ to pay back ________________________________________________________
o Germany pays ______________trillion (modern day equivalent)
Germans are ______________,_____________________,_____________________,&_____________________
Desperate people turn to desperate leaders
Slide #5: Appeasement
•
•
•
•
•
Slide #6
“Peace
in Our
Time!”
Giving someone something to make them_________________________________________________________.
Hitler demanded ________________that wasn’t Germany’s and ______________________ just gave it to him.
On 29th September, 1938, Adolf Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Edouard Daladier and Benito Mussolini signed the
_______________________________ which transferred the Sudetenland to Germany.
Nations were trying to ____________________ war…it didn’t work. (Isolationism)
_____________________________ just showed Hitler that he could do whatever he wanted.
Slide #7: Neville Chamberlain: “Peace in our Time,” 1938
The following is the wording of the statement that Neville Chamberlain (___________________________of
_______________Britain waved when he stepped off the plane after the conference in Berlin had ended on 30
September, 1938.
•
"We regard the agreement signed last night and the Anglo-German Naval Agreement as symbolic of the desire
of our two peoples _____________________________________________________ with one another again.
• "My good friends this is the second time in our history that there has come back from Germany to Downing
Street peace with honor. I believe it is peace in our time."
Slide #8: : Rise of Totalitarianism
A system in which the___________ and its leader have nearly _____________________ control.
Individual ____________________ are not viewed as important as the _________________________.
No right to ____________________
No free _________________________
Government __________________________________________________________________
Often a ________________________ state
Rise of ____________________________dissenters (________________________&__________________________)
Slide #9: Appeasement Fails!
Early 1939- two ______________ _____________ of Czechoslovakia seized by Poland and Hungary with Hitler’s
“___________________”.
March 15th Hitler takes Czechoslovakia through
o instigating political unrest in the region,
o creating propaganda that spoke of how local Germans in the area were wronged(even if not true).
o Offering to help the crisis in the country by sending in the German Army to “restore order”
Chamberlain’s response: "Is this the last attack upon a small state or is it to be followed by others? Is this, in
effect, a step in the direction of an attempt to dominate the world by force?“
Slide #10: British and French Responses:
Chamberlain declared: "No greater mistake could be made than to suppose that because it believes war to be a senseless
and cruel thing, this nation has so lost its fiber that it will not take part to the utmost of its power in resisting such a
challenge if it ever were made.“
Great Britain had finally declared it would ________________ to the _________________________________
and was willing to fight.
The next day, March 18, British diplomats informed the ________________ that Hitler's occupation of
Czechoslovakia was "a complete repudiation of the __________________________________________...devoid
of any basis of legality." The French also lodged a strong protest saying they "would not recognize the legality of the
German occupation."
Slide #11:
Slide #12: What is Fascism?
Political belief that says the __________________________ is less important than the ___________________.
Glorifies _________________________, believes it is needed to “prove” ____________________ of a people.
Uses __________________________________and _______________________.
Dictatorships.
_________________and then______________________ became fascist.
Slides # 13-14:
Slide #15: Who was on each side?
Axis Powers
Allied Powers
Slide #16: Adolf Hitler
In 1933, Hitler promised Germans that he would ______________________________________________________. His
____________ Party won the elections and he was elected ____________________________of Germany. He quickly
gathered all power in his own hands and began ________________________communists, trade unionists, and Jews.
Problems
Major Reforms
Examples of Totalitarian Rule
Slide #17: Hideki Tojo
During the Great Depression, nations could not afford to buy Japanese _______________and many ___________closed.
Some Japanese blamed the _______________movement for the economic problems and thought a return to
_________________rule would be the solution to Japan’s _____________________.
Problems
Major Reforms
Examples of Totalitarian Rule
Slide #18: Benito Mussolini
Mussolini and his _____________folowers, know as the “________________________” marched on Rome and seized
power in Italy in 1922. Mussolini became ___________________ (“The Leader”) and set up an efficient but
_________rule over ____________.
Problems
Major Reforms
Examples of Totalitarian Rule
Slide #19: Joseph Stalin
 1924:__________________________________________________________________________________
 Goal:_______________________________________________________________________
o ______________________________________________________________________
o ______________________________________________________________________
 Soviet Union becomes a ______________________after ________, which starts the ____________________.
Slide #20: Key Players in the War
Axis Powers:
Allied Powers
Slide #21:
What did Hitler Want?
