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GCSE ICT 2010
Theory Notes
Unit 1
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Chapter 1: Let’s Communicate
What can your mobile phone do?
Starter Activity
Mobile phones affect every aspect of our daily lives, yet they have only
been around for a very short time (since 1990s when technology became cheap)
what was life like without mobiles?
Do you regard mobiles as “must-have devices”? Why?
Mobile phones
-
originally mobiles phones just made/receive calls
now “smart phones” are available which:
o
are multi-functional
o
are used for purposes that were unimaginable when first launched
 eg taking pictures, using the internet, organizer, etc
o
have advanced features, eg hi-res cameras, Wi-Fi capability
Task 1.2
What do you use your mobile phone for?
Rank in order of which you use most often (where 1 = most often)
-
sending texts
taking pictures
accessing email
-
making calls
setting reminders
Mobile phone features
Task
What common features are available on mobile phones?
-
Touch screen
Camera
Camcorder
Simple messaging System (SMS)
Multimedia messaging System (MMS)
Internet access
Page 2
-
Music
Personal organiser
Roaming service
Games
GPS
WiFi, Bluetooth
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Worksheet 1.1 Mobile phone features & limitations
Feature
Information
Limitation
Standby
time
amount of time you can leave
your phone on before recharging
slim phones have smaller batteries,
which hold less charge
Talk time
amount of time you can talk on
your phone
the more you use the phone, the
quicker the charge runs out
SMS
allows you to send/receive text
messages using the keypad
can only send 160 chars/message
MMS
allows you to send pictures,
video, & sound with text
message restricted to 100KB
Predictive
text
allows some common words to be
entered by a single key-press for
each letter
easy to select/insert the wrong word
Built-in
camera
camera built into phone to take
digital stills or video clips
quality of pictures depends on the
camera resolution (quantity & quality of
(more is charged as multiple messages)
(pictures compressed, so they lose quality)
pics restricted by memory capacity)
3G
gives high-speed internet access
so can stream video & audio
limited/no 3G coverage in some
areas
(video calling, live web streaming)
Video
calling
allows you to stream live calls so
you can speak to & see the
person using the handset
this will only work on some 3G
phones
HSDPA
super-fast 3G which could
overtake 3G
need a HSDPA-compatible phone so
phone upgrade will be required
(High Speed Downlink Packet Access)
Bluetooth
uses radio signals (short-range
wireless signals) to send/receive
data from devices close by (<50m)
will not work if device is out of
range
Handsfree
device
allows you to talk without having
to hold phone in your hand (uses
this is being replaced by Bluetooth
technology, which works without the
use of cables
Music
playback
can store music on the built-in
music files are large, so storage
memory of the phone & listen to it space is quickly used up
on the move
earpiece & microphone)
Page 3
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Feature
Information
Limitation
Wi-Fi
similar to Bluetooth, but range &
total data transferable is greater
need to be in a Wi-Fi area for this to
work
Mobile
Internet
similar to computer internet but
pages appear smaller & with
reduced graphics
usually only available on 3G phones
& only works within signal range;
also limited by screen-size
Memory
card slot
stores 1-8MB multimedia on a
memory card & easily transfers
them to other devices (eg tracks,
not all phones have the same slot
size, so may be difficult to transfer
files.
pictures, video)
Dual/tri/q
uad-band
phones
phones able to pick up different
frequencies so you can use your
phone in different countries
need the correct frequency to use
your phone in a specific country
Roaming
allows you to use a network
abroad to carry on making phone
calls/sending texts
many networks offer national &
international coverage so roaming
charges avoidable (roaming expensive)
Phone
lock
so only a particular provider‟s SIM
card will work in the phone
possible to get phone unlocked so it
is usable over a different network
GPS
calculates your position using
satellites & guides you to your
destination
can use a lot of power, eating into
the charge
Considerations when choosing a phone
-
screen resolution
o
quality & detail that can be shown on the screen
o
the higher the resolution, the better the quality of image displayed
o
measured in pixels (P)
-
camera resolution
o
the detail the camera picks up in one picture
o
the higher the resolution, more detail the camera picks up
o
measured in megapixels (MP)
-
storage capacity
o
internal memory available to store apps & data (eg pictures)
o
measured in gigabytes (GB)
-
memory card
o
secondary storage device to store/backup, copy, transport &
remove files
o
eg SD (upto 2GB) or SDHC (upto 32GB for video) flash memory cards
Page 4
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
-
music/video player
o
different file formats exist depending on compatibility with
computer
 MP3 or WAV for music
 MP4, 3GP or AVI for video
-
connectivity
o
this is the range of peripherals a device can be used with
o
phones must send/receive signals to
 share information with other phones
 connect to the internet
o
connection must be wirelessly via
 Bluetooth protocol
 allows exchange of data over small distances from
fixed/mobile devices
 or Wi-Fi
 allows exchange of data over larger distances
o
to access online email accounts, phone must support
 POP3 protocol
 user must log onto email account
 emails downloaded to phone & removed from ISP server
 or IMAP4 protocol
 copy of email arrives to phone without logging into inbox
 original stays on ISP server from which it is accessed
-
battery
o
battery life (ie energy consumption) dependent on phone activity
o
increasing need for larger mobile phone power
-
network band
o
mobiles in different countries operate on different frequencies
o
so must receive more than one frequency to communicate with
phones from other countries
o
dual, tri or quad band phones available
-
security
o
protecting data stored on phones (via setting a PIN, password protection,
locked SIM card or encrypting data)
Page 5
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Task 1.3
It is common to send images between phones via MMS.
However, if this service is not available, discuss the different ways of sending
a picture from your phone A to all your friends‟ phones using only the features
specified in the table below (Think about the features each phone has in common)
Feature
Mobile
A
Mobile
B
Mobile
C
Mobile
D
Mobile
E
Mobile
F
Bluetooth