Militarism- soon after becoming chancellor he begins ____________________ Germany breaking the
____________________________________(remember the military clauses of the treaty?)
Rhineland- moves ________________ into the Rhineland territory again breaking the Treaty of Versailles
Lebensraum- “____________ ________________” was the argument Hitler gave for pursuing land.
o Austria - ____________________________________________in 1938
o Sudetenland – territory in ________________________________________
o Given to Germany by Great Britain and France
o Hitler then invades the rest of Czechoslovakia
What’s this called? __________________________________________________________
On to Poland
Slide #22 How did WWII start?
Germany invaded _____________________________.
______________________________declare war on ______________________________.
Germany then invades ____________________, _________________, ect...
Then Hitler invades _______________________.
Germans use “______________________________________” to overwhelm other armies.
Blitzkrieg means “__________________ _____________________” in German.
Surround with tanks and troops in trucks.
Slide #23: Timeline: The Early Years *full size printable PDF on my website’s WWII page!
1939
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
July
Aug
Sept
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
1940
Slide #24: Fall of France
 On June 22, France signed an _________________ with Germany, agreeing to
German __________________________ of northern France and the coast.
 The French military was __________________, and the French government,
now located at Vichy, in the south, would ____________________ with the
German authorities in occupied France.
 Refusing to recognize defeat, _________________________________________
escaped to London and organized the ____________________________________.
 Britain now _______________________________ against ________________
Slide #25: The Battle of Britain
 Hitler expected Britain to make _________________, however, Britain, led by a new Prime Minister_____________
______________________, refused to ____________________________.
 Hitler proceeded _________________________ plans. The Luftwaffe _____________________began massive attacks
_____________________________________ to destroy its air defenses.
 Britain held firm during the Blitz despite devastating destruction to English cities.
 The British resistance __________________________________________________________________ but he continued
the bombing attacks
Slide #26: Not Looking Great for the Allied Powers
 By the end of 1942, the Allies faced ______________________________
 The chain of victories ____________________________________ within the ___________Axis alliance:
• Japan and Germany fought separate wars, each on two fronts. They never coordinated strategies.
 The early ________________ also _______________________ the Allies’ ________________________:
• The _____________________________ of the Soviet Union and the
___________________________________________ of the United States.
Slide # 27 and Slide # 28:Invasion of the Soviet Union
•
•
•
It was then that Hitler made his ________________________________. He invaded
the ______________________________________________.
– The obliteration of Bolshevism (a political revolution in USSR) was a key
element of Hitler’s ____________; however, it was a gigantic
________________mistake.
On June 22, 1941, Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa, consisting of an attack
army of _____ million men spread out along __________mile front in ______
massive offensives.
The German army quickly advanced, but at a terrifying cost. For the next three
years, _______ of German deaths would happen on the _____________ front.
Slide # 29: Turn of the Tide in Europe
Defeat of the Axis Powers
-The turning point of the war came in_____________
-Allied victory in North _____________ was followed
by an invasion of ____________, which stopped the
____________powers’ string of victories.
-The decisive _________________ of war, however,
was the __________________front.
Slide #30: The Battle of Stalingrad:
•
•
•
•
The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point of the
war. The __________________ had already lost
____________ million men on the eastern front.
In 1942-43, a German army of over 300,000 was
______________________________________ at the
Battle of Stalingrad.
The Germans then lost the battle of Kursk and began
a long _____________.
The____________Army crossed into ___________ in
January 1944.
Slide#31: How did WWII end in Europe?
•
•
Operation Overlord- Allied invasion of ______________________. Also called _________________________.
– Within a month ___________________________ Allied troops were stationed in _________________.
– Germany is __________________________________with the USSR to the east
Germany surrenders in ______________________ after Hitler commits ___________________________.
Slide #32: D-Day Invasion
June 6, 1944: ________________ Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified
___________________________________________ to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches
_____________________, France.
General Dwight D. _________________________called the operation a crusade in which “we will accept nothing
less than full victory.”
More than 5,000 ________________ and 13,000 __________________ supported the D-Day invasion, and by
day’s end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot- hold in Normandy.
The D-Day cost was high -more than ______________________ Soldiers were killed or wounded -- but more
than _____________________________________________________________________________________.