Memory Card






Internet
access






Infrared






USB Port






Mobile Feature used to transfer picture
phone
A to B
Bluetooth
- with both phones in close proximity
B to C
Infrared
- no longer found on modern mobile phones
C to D
Internet access
- C can upload pic to a website & D can download it
- it could be sent as an email attachment
D to E
USB connection
- both phones need to be connected to the computer
for the file transfer to occur
- D can download pic to the computer & E can connect
later to download to phone
E to F
Memory card
- switch the cards (if compatible)
- download pic & transfer the file
Page 6
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Task 1.5
Rank these activities in order of energy consumption from those that use
the most energy to those that use the least.
-
surfing the internet (3)
watching internet TV (1)
talking to friends (5)
sending text messages (6)
taking photos (4)
using the calculator to keep tabs on finances
using the GPS when meeting friends (2)
Energy Consumption
Feature
Watching internet TV
-
GPS (with sat nav)
Surfing the internet
(7)
-
uses screen display to show
frequently changing images
likely to have sound on to hear
programme
receives signals all the time
image displayed on screen needs to
be updated constantly
sound allows user to hear directions
uses display screen which needs to
refresh to display the web page
pages with multimedia use more
power
Taking pictures
-
uses the screen, but not constantly
powerful flash will affect energy
consumption
Talking to friends
-
uses microwave signals which
consumes a lot of energy
(That is why a mobile phone warms up
when it is being used)
Sending text messages
-
uses screen, but consumes less
energy
Using calculator
-
uses screen, but consumes less
energy
Page 7
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Mobile phone design
-
mobile phones have a range of uses
the exact design & user interface
o
depends on the requirements of users
o
tailored to the mass market
Starter Activity
Think about the features that mobile phones of the future might include.
Possible mobile phone features in the future:
- Will phones get smaller?
- Will more technologies be integrated into phones forcing them to be larger?
- Are mobile devices becoming so saturated with integrated technology that
different products have to be created as a result?
(eg ebook reader, iPad)
Find out about new features being developed & the impact these may have on
different types of mobile phone users.
New
-
features being developed & the impact of these:
GPS = gives people the confidence to get out & about more
MP3 = allows people to listen to & share music
Cameras = allow people to capture the moment & share it with others
Applications = allow people to use their mobile phones in different ways
Fashion phones
-
typical design
o
different shapes
o
bright colours
o
changing fascias (ie covers)
o
appealing to the fashion-conscious
-
common features
o
high-spec camera
o
large data storage capacity (for pics, music)
o
speakers
o
larger battery (due to larger energy consumption)
Page 8
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Business phones
-
typical design
o
slim & sleek
o
usually black or metallic
o
large screen to work on
o
full, integrated QWERTY keyboard
-
common features
o
speaker phone
o
voice-activated dialling
o
GPS
o
personal organizer
o
3G compatibility for internet access
Multi-functional phones
-
these combine BOTH style & business features
appeals to mass market rather than a niche
combines best (or most used) of both worlds
o
high-spec features (eg high-res camera)
o
large amounts of storage
o
high speed processing
o
slim design
o
touch screen
o
access to internet
Phone for elderly/disabled
-
due to unwillingness or physical/mental inability to be tech-savvy
o
simple/easy operation, even for beginners
o
clear/large screen (high res)
o
big/easy-to-use buttons on keypad
o
basic apps already installed
o
MP3 for access to online books/news
o
panic button with GPS (to locate in case of fall/accident)
o
good/easy navigation
o
good speaker capacity
o
lightweight/ergonomic
Page 9
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Dangers of using mobile phones
-
health concerns
o
RSI from too much texting
o
overall long-term ill effects for under-16s unclear
-
social & environmental concerns
o
overuse of text speak can affect grammar, spelling & punctuation
o
using phones in quiet places (eg restaurants, buses, etc)
o
need consent to upload pictures of others in the public domain
o
unsuitable content on the internet
-
eco concerns
o
hazardous substances in & from phones
o
energy consumption
o
disposal of old phones
-
crime-related concerns
o
target of bullies & thieves
 so use keypad PIN lock
 report stolen phones to the network provider to block it
o
sending malicious messages/prank calling (which is harassment)
 report it to school/parents/police
o
talking/texting without a hands-free kit while driving a car
-
costs
o
o
o
o
phones can be expensive
easy to make too many calls if phone always with you
accidental emergency calls on touch phones
data very expensive
Which kind of computer?
Types of Computers
-
-
desktop
o
bulky
o
wired connection
o
designed for regular use in one location
o
more capacity (disk space, memory, etc)
o
more reliable
portable
o
transportable
o
more flexible
the type of computer chosen depends on its use
Page
10
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Worksheet 1.4 Desktop or Portable?
Which of these statements refers to desktop or portable computers?
Add a + or – depending on whether each is a positive or negative attribute.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Good for disabled people to carry around as a communications tool. (P+)
Bigger monitors can double up as TV screens. (D+)
Can have powerful components that use a lot of power. (D+)
There are lots more cables & wires to deal with. (D+)
They are more likely to get stolen. (P+)
They are prone to damage, eg thin screens. (P+)
Can be made into a desktop by attaching external mouse & keyboard. (P+)
Suited to people on the move. (P+)
More powerful. (D+)
The keyboard is more comfortable to use, with keys better spaced out. (D+)
They are less likely to get stolen. (D+)
They are more likely to have ergonomic devices attached or around it. (D+)
To transfer files, first save them to CD-R & move disk rather than computer. (D+)
They often run on batteries which need recharging. (P+)
They can run off a battery in situations where electricity is unavailable. (P+)
You can store files to the HDD & take the whole device with you. (P+)
Parents can easily see what their children are doing on the computer. (D+)
They are big & bulky. (D+)
Not easy to upgrade as components are compacted into device. (P+)
They are more expensive for the same specification. (P+)
Types of Portable Computers
Laptop
-
same functions as a desktop but designed to fit on the lap
light enough to be carried around
smaller size means limited space
Notebook
-
similar functions to a laptop but smaller in size
Netbook
-
similar size to notebook
designed mainly for wireless communication via internet
usually cheaper
Page
11
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
-
lower specification compared to laptops/notebooks
o
no HDD
o
very low memory
o
mostly used with flash drive
-
increasingly comes with solid state memory (ie no moving parts)
o
less risk of damage
o
more reliability
o
help conserves battery power
Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
-
small enough to hold in palm
allows data to be exchanged with computers via internet
contains
o
address book
o
note-making features
o
telephone
o
internet facilities
Task 1.11 and 1.14
Would a desktop or portable computer be most suitable for these users? Why?
User
Computer
Teachers
Laptop
- they may need to go from class to class &
- they work from home
News reporters
Notebook/Netbook
- need a small, powerful, compact computer
- allows them to report on the move
- laptop too bulky/heavy for many situations
- netbook easier if they use online apps/files
GPs in a surgery
Desktop
- mostly sat at desk in same room
o access patient‟s record on the database
o to diagnose illness using specialist software
Traffic wardens
PDA
- require a small device for working on the move
- connected to central server via internet
Website
designers
Desktop
- need powerful computer with high processing speed
- Apple Mac preferred (it was developed with design in mind)
Page
12
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Parts of a computer
-
CPU
performs all the calculating
o
contains
 arithmetic & logic unit
 immediate access store
 control unit
Memory
o
random access memory (RAM)
 temporary
 volatile
 data lost if not saved to HDD
o
read-only memory (ROM)
 permanent
 non-volatile
 holds boot-up instructions
HDD
o
primary storage
o
stores data permanently
o
-
-
Wireless enabled
o
allows the device to pick up a wireless signal
o
enables connection to
 a network
 other devices
 the internet
-
USB flash drive
o
secondary storage
o
external device
o
most common method of connecting devices to a computer
-
Sound/graphics card
o
connects to main motherboard
o
used to play/record sound/graphics
-
Optical drive
o
secondary storage
o
reads data on CD/DVD using lasers
Page
13
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Task 1.12
Select the computer features that would be most important for the users listed:
User
Computer features
Person A
Hard drive size
- music/video files require lots of storage space
Sound and graphics cards
- for high quality listening/watching
Person B
Graphics card
- quality of graphics adds to “realness” of game
CPU speed
- the faster the processor, the better the game play will be
Screen size
- a large screen provides a better gaming experience
Person C
WiFi enabled
- allows the user to connect to the Internet
Bluetooth
- allows the user to add devices without wires
Person D
CPU speed
- a fast CPU can run powerful programs more quickly
Memory (RAM)
- the more RAM, the more programs can be open
Person E
Optical drive
- to burn CDs/DVDs
Memory (RAM)
- more RAM to work on & edit videos
(video requires a lot of memory)
Peripherals
-
input devices
o
to enter new information into computer to process
o
eg keyboard, mouse, scanner
-
output devices
o
to view/hear information after it has been processed
o
eg monitor, printer, speaker
-
storage devices
o
to store data to be accessed by computer
o
eg HDD, CD-R, flash memory drives/cards
Page
14
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
eTask 1.13
Sort the peripherals according to input, output or storage devices.
Input
mouse, keyboard, scanner, microphone
Output
laser printer, monitor, speakers, projector, inkjet printer
Storage
CD-R, memory card, DVD-R, USB memory pen, hard drive
Conserving computer power
-
cut back on playing games, music, DVDs, etc
run CD/DVD files from the HDD not optical drive
turn off Wi-Fi/Bluetooth when not being used
use earphones rather than speakers
reduce screen brightness
set power options to switch off any inactive devices
Socialising on the internet
Starter Activity
List all the different ways to keep in touch with family & friends.
Which ways are best for which types of communication?
Method
Reasons
Instant Messaging
- cheaper way of keeping in touch with friends
- useful for transmitting info quickly & getting
reply from work colleagues in real time
VoIP
- cheap long-distance calls, esp when abroad
Social Networking
- creates closer connection with distant
family/friends
- share your thoughts/ideas with them
- customize with pictures, video, audio
- status updates express what you are up to
Uploading pics/video to
the internet
- set up online photo album (eg holiday pics)
- excellent way to distribute promotional
material for businesses
Contributing to blogs
- share experiences (eg travel blog)
- comment on issues
- share hobbies
Page
15
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Instant Messaging
-
virtual conversation (ie not face-to-face) with people
typing & receiving messages
advantages
o
in real-time
o
user‟s decision to engage or not
o
possible with portable devices (eg mobile phones)
-
disadvantages
o
requires internet access
o
slow internet connection delays real-time conversation (latency)
o
less actual face-to-face conversation
o
lacks emotion (hence emoticons created)
o
text speak can affect language skills
Voice over internet protocol (VoIP)
-
similar to IM but uses sound (like phone call)
requires headset/speakers & microphone
requires webcam for optional video streaming
advantages
o
no additional call charges
o
can be used from anywhere in the world
-
disadvantages
o
requires internet access via
 mobiles with 3G connection
 landline phones using internet router
o
slow internet connection delays real-time transmission (latency)
o
less actual face-to-face conversation
o
some providers may charge membership fee
Social Networking
-
communicating with large numbers of people
-
includes chat, email, video, voice, file sharing & discussion groups
allows people to
o
share interests
o
connect with friends, family, & colleagues
allows customisation via photos, links, formatting & blogs
possible to control who can view uploaded photos by
o
setting access rights
o
using privacy settings
o
creating guest accounts
Page
16
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Task 1.16
Are these statements about social networking an advantage or a disadvantage
Advantages of social
networking
stay in contact with friends (2)
Disadvantages of social networking
may accidently leave profile exposed for
strangers to access (1)
search for new & old friends (5)
too much profile info available to people
you hardly know (3)
join groups of people with similar
likes & dislikes (6)
addictive (7)
personalised space to upload
pictures, videos & blogs (9)
used by predators to access children (8)
learn about people from around the vulnerable to identify theft (10)
world (11)
targeted with personalised
used in cyber-bullying to spread nasty
advertising (using personal details) (4) rumours (12)
Staying safe on social networking sites
Task 1.18
Staying safe on social networking sites
What to do
Why?
Use profile picture that doesn‟t show
you clearly
- profile picture is available for everyone to
see
Change account settings so your
profile & personal details are not
available to everyone
- Prevents strangers from learning too
much about but friends allowed
Ask friends‟ permission before adding
their photos
- any photos you upload can be seen or
copied by anyone
Watermark photos
- will deter people from copying them
Never put up a rude/offensive picture
- could be seen as cyber-bullying & could
even be illegal
Don‟t put personal information online
but if you do keep it brief
- your profile could be hacked into & info
could fall into the wrong hands
Page
17
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Task 1.17
Look at the following scenarios and think about what method of Internet
communication would be best for each. Justify your choices.
Scenario
Method of communication
Parents on holiday in
Australia want to keep
in contact with their
son at home in the UK
VoIP
A group of friends are
arranging a party for
another friend
IM/VoIP & social networking
- use IM without the friend knowing
appearing offline to that friend while they
plan party
- with social networking, messages might be
visible to the friend unless they use the
email service provided within the site
A young man with a
speech impairment
wants to keep in
contact with friends
Social networking or IM
- VoIP inappropriate because of user‟s
speech impairment, which might become
worsen by interference and latency on the
line
Members of an art
group want to share
pictures/info with each
other
Social networking
- they can set up a group and share pictures
within it
A young woman
travelling the world
wants to tell people
about her experiences
Blog or Social networking
- followers can read her travels (like an
online diary) & then comment on it
- Social networking could be an option
A group of computer
novices want to set up
an online computer
class
Social networking
- because it is easy to set up groups, add
help videos, share resources, links and
experiences
-
son is unlikely to have added parents to his
IM account/social networking site
due to time difference they may prefer to
use email to avoid phone calls in the
middle of the night
Page
18
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
The internet as a work tool
Email
-
popular interactive communication method
instant reply not necessary
sending messages over the internet via
o
computers or
o
devices using mobile 3G network
uses one of 2 protocols:
o
POP3
o
IMAP4
Task 1.21
Write a brief description of the differences between IMAP4 & POP3 email protocols.
POP3
- user access email by logging onto email account
- email downloaded to computer/phone & removed from the ISP server
IMAP4
- email comes straight to chosen device (eg phone) without loging into account
- email stays on ISP server (from which it is accessed)
-
-
advantages
o
can send/receive emails quickly anywhere in the world
o
can address lots of recipients at the same time
o
free (although hidden costs like ISP rental, etc)
o
saves paper
disadvantages
o
email attachments can contain viruses & malware
o
can receive spam & phishing emails
o
accounts can be hacked into & personal info stolen
o
less social contact/interaction with people
Starter Activity
How can technology help & hinder learning?
Help
Hinder
for research purposes
electronic resources enhance learning
able to present work better
multimedia makes the experience
more enjoyable
- interactive whiteboards have
revolutionised classroom teaching
- becoming too reliant on
computer
- high electricity consumption
- not everyone has equal
access to technology
-
Page
19
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs)
-
an online learning platform
advantages
o
all-in-one interactive learning environment
o
students have their own (personalised) space
o
individual or group work possible
o
homework can be accessed/submitted online
o
quizzes/feedback instant & recorded for future
o
parents can access students progress (eg work, behaviour, results, etc)
Wikis
-
user-generated websites
collaborative effort as not managed by single person or body
people add their own content & edit it
advantages
o
updated all the time, so remains current
o
accessed all over the world
o
changes can be tracked
o
copyright laws don‟t generally apply
-
disadvantages
o
content can be inaccurate, untrue or biased
o
internet required
Task
Why must you be careful when using information found on a wiki?
-
A wiki is developed over time
by people adding their own contributions
anyone can add info without it being checked
the info may be biased or one-sided (ie not correct)
incorrect/outdated info may not have been removed
User forums
-
can be general or specialised
users have open online discussions in the form of posted messages
uses
o
get answers for specific questions
o
get a range of responses/advice
o
get people‟s opinions
o
share your views/ideas with other people
o
get to know other people with similar interests
o
work collaboratively with others
Page
20
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
News websites
-
set up a RSS feed which
o
regularly searches for latest/live news
o
once found, live info streams in as it happens (ie live updates)
also search archives for old but relevant news
Podcasts
-
-
can be created & uploaded onto
o
websites
o
blogs
o
social network sites
others then download them & watch/listen at their convenience
Task 1.22
Decide if each situation below is an example of legal or illegal behaviour.
(Does it infringe the Copyright, Designs and Patent Act 1998?)
You copy a music CD Illegal
bought from a shop &
- you can copy a CD purchased for your own use
give it to a friend
- you must not distribute it to anyone else
You copy a music CD Illegal
bought from a shop &
- you can copy a CD purchased for your own use
sell it
- you must not sell it to anyone else
- music companies cannot financially support artist
You buy software
intended for one
computer & put it on
to other computers
Illegal
- software normally licensed to one computer
- additional licenses must be purchased
- diverts money from companies making software
You download music
but do not pay for it
Illegal
- not paying money from artists/ record companies
- using P2P networks to share copyright music is
illegal (legal to share music you have produced yourself)
You make your own
picture to add to your
work
Legal
- you are the owner of the picture
- you can add it to your work
- if others use it, they must ask permission
You copy images
from the internet to
add to your work
Legal
- you need to check that image or website is not ©
Rules
for
You put
© using
imagesthe Internet
Illegal
- your
researching
the internet
for tooprotected
long can cause
into
work
- image
by © problems such as
stressoffrom information
overload
includingo details
- it cannot
be used without owner‟s permission
the source
this
breaks
© law
(© holder
o
physical problems like back strain
& eye
straincould take legal action)
Page
21
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
-
info on the internet can be biased, exaggerated or simply untrue
-
copyright work © must not be reproduced without permission of holder
someone‟s work cannot be copied & passed off as another‟s (ie plagiarism)
always name your internet source
o
it shows you have done your research
o
it can help demonstrate certain points or support an argument
o
it allows others to see where the piece of work has come from