Slide #33: Troop Movement: D-Day
Slide #34-36: Storming the shores of Normandy, France
http://bcove.me/msfc2e1d
Slide #37: Battle of the Bulge
late 1944, after the ____________forces' successful D-Day invasion of Normandy, France, it seemed the Second
World War was all but over.
But on December 16, with the onset of winter, the ___________________________ launched a
counteroffensive to _________________ Allied forces & turn the tide of the war in Hitler's favor.
Allied victory ultimately meant the victory of freedom over tyranny.
http://www.army.mil/botb/slideshow.html
Slide # 38: Significance of the BOB
Never again would Hitler be able to launch an _______________________________________ on such a scale.
British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill stated, "This is undoubtedly the greatest American battle of the war
and will, I believe, be regarded as an ever-famous American victory.”
In terms of participation and losses, the battle of the Bulge is arguably the
___________________________________________________________________________________________
http://www.army.mil/botb/newsreel.html
Slide #39: Allies take Berlin: VE Day
• ___________________ &__________________. surround Germany.
• Question was which _____________________ would take Berlin. Soviets took Berlin in April ____________.
• April 30th 1945 ______________________ commits suicide
• May 7th 1945 _____________________________________________________________.
• May 8th =__________________________________________.
Slide #40: European Victory
• Mussolini was _________________________&_____________________ by Italian partisans and
__________________ committed suicide in April 1945, as the Russian troops took Berlin.
• Fighting in the _____________________ would continue until ______________________________.
Slide #41: Changes in Land Ownership resulting in WWII
How did WWII end in Europe?
• Allies divide _________________________________up between them.
– This helps start the Cold War.
• ______________________________ are held in Germany (and Japan) to try the people responsible for the war.
– Many are executed and jailed for war crimes.
Slide #42: Map of Germany after the War
Ownership of land:
PinkOrangeGreen
Blue
*draw lines to each area so you can use
this to study.
Slide #43: What was the Holocaust?
Nazi plan to kill all __________________.
Why? Hitler’s provided a __________________________________to Germany’s problems
________________________ million Jews murdered in camps in Europe.
________________________ million others (gypsies, mentally ill, homosexuals)
Total of 11 million _________________________________________________________
What is genocide? __________________________________________________________________________
Slide #44: What about the Pacific War?
The US (mostly) fought the _____________________________.
December 7, 1941 Japan bombed _________________________ in__________________ to sink US ships there.
Two hours = most ___________________destroyed and _______________________ sailors killed
Japan surrenders after US drops ____________________ bombs on ______________________ and
______________________________
Slide #45-48: Pictures of Pearl Harbor Attack & Memorial
Slide #49: Major Battles in the Pacific
American Forces halted the Japanese advances in two decisive naval battles.
Coral Sea (May 1942)
• U.S. stopped a fleet convoying Japanese troops to New Guinea
• Japanese designs on Australia ended
+Midway (June 1942)
• Japanese Admiral Yamamoto hoped to capture Midway Island as a
_________________________________________________________________________
• U.S. Admiral Chester Nimitz caught the Japanese by surprise and
______________________________________________________________________________
• American cryptanalysts __________________________________________________________
Slide #50: War in the Pacific
Slide # 51: Battle of Midway:
The Battle of Midway __________________________ naval battle in the _______________during WWII
June 4-7, 1942, (6 months after _____________________ the US Navy defeated an Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN)
attack of Midway Island, inflicting _______________________________________________________________
Military historian John Keegan called it "the most ________________and decisive blow in the history of
______________________warfare.“
Slide #52: Video on the Battle of Midway
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7OBw0r28qC0
Slide 53: Beginning of the end in the Pacific
 Yamamoto is _____________________________by the U.S. (April 1943)
 Loss of Saipan (August 1944)
 “the naval and military heart and brain of Japanese defense strategy”
 Political crisis in Japan
• The government could no longer hide the fact that they were losing the war.