o
you get credit for the work produced (rather than accused of plagiarism)
(always try to cross-check info using another source)
Internet safety
Starter Activity
What problems have you had when using the Internet? Viruses, Spam, Pop-ups ...
Viruses
-
programs sent without the permission or knowledge of user
cause other programs to stop working correctly
damage computer memory or settings
transferred through
o
accessing certain websites
o
opening infected emails
o
using infected devices
o
downloading corrupted attachments
-
precautions
o
installing anti-virus software
o
updating anti-virus software
o
beware of email attachments
o
only download what you are sure about
o
scan CDs, DVDs & USBs
o
make regular backups
o
don‟t use pirated software
Task 1.23
Write a list of guidelines for Ruby to help protect her computer from viruses.
-
Install anti-virus software, run it on a regular basis & update regularly
Do not open attachments that look suspicious or if sender is unfamiliar
Do not download material that is suspicious or from an unreputable source
When inserting CDs/DVDs/USBs, scan them first
Pirated software may be infected with viruses & violates the © Act
Back-up your work in case viruses infect your files
Page
22
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Spyware
-
-
program installed without permission through:
o
a virus
o
another installed program
“spies” on your computer data/usage
reports back to another source
info collected could be
o
websites visited
o
keystrokes (for accounts or passwords)
o
downloads
info gathered for
o
marketing purposes (eg shopping habits)
o
illegal purposes (eg fraud)
precautions
o
anti-spyware software (often included with anti-virus software)
o
avoid free software on the internet which may contain spyware
Cookies
-
small text files placed on your HDD which store info related to your
o
online shopping &
o
browsing history
-
report findings to the website server
eg a cookie
o
saves your customised webpage for future access
o
stores your encrypted login so it “recognizes” you next time
o
“remembers” your orders/browsing history
-
precautions
o
regularly delete temporary internet files
o
set internet settings not to accept cookies from all sites
Spam
-
all unwanted email (eg chain mail)
precautions
o
set filters to block unwanted mail from inbox
o
alert your email provider to spam email
o
don‟t disclose your email where people can add it to a mailing list
o
don‟t agree to your details being passed on to third parties
Phishing
-
sending a link via email, which looks authentic but is fake
-
to trick you into entering sensitive personal details like account#/PIN
(often resembling an email from your bank)
Page
23
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Hackers
-
gain unauthorised access to a computer to steal info for malicious reason
precautions
o
install a firewall to block unauthorised users
o
constantly update firewall software
o
do not leave an unattended computer logged on
o
set up access rights to vulnerable areas of your computer
(ie logins with passwords)
Identity theft
-
a person pretending to be someone else to steal money (or other benefits)
this is especially easy through profiles on social networking sites
precautions
o
install a firewall to block unauthorised access
o
protect personal information with encryption
o
shred unwanted printed documents showing personal details
o
use software that writes over deleted files many times
(so old files cannot be recovered)
Task 1.25 (and eTask 1.24)
Ruby wants to install all the protection she needs for the contents of her new
laptop. What would you recommend? Give reasons for your choices.
Protection
Reason
Anti-virus software
To stop viruses
Anti-spyware
software
To stop (data-mining) software from collecting &
sending details about you to fraudsters or
marketing companies
File cleaner
To get rid of temporary internet files & cookies
that may hold personal information & could be
used by hackers
Firewall software
To stop unauthorised people from accessing
your computer
Security updates
Software loopholes can make the computer
unsecure – installing updates can prevent
security being breached
Internet protection
software/filters
Protects children from accessing unsuitable
content
Pop-up blocker
Prevents pop-ups which can be inappropriate
(or annoying)
Page
24
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
The Digital Divide
Starter Activity
Think about the technology you have at home - digital TV, internet, etc.
What factors influence people‟s decisions to buy products/services?
Is everyone is able to get these services/products?
-
financial constraints
o when products are newly released they have a high price
o the general economic climate also affects what people buy
personal preferences
peer pressure
What is the digital divide?
-
gap between those who do & don‟t have access to latest digital
technology
reasons for lack of access
o
low income
 money an issue
 essentials like food, clothing take priority
o
rural areas
 low population
 less infrastructure
 not cost-effective for technology providing companies
o
weak literacy skills
 cannot read about/understand current technology available
o
disability
 physically/mentally unable to operate technological devices
 may need specially-adapted equipment (eg TV w/subtitles)
o
ethnic minority
 may not want or understand new products/services available
o
elderly
 may believe new technology is too advanced/difficult to learn
Page
25
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Economic implications
-
beneficial
o
technological knowledge & skills means better paid jobs
o
online shopping means
 wider range of products & services accessible
 cheaper deals, discounts
 home delivery
o
online banking
 from comfort of home
 more accessible to disabled/elderly
o
rise in globalisation & e-commerce
-
detrimental
o
less well off cannot always afford computer start-up costs
o
keeping up with current technology can lead to debt
o
countries with poor technological capability fall behind more
technological ones
Educational implications
-
beneficial
o
learners become independent & excel in education
o
more personalised learning in schools via VLEs
o
online educational resources supplement learning
o
access to online qualifications to improve skills
-
detrimental
o
low ICT skills exclude people from particular jobs
Social implications
-
detrimental
o
can feel left out without up-to-date technology
o
lack of access to online communication (eg email) can affect social
interaction
Task 1.28 - Homework
Suggest ways in which people can be helped (& can help themselves) to
have greater access to technology.
Page
26
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Chapter 2: On the Move
Planning a Trip
Starter Activity
What do you need to consider?
-
Plan route
o
use GPS, Google maps to plan route
o
find total travel time
-
Plan travel methods
o
decide best mode of transport
 ferry, rail, coach, combinations
o
find individual travel times & lengths for each leg of the journey
 there should be minimal waiting time between travel legs
o
calculate cost of each travel leg
-
Accommodation
o
must be cheap (on student‟s budget)
 eg , NOT hotel, maybe B&B
o
should be frequented by others of same age/interests
 eg hostels for backpackers
o
must be clean & safe
o
should be within walking distance to most sights & (cheap) food
 also easy to nip back for rest & provisions
o
close to travel links for farther excursions
-
Bookings
o
tickets
 trains from home to interail, interail passes, etc
o
accommodation
-
Sightseeing
o
places to visit
o
location & proximity of places (to plan days accordingly)
Communication
o
with friends/family back home
 pictures
 email, SN site/blog, online album, MMS
 calls
 mobiles, VoIP
messages (to plan a trip)
Using Search Engines
 SMS, travel blog, SN site
-
Page
27
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
eTask 2.2
Consider whether Satya & Simon can do all their holiday preparations
online or whether they will need to do some of them in person.
Online
-
In person
Buy InterRail passes
Research hostels
Book tickets to Paris
Plan route through Europe
-
Buy clothes for trip
Get Euros for trip
Sign passport application form
Try out and buy rucksacks
What a search engine does
-
searches the World Wide Web
using keywords
to search & retrieve links (webpages) that are the best match to criteria
entered
a browser is different to a search engine
o
it views & navigates pages on the web
How search engines are organised
-
results are displayed in order of descending keyword “hits”
enter strong keywords to get the most relevant hits on the first page
Avoiding information overload
-
a poorly-structured search may result in a very large number of hits
good search techniques will
o
find the most relevant information
o
limit the number of hits from a search
-
ways of effectively refining searches (ie advanced search)
o
eliminating non-essential words
o
advanced search using
 AND
 OR
 NOT
 the – sign (to remove a word you don‟t want included)
o
using speech marks to identify exact whole phrases required
Page
28
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Skills Builder 2.3
What keywords/search should be entered to find an appropriate
hostel in Paris?
Keywords = hostel + Paris + ??
Search =
Which one would you recommend? Why?
- Within walking distance of Eiffel Tower, positive & reliable
visitor reviews,
NB: Use Google Maps/Google Earth to “see” hostel
Criteria for evaluating info – Fact or Opinion?
-
how can you identify statements as fact or opinion?
-
an opinion can often be presented as a fact
o
advertising/commercials, eg “Sure doedarant will keep you dry”
-
a debatable fact often includes safety clauses such as “possibly/probably”
o
eg “Italy is possibly the most attractive country in Europe”
-
use of conditionals (could, might, would) always indicate an opinion
o
eg “solar power could be the answer to national power shortages”
facts ar eoften communicated as simple statements
o
eg “the Atlantic Ocean lies between the UK & USA”
Criteria for considering reliability of info
-
most reliable websites can often be identified by their web address
however many websites on the internet are
o
inaccurate
o
out of date
o
biased
 information has been prejudiced by someone‟s opinion
 this is NOT fact & can be unreliable
-
most reliable websites
o
have the following extensions
 .edu, .gov, .org, .com
o
have a simple/clean design
o
have content that isn‟t confusing, contradictory or biased
 it‟s good to cross-reference website content
o
have links that aren‟t outdated/obsolete
Page
29
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Criteria for considering validity of info
you must to take into account the context in which the info is provided
is the info there to advertise, publicise, entertain, or to inform?
info must be both accurate (fact) & reliable if it is going to be considered
valid for any investigation
-
Good sources of information
primary sources
o
a first-hand account of events/experiences
user reviews/comments regarding a product/service
traveller blogs to the same/similar destinations
-
Biometrics
an automated method of recognizing a person via
o
fingerprint scanner
o
voice recognition
o
iris recognition
o
face symmetry recognition
-
Task
Give examples of biometrics being used in society today.
-
fingerprint scanners are used in schools to allow pupils to buy meals
RFID chips in passports store/use facial symmetry to identify travellers
What are the advantages & disadvantages of using biometrics?
-
Advantages
o
near impossible to duplicate another person‟s voice/fingerprint
o
cannot be lost or stolen (like a password)
-
Disadvantages
o
an authorized person can be denied access (due to cut/sweat)
o
can be time-consuming (eg fingerprint scanner)
o
manually repositioning fingers to get the right reading
Task 2.3
What search should be entered to find info about applying for a passport?
- Keywords = passport + information
Which site is NOT the official passport website? Why?
- reasons: address extension, premium call rates,
Page
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Keeping in touch
Starter Activity Task 2.5
What ways can we keep in touch when travelling?
Calling
Sending Messages
Sending Photos
Mobile calls
VoIP calls
SMS
Emails
Social networking sites
Blogs
MMS
Attaching to an email
Upload to online photo album
Upload to social network sites
Upload to blogs
What digital devices can we take on holiday to stay in touch?
- Mobile phone/smart phone, digital camera/camcorder, laptop/netbook
Digital cameras/camcorders
-
records images electronically on a memory card
typically 4-12MP
often capable of taking short video clips with sound
advantages
o
no film needed/no developing costs
o
images immediately viewable
o
unwanted images can be deleted
o
images can be edited, enlarged or enhanced
o
images can be included in documents or uploaded to websites
o
memory cards can store extra images
o
digital images can be geo tagged
 exact geographical co-ordinates can be attached to them
 giving the location of where photo was taken
 eg using Google Earth
o
called metadata
 date/time/speed/camera type can be embedded into each
digital image
 with GPS even location can be embedded
-
disadvantages
o
more expensive than ordinary cameras
o
images often compressed to avoid using too much memory
o
when memory full, images must be uploaded/deleted
Page
31
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Task 2.6
Compare taking photos with digital cameras & mobile phone cameras.
Which would you recommend taking on holiday? Why?
Feature
Digital Cameras
Mobile phones
Quality of images
Dedicated camera
Too many features
compacted into one device
Storage capacity
All storage dedicated to
storing photos
Storage is used by all
features, not just camera
Close-up & wideangle images
More suited to these
features
Usually fixed lens
Geotagging
Not available
If GPS available
Features of Netbooks
eTask 2.7
Features of a netbook which make it suitable for travellers
Useful for everyone
Microphone
Especially useful for travellers
Lightweight & compact
Speakers
Robust
Clear bright screen
Fast boot-up times
Keyboard
Long battery life
USB ports
WiFi enabled
Solid state hard drive without disks
(so less damage likely)
Task 2.8
What ways can a netbook be used for communicating?
- sending emails
- creating/updating a blog
- using social networking sites
- attaching photos to an email
- uploading photos to a blog, online album or social networking site
- VoIP calls
Page
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Main methods of transferring photos
(see comparative table below)
-
bluetooth
o
devices must be geographically close
o
comparatively slow
o
max transfer rate of 1Mb (NOT Megabytes)
-
USB cable
o
takes up space
o
can be lost
o
transfer rate of 480 Mb (NOT Megabytes)
-
memory card
o
simplest
o
fastest
o
quickest for transferring photos
o
transfer rate of 15-45 MB
Task 2.9
What are the three main methods of transferring photos?
Feature
Mobile phone
Digital camera
Bluetooth
Almost all use bluetooth protocol
Cannot use bluetooth
USB cables
Some have USB port
Most come with USB lead
Memory cards
All use flash memory cards
All use flash memory cards
How can we connect?
Starter Activity
How can you stay in touch from abroad with a mobile phone?
-
using mobile phone “roaming” facilities
o
enables using a mobile outside of its original registering zone
o
enables calling & texting
o
very costly
What about with a netbook?
-
connecting via the internet
o
enables many different types of communication
o
usually free (or very cheap)
Page
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Connecting to the internet
-
-
by cable
o
extremely fast
o
always connected
o
requires socket to plug in
wirelessly (Wi-Fi)
What is a Cybercafé?
-
a cafe which has computers dedicated to the internet (via cable)
users share these computers at a charge
security precautions are necessary (because of so many users)
Task 2.11
What extra security precautions should be taken when using a cybercafé?
- delete all temporary files after use (ie in “Temporary Internet Files/cache”)
- delete any stored passwords after use
- delete all cookies
- delete anything copied to the computer from a memory card/stick
- log out from your email account
- set email software to “do not remember password”
- do not access sensitive info (eg bank accounts) in case of spyware
What is a wireless hotspot?
-
a place where you can use a Wi-Fi connection to the internet
often unsecure
available mostly in hotels, restaurants & cafe chains
Online photo albums
Task 2.14
An online album is a digital collection of photos stored online.
What are the advantages of these?
- available free
- user can create different albums for different people
- user can add description to photos & friends can add comments
- user can choose who can copy & download them
- easy to organize photos into groups, tag them & then upload them
- quick & easy to transfer photos to/from other devices
- safer than leaving photos on a memory card (eg damage/theft)
- can order physical prints online (to arrive in the post)
Page
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Using cloud computing
-
this is when computer programs & data are all stored on a central server
to access these programs/data , you only require
o
access to the internet
o
an input device
eTask 2.15
What are the advantages & disadvantages of cloud computing?
Advantages
-
Disadvantages
No need to buy/upgrade software
No need for large storage devices
Can access documents anywhere
Can work collaboratively
No need for USB memory stick
-
Internet may be inaccessible
Slower to load documents
Someone else has your data
The firm may close down
Easy for data to be damaged/stolen
Finding the Way
What is GPS?
Starter Activity
Think of all the uses of GPS for people who find themselves in unfamiliar places:
- can pinpoint exact location
- find directions to desired location
- find distance to desired location
- find landmarks (eg train stations) or services (eg police stations)
-
a satellite navigation system
based on 24 satellites in orbit of Earth
they transmit signal info to Earth
the GPS receiver
o
compares the time a signal is transmitted & received by a satellite
o
this is repeated using at least 3 different satellites
o
upto 3 satellites gives the 2D position of user (longitude/latitude)
o
4 or more gives a 3D position (longitude/latitude/altitude)
o
other info (eg speed/distance to destination) can be calculated from this
-
this position is then displayed on a sat nav map in real-time
can be converged with other devices (eg digital cameras, mobile phones)
Page
35
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
-
exact uses
o
can pinpoint an exact location
o
can find directions from current location to desired location
o
can calculate distance from current location to desired location
o
can calculate ETA to desired location
o
can find landmarks or services (eg train stations)
o
allows you to attach images to a map
o
can be driver-oriented or pedestrian-oriented
-
used in
o
sat navs
o
geo caching
o
GPS/geo tagging
o
GPS tracking
Satellite Navigation
-
a device that displays the user‟s position
Task 2.17
What features would a sat nav have for travelling on foot around European cities?
-
gives directions to desired location
-
light & sturdy
has street maps of all relevant cities
-
shows POI & tourist sights
has a high capacity battery
-
has a sunlight readable screen
(for all day use)
Convergence
-
when one device is developed to carry out functions originally performed
by other devices
-
eg mobile phone
o
primary function is to make voice calls
o
but also takes photos, plays music, streams video & surfs the net
o
with GPS technology, a digital image can be geo tagged with
metadata
Geo caching
-
a global, high-tech treasure hunting game
uses GPS to find hidden containers
Page
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
GPS tracking system
-
used to constantly track location of individual/vehicle
advantages
o
can be a safety measure to track missing children/goods
o
can track someone who is abducted or in an accident
o
protection against the dangers of backpacking
o
peace of mind for family/friends
-
disadvantages
o
can violate an individual‟s privacy (eg tagging individuals)
GPS delivery tracking system
-
often used to increase efficiency of firms with many delivery vans
difficult to keep track of each van‟s location all the time
each vehicle fitted with GPS & modem
each van‟s location is constantly sent to firm‟s computer system
(via mobile phone network)
Task 2.20
State the advantages & disadvantages of a delivery firm using GPS tracking?
Advantages
o more efficient
 can make extra
pickups/drop-offs along
existing route
 no time wasting during
lunch/breaks
 can communicate with
office if necessary
 will save firm time &
money (securing jobs)
Disadvantages
o can be construed as spying on
drivers
o vans already have sat nav (ie
directions & avoiding traffic already
managed)
o could affect driver safety
 more pressure to make deliveries
on time
 driver may
 drive too quickly
 skip breaks & become tired
Geo tagging
-
associating a geographic location with an item such as a photo
phones with both camera & GPS can
o
record the precise location a photo was taken at
o
automatically embed this info into the photo file
-
online photo services can read this data & display a map showing where
a particular photo was taken
Page
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Digital devices for travelling
Functionality of smart phones versus netbooks
Function
Smart phone
Netbook
Voice messages

 If VoIP installed
SMS for text messages

MMS for Multimedia texts

 (software available)
to send text messages
to mobiles

Video calls

 Can use free video
conferencing software,
e.g. MSN or Skype
Digital camera

Record video

 May have a webcam
at top of screen

Mobile TV


Mobile radio


Most have this facility

Bluetooth


Wi-Fi


Access the Internet


Send & receive emails


Social networking


Music player


Video player


Touch screen


Small
Large & functional
 Usually small mobile
versions

Calendar


Contact list


Games software


Data storage


GPS with sat nav
Qwerty keyboard
Applications (eg calculator
or spreadsheet)
Page
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Good features of smart phones & netbooks
Digital camera & netbook
Smart phone
Each device specialised for its task
Light/compact/easy to carry
Larger keyboard
Multifunctional - only need one item
Larger screen (easier to read)
Can send SMS messages
More data storage
Can send MMS messages
Can watch films together
Has GPS built in
Better quality photos
Page
39
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Chapter 3: Entertain Me – What to Buy?
Setting up a multimedia system
Starter Activity
Make a list of all the devices that Jamie could use to watch films, listen
to music & play games.
Possibilities - media players, laptops, HDTVs, games consoles, Blu-ray,
DVDs, MP3 players, etc.
Digital devices for relaxing/socialising
-
watching films
o
DVDs
o
Blu-ray
 disk that enables recording, rewriting & playback of HD video
o
HDTVs
-
listening to music
o
MP3 players
 different audio file formats exist, eg MP3, WAV, WMA
 may need conversion depending on download format &
required format
 conversion may take long
o
media players (eg iPod)
o
laptops
-
playing online games
o
games consoles
o
laptops
High Definition TV (HDTV)
-
the TV picture is made of lines of pixels
a conventional TV has 625 lines refreshed 25 times/sec
HDTV has either 720 or 1080 lines producing a clearer, sharper picture
(with 120-240 refresh rate)
HD Multimedia Interface (HDMI) port
-
Required for connecting devices to show HD video
Page
40
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Laptop considerations for multimedia use
-
features
o
should match user‟s requirements (eg Wi-Fi enabled)
functions
o
what the features actually do
(eg Wi-Fi allows download of music/video over wireless connection)
-
HDD size
o
multimedia (video, graphics, MP3) needs lots of storage capacity
performance
o
must have adequate processor speed & RAM size to run multimedia
connectivity
o
eg with USB, HDMI, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth
future proofing
o
not buying something that will be out of date/unusable very quickly
upgradability
o
the ability to upgrade easily (cheaper than buying a new laptop)
support
o
for initial set-up
o
repair warranty/break-down cover
eTask 3.1
Find the best laptop to fit Jamie‟s needs by answering the following questions
based on the 3 laptops specified in the table on page 65.
Question
Answer
1 Which laptop will be able to store the most film & music
files?
Laptop 3
2 Which laptops can download music/films over a wireless
connection?
Laptops 2 & 3
3 Which manufacturer offers the best support?
Laptop 3
4 Which laptops would allow watching HD films on a HDTV?
Laptops 2 & 3
5 Which laptops would Jamie be able to use to watch HD films
from a disk?
Laptops 2 & 3
6 Which laptop would allow Jamie to make copies of HD films? Laptop 3
7 Which laptop will need the most upgrading in future?
Laptop 1
8 Which laptop would you recommend for Jamie?
Laptop 3
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Separate media player
(versus laptop)
Task
Rather than using media-player software on his laptop (to listen to MP3 files),
Jamie could buy a portable media player.
What are the advantages of buying a media player (eg iPod, Microsoft Zune)?
-
digital devices that stores picture, video & music files (convergence)
excellent media quality
(NB: a laptop + HDMI + good graphics chip gives equally good quality sound)
-
affordable
slim and relatively small, therefore easily portable
allows you to transfer files from the laptop to the player
keeps large files in compressed form & stores this info in flash memory
(which is read/write, non-volatile memory)
What other devices could he use to listen to his music?
-
laptop
car stereo (which can take an USB Flash drive containing MP3 files)
home entertainment systems which have USB ports
Games Consoles versus Laptops
Starter Activity
Conduct a quick survey of the class to find out
- if people own a games console.
- if so, which brand is the most popular?
Games console features
-
high resolution screen
built-in (or interface to) wireless internet connection
online interactive gaming with others possible
HDD for data storage
can download, store & play MP3 music files
can download, store & play HD films
built-in Blu-ray disk player
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Task 3.4 (Worksheet 3.2)
Complete the table by entering “yes”, “no” or the price when requested.
Item
Xbox 360
PlayStation 3
Resolution: 720p or 1080p?
1080p
1080p
Built-in WiFi connection to internet?
No
Yes
If not, how much to buy an interface?
~ £45
N/A
Play online interactive games with
Yes
Yes
HDD for data storage?
Yes
Yes
Size of HDD
Upto 250GB
120GB
Download, store & play MP3 files?
Yes
Yes
Download, store & play HD films?
Yes
Yes
Inbuilt Blu-ray disk player?
No
Yes
Price
~ £180
~ £240
friends?
Games consoles for gaming
-
advantages
o
cheaper than a high-quality laptop required for gaming (ie video)
o
all in one/dedicated device
o
simple - play straight out of the box
o
can play multi-player games through the internet
o
can play on the couch - don‟t have to sit at a desk
o
has many different types of input devices (ie controllers)
o
no keyboard so cannot message other people while playing
-
disadvantages
o
if one component breaks, the whole unit has to be repaired
o
can only be used for one purpose
o
can‟t play against people with a different type of console
Task
Environmental benefits of downloading games rather than buying them on disk
- Lower carbon footprint as less power/resources used for disk/packaging
- lower emissions from transport/distribution
- less waste produced requiring less landfill/recycling costs
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Task
Why companies should allow users to download games straight to their console:
- harder for users to copy an electronically downloaded game (to a disk)
- easier to track where an illegal copy of a game might have come from
- wider audience for the product (as this is another way to buy)
- cheaper production & distribution costs
- eco-friendly
- collection of marketing data
Laptops for gaming
-
advantages
o
can access more multi-player games through the internet
o
can edit games & modify maps
o
screens often have better resolution than HDTVs
o
easy to upgrade
o
can play online against different brands of computers
o
can message others using keyboard while playing
-
disadvantages
o
more expensive
o
need technical knowledge to set up
o
input devices mainly keyboard & mouse
o
difficult to play on the couch - esp if using mouse & keyboard
Hands-free games consoles
-
balance boards (eg Wii Fit)
o
multiple pressure sensors on flat board measure centre of balance
-
voice activation (eg Nintendo DS)
o
use of microphones to issue commands to the game
-
detecting facial expressions/moods (eg Microsoft‟s Kinect)
-
breaking a light beam
pressure pads (eg dance pads)
o
a grid of flat pressure-sensitive gamepad buttons on a mat
o
meant to be stepped on
Task
What are the environmental & social advantages of recycling electronics?
- old devices can be refurbished (NB: format old HDD before disposing)
- materials can be recovered for future use (eg metals)
- prevents hazardous materials dumped in landfill (eg toxic metals, radiation)
- avoids air & water pollution caused by hazardous disposal
- reduces greenhouse gas emissions caused by manufacturing new products
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Connecting to the Internet
Starter Activity
What are the advantages to a household of having a fast Internet connection?
- search for information
- video conference
- buy goods online
- book holidays
- communicate with family & friends
- play online games
- upload images to online albums
- download music & films
Internet connection
-
provided by an ISP
o
a company that offers access to the internet
o
there are many different ISPs
o
their costs & speeds vary widely
o
computer/modem is assigned an IP address (like your personal
home address)
 so the server “knows” where to send requested info
-
the faster the connection, the faster activities are carried out
eTask 3.8
Test your knowledge of the terms used when discussing internet connections.
ISP
A company that offers customers access to the internet
Broadband A high speed connection to the internet that is always on
Bandwidth Amount of data that can fit through an internet connection
Kb
Thousands of bits per second
Download
Transfer of a file from a central computer to your computer
Upload
Transfer of a file from your computer to a central computer
Firewall
A system designed to prevent unauthorised access to your
computer when connected to a network
Spam
Unwanted or junk mail
ADSL
A system used to run broadband over copper telephone lines
Spyware
Software which collects info about your logins & passwords
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Broadband connection
-
high speed connection to the internet that is always on
-
available via
o
fibre-optic cables through cable companies
 fastest broadband connection
o
ADSL technology
 system used to run broadband over copper telephone lines
 fast transmission speeds via frequencies unused for voice call
 volume of data flow is greater in one direction than the other
 download speeds usually much faster than upload speeds
 requires an ADSL modem
 to translate high-frequency broadband signals (carried on
your phone line) into digital data signals (ie computer)
 a cable connects your computer to the modem
-
not all areas of the country have access to broadband (ie digital divide)
not all telephone exchanges are equipped for broadband
bandwidth varies from area to area
o
amount of data that can fit through an Internet connection
o
measured in bps or Kbps
Choosing an ISP
-
cost
o
o
o
o
-
can vary widely for the same level of service
most have a monthly charge
a setup cost may apply
a free wireless router may be provided (saving router cost)
speed
o
o
actual speeds usually less that stated (as multi-usage on same cables)
speeds given are for downloading data
(NB: speed for uploading will be much less)
-
download limits
o
some impose a limit on amount of data downloadable per month
o
charges apply beyond this limit
-
email & web space
o
should provide you with
 several email addresses
 an area on their server to create web pages
storage
o
many allow server space to store files/photos to share with others
-
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
-
security
o
should provide you with
 a firewall
 anti-spyware software
 anti-spam software
-
parental control
o
some provide software to filter out undesirable websites
-
reliability & customer service
o
common complaints
 too much downtime (when you cannot access the internet)
 expensive helplines
 slow response in answering queries
 too slow in fixing problems
o
ask friends about their experiences
o
check on forums & user sites
Task/ePlennary 3.3
Compare the services offered by 3 fictional ISPs & decide which ISP would be
best for a family, an online gamer & a casual internet user.
1.
2.
3.
4.
What is the maximum download speed offered?
Is there a download limit?
What extras are provided?
How much is the charge per month for this service?
IPS Suitability
casual internet users
-
low cost connection
reasonable download
speed
low free download
limit, but reasonable
charges for extra
downloads
families
-
online gamers
High download speed
-
Reasonable free
download limit/month
blisteringly fast
speed
-
unlimited
downloads
Can upload, store &
share photos on their
server
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Creating a LAN
(eg a home network)
Starter Activity
There is one broadband connection in Jamie‟s house. What problems
do you think this might cause for him and his family?
- The family can only access the internet through one computer,
one person at a time & only in one place.
How can everyone in Jamie‟s family use the internet at the same time?
- The family can set up a home network
Advantages of a LAN
-
multiple people can share internet connection
-
can remotely access other computers in the home
file sharing
o
can access files on another computer
can share a printer
o
can send documents to a printer connected to another‟s computer
can play games across the network, chat & send messages to each other
digital video recorders & video game consoles can be shared
internet telephone service
o
making VoIP phone calls through the internet saves money
-
NB: Multiple users slow down internet but broadband can deal with this easily
Ethernet
-
a set of software & hardware protocols linking computers to form a LAN
defines the ways in which computers “talk” to each other
computers can be connected together in two ways
o
by cables
o
wirelessly (Wi-Fi)
Types of LANs
-
cabled ethernet
o
cables connect to a PC‟s network interface card (NIC) by plugs
o
ethernet cards provide the following transmission speeds
 basic – upto 10Mb
 fast – upto 100Mb
 gigabit – 1000Mb
o
most computers/laptops have NICs already installed
o
speed depends on the type of network card installed
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
-
wireless Ethernet (ie Wi-Fi)
o
allows computers to “talk” via radio or microwave signals
o
max transmission speed is 11Mb-54Mb, depending on card used
o
can be affected by household appliances such as microwave/phone
o
is distance-sensitive
 so performance/speed drops the further the router
o
is greatly affected by the number of devices using the wireless
-
powerline
o
uses existing mains power circuits in the house to transmit data
o
as most rooms have plug sockets, no new wiring is needed
eTask 3.12
Discuss the differences between ethernet cable & wireless networks.
Cable Network
WiFi Network
Setting up
Cables must connect the
router to all the computers –
drilling holes & adding new
sockets in the process
Wireless router connects to
the modem
Cost
Requires expensive cables,
sockets & a cable-fitter
Only pay for the WiFi
router
Transmission
speed
Speeds at least 10Mb & 100Mb Maximum speeds between
& network cards are cheap
11-54Mb
Security
Only accessible to someone by
physically plugging a cable
into a network access point
Accessible to anyone
within range if it does not
have a password
Interference
None
Can be affected by:
- (household) appliances
- distance from transmitter
- number of users
- external signals (outside)
Mobility
Cannot connect in a room
without an ethernet socket
Accessible from anywhere
within the range
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Router
-
connects to the ADSL or cable modem
connects all the computers to the modem (which connects to internet)
assigns each computer with an internal IP (internet protocol) address
o
so they can communicate with each other & the router
o
so router can send info requested to correct computer in network
-
possible to have a mixed network (both wireless & cable connections)
Performance of a network connection
-
affected by
o
bandwidth
 the capacity of a connection in bps
 the more bps transferred, the greater the capacity
o
latency
 the speed of the connection in ms
 the less time it takes, the greater the speed of connection
Task 3.13
How do bandwidth & latency affect online gaming or streaming?
- transmission of large volumes of data means bandwidth is important
- requiring a high speed of flow means latency is important
- so, a good gaming experience requires wide bandwidth & low latency
- best achieved by a cable network
But why might Jamie‟s parents prefer not to have a cable network?
- unsightly wires/holes/sockets in rooms
Which Type of Network?
Implications of a cable network
-
has greater bandwidth
o
better for activities requiring large data transmissions
o
eg gaming/streaming video
-
often has speeds of 100Mbs (while wireless has only 54Mb max)
it experiences less latency
o
low latency means small delays & high latency means long delays
needs access points in every room
o
often unsightly wires/holes/sockets
expensive to install
more secure
-
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Implications of a wireless network
-
can be accessed from anywhere in house (ie signal area)
no messy wires
o
easy to initially set up
o
easy to add new clients
-
speeds of 54Mb maximum (usually less than max achieved)
-
can access internet from anywhere within range (house & garden)
network can be accessed by other devices (eg smartphones)
less secure
o
wireless signals travel through air & can easily be intercepted
o
can access unsecure network which comes with default password
has lower bandwidth & higher latency than cable networks due to
o
signal strength (ie the connection quality) which mainly depends on
 distance from router
 number & nature of obstructions
o
signal stability which is affected by
 presence of other signals in the air (eg neighbouring signals)
 temporal changes in the environment
Task
What security features there are for users on the school network?
- logins & passwords
Is this necessary for a home network (ie where only family members use it)?
- security is more important for a WiFi network
- because people outside the house can access it
Home network security
-
process of detecting & preventing unauthorized access to your network
-
if network unsecure your internet could be used (without consent/knowledge)
-
precautions
o
change the password on router from the default one to your own
 then someone cannot connect to it & change the settings
 set-up some form of encryption (eg WEP, WAP-PSK or WAP2)
wireless networks are less secure than cable networks because
o
access rights & logins are not deemed necessary with family
o
however all of the network connections inside & outside are visible
offenders always look for “hotspots”
o
unsecure home/office network where free internet can be accessed
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Encryption
-
data is translated into a secret code according to a set of rules/key
then transmitted over the internet
to convert data back into plain text, the receiver must also have the key
this secures Wi-Fi networks
Downloads & On-Demand Services
Starter Activity
Have you ever downloaded a music track illegally? Did you
know what you were doing?
Are you aware of the potential consequences of illegal
downloads?
When downloading
-
remember illegal downloads
o
break the law
o
cost the music & film industries millions in lost revenues
-
avoid peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing sites
o
they infringe the copyright of the producers of the music/films
avoid “free” sites
o
all reputable legal sites will have a charge
-
check the small print of the download conditions
o
mostly you can only watch a film on the computer it was
downloaded on
o
you cannot copy it on to a DVD
-
use reputable websites
o
record companies
o
the musicians themselves
o
studios such as Warner Bros
o
companies like iTunes
-
check the reliability of the different sites through forums & blogs
using only legal sites ensures
o
good quality files
o
no risk from viruses & spyware
o
avoiding breaking the copyright law
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Copyright
-
gives the creator of an original work exclusive rights regarding
o
eg its publication (or download)
o
its distribution
o
its adaptation
-
for a certain period of time
Digital Rights Management (DRM)
-
allows the copyright holder control over
o
the number of viewings/plays
o
copies
o
even which devices it can be played/viewed on
-
DRM is encoded in the media
o
eg a film downloaded from iTunes cannot be burned onto a DVD
Task 3.16
What are the implications of copying & sharing files?
-
legal implications
o
illegal to copy & distribute copyright files
-
moral implications
o
illegal file copy is like stealing
-
employment implications
o
50% of jobs in the music/film industry are endangered by
illegal downloads
-
personal implications
o
is it ok to make copies of a legal download for your own
personal use in different devices (like phone, tv)?
-
creativity
o
is hampered as artists cannot make money from their work
-
fairness
o
if your work is distributed, you should be paid for it
-
enjoyment
o
illegal downloads are often poor quality
-
security
o
often contain malware under guise of “free”
o
data protection infringement/misuse possible
-
would they be otherwise acquired?
o
are they only downloaded because they are free, or because
they are really wanted?
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Video streaming
Starter Activity
In what different way can we watch video & listen to music?
-
streaming live media online (for immediate viewing/listening)
downloading a podcast & viewing at a later, more convenient time
watching TV on mobile phones (via MB connection)
-
transferring compressed video content over the internet in a steady &
continuous stream
-
can either be
o
sent from pre-recorded video files or
o
distributed as part of a live broadcast "feed” sending same file to
multiple users at the same time
-
the receiver can start displaying the video before the entire file has been
transmitted
o
no waiting for file to download
-
it requires a special player which is software that uncompresses the data
-
“on-demand” streaming allows you to view/listen to
o
what you want
o
when you want (not live)
o
how you want
 you can pause or rewind
o
very popular
-
many sites are free, but some have a small charge
allows watching/ hearing live multimedia (eg tv, radio stations)
o
from around the world
o
on your computer
Podcast (Play On-Demand Broadcast)
Task
Why are “on-demand” services such as BBC iPlayer & ITV Player becoming
so popular?
-
audio/video files made available on the internet for download
can be played back (on demand) using a computer/media player (eg iPod)
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Viral marketing
Task 3.17
Advertising has changed in the music industry as now more people download
music files than buy CDs. What new form of advertising has this given rise to?
Viral marketing
- a marketing technique that
o
uses electronic socializing (like social networks)
o
to increase brand awareness or product sales
o
eg twitter, email
-
spreads your message like a virus from person to person
an interesting content encourages people to pass it along
depends on a high pass-along rate
overall growth snowballs very quickly
Give an example of a successful viral marketing campaign.
- hotmail
o
offered free e-mail to the masses
o
promoted their free service at bottom of each email message
o
every email sent by a Hotmail user contained this signature
(thus spreading it like a virus)
o
recipients would see the ad & also signed up for Hotmail
Online Precautions
Starter Activity
List all the programs that can be harmful to the security of
computers when online.
Malware which is malicious software such as viruses,
spyware, adware, Trojans, keyloggers, worms
Cyber-criminals
-
continually looking for IP addresses where there is no protection
NB: just like houses that are left empty with the windows open
-
can then easily get into the computer to steal files or install
viruses/spyware
often through shareware or freeware software
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Shareware software
-
is distributed at low (or sometimes no) cost
usually requires payment & registration for full legal use
Freeware software
-
are (often incomplete) programs that authors release to benefit others
at no cost but without support
Malware
-
malicious software designed to secretly access a computer system
without owner's knowledge/consent (ie covert data collection)
viruses
adware
o
software that displays adverts on your computer
-
trojan horse
o
program that appears genuine but performs some harmful activity
when run like
 locating password information
 making system more vulnerable to future entry
 destroying programs/data on HDD
o
does not replicate itself by infecting other files
o
instead
 it stays in computer doing its damage
 allows someone to remotely control computer
o
often sneaks in attached to a free game
-
key logger
o
a program or device that tracks/logs the keys struck on a keyboard
-
worm
o
o
o
o
-
can travel without human action
replicates itself & sends to entire email address book
consumes system memory
slows down computer/network
spyware
o
software that collects info about your passwords, banking details &
credit cards
o
then sends it to over the internet to fraudsters
o
hides behind shareware/freeware
o
precautions
 only download from reputable sites (check software reviews)
 install (constantly updated) anti-spyware software
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Task 3.18
Jamie has noticed that:
What is wrong? Spyware symptoms:
His computer is running more slowly
-
sluggish computer performance
programs constantly crashing
The home page (when browser opens)
has changed to a different site
-
computer settings change
He keeps getting pop-up adverts
opening in new windows
-
increasing number of pop-up ads
He has unwanted toolbars in his
browser
-
unfamiliar toolbar appears on browser
(which reappears at next boot-up if deleted)
Cookies
-
small text file sent to your computer from a website you are visiting
o
stores your online behaviour & transactions (browsing history)
-
often from marketing companies to track your interests/purchases
-
disadvantages
o
requires storage space on computer
o
privacy concerns
 receiving unsolicited personal ads
 organizations acquiring your personal info/browsing habits
 someone can discover your personal info if sharing computer
-
preventing cookies
o
you can set your browser to either
 accept all cookies or
 alert you every time a cookie is offered