• Tōjō resigns on _____________________________________
 Intensive air raids over _______________________________________
 Iwo Jima (February, 1945)
• American marines _______________this island, which was needed to provide fighter escort for
bombings over ___________________
Slide 54: A Grinding War in the Pacific
 In 1945, the U.S. began ____________________________________ in order to coerce Japan to surrender
 _________________major Japanese cities bombed
 ______________________ civilians killed
 Battle for Leyte Gulf
 Total blockade of _______________
 Japanese navy virtually destroyed
 ______________________________________ (divine wind) flights begin
 Okinawa (April, 1945)
 All ___________________________ Japanese defenders killed
 U.S. invaded this island, which would provide a staging area for the invasion of the
________________________________________________________________________
Slide 55: Turning Points of the War in the Pacific
 August 6, 1945 – Enola Gay drops bomb on __________________________________
 140,000 dead; tens of thousands injured; radiation sickness; 80% of buildings destroyed
 August 9, 1945 – ________________________________________________
 70,000 dead; 60,000 injured
 Emperor ______________________ surrenders on ___________________. (V-J Day)
 Formal surrender signed on September 2 onboard the battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay
Slide #56: Losses of the Major Wartime Powers in WWII, 1939-1945
• Germany
• China
_____million military
_____ million military
_____ million civilian
_____ million civilians
• Japan
________ million military
• USSR
________ civilians
_______ million military
• Italy
_______ million civilians
____________ military
_____________civilian
• Great Britain
______ military
_______civilians
• France
______ military
_____civilian
• United States
_____military
Slide#57: Deaths of Japanese (civilians and soldiers)
Slide #58: Effects of WWII
Creation of the United Nations________________________________________________________________
Nuremburg Trials_________________________________________________________________________
Superpowers:_____________________________________________________________________________
Atomic Age:________________________________________________________________________________
Slide #59: America Creates a “War Machine”
•
The war effort required all of America’s huge ____________________ and full ____________________of the
workforce.
– Government ___________________________ soared.
• U.S. budget increases
– 1940 $_________________________
– 1944 $__________________________
– Expenditures in WWII _____________________________________________________
_____________________________________ (150 years)
– GNP (Gross National Product/or amount of goods sold)
•
1939 $_____________ billion
•
1945 $______________million
Slide #60: Quick Facts:
War Costs
US Debt 1940 - $_____ Billion
US Debt 1945 - $_____ Billion
WWII cost $330 billion – 10 times the cost of WWI & equivalent to all previous federal spending since 1776
Slide # 61: WWII & the Great Depression
• World War II ended the Great Depression.
• Factories run at full capacity
– Ford Motor Company – one bomber plane per hour
• People save money (rationing)
• Army bases in South provide economic boom (most bases in South b/c of climate)
• The national debt grew to $260 billion (6 times its size on Dec. 7, 1941)
Slide # 63Postwar Efforts at Revenge
• The Nuremberg Trials of 1945-46
– After, WWII the Allied powers decided to place on trial the highest-ranking Nazi officers for “crimes
against humanity”
– Allied forces had attempted to do this after WWI, but had released them on the grounds that they
“were just following orders”
– Hitler, Goebbels, and Himmler were dead; but, 22 Nazi leaders (including Goring) were tried at an
international military tribunal at Nuremburg, Germany. 12 were sentenced to death. Similar trials
occurred in the east and throughout the world.
• The Tokyo Trial (1946-48)
Slide # 64: Postwar Efforts at Peace
• The United Nations – There was some hope when, in 1945, the United Nations was created; an organization to
promote international stability
– A General Assembly where representatives from all countries could debate international issues.
– The Security Council had 5 permanent members – U.S., Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China could
veto any question of substance. There were also 6 elected members.
– Key: the U.S. joined in contrast to League of Nations
Slide # 64: Wartime Agreements
• Unlike WWI, there was no Peace of Paris to reshape Europe.
– Instead, the Yalta agreement of February 1945, signed by Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin, turned the
prevailing military balance of power into a political settlement.
– Potsdam Conference, in suburban Berlin (July 1945)—Truman, Stalin, Churchill – Finalized plans on
Germany. Germany would be demilitarized and would remain divided.
Slide # 66: Postwar Reality:
Soviet Control of Eastern Europe
• Europe was politically cut in half; Soviet troops had overrun eastern Europe and penetrated into the heart of
Germany.
• During 1944-1945, Stalin starts shaping the post-war world by occupying SE Europe with Soviet troops that
should have been on the Polish front pushing toward Berlin.
• Roosevelt did not have postwar aims because he still had to fight Japan; Stalin did have postwar aims.
Slide # 67: Map of Post-War Europe
Slide # 68: Postwar Reality
• Consequences of World War II
– Soviet Union with agenda
– Unlike the isolation after WWI, the U.S. was engaged in world affairs
– The triumph of Communists in China
– Decolonization
• The independence of nations from European (U.S. & Japan) colonial powers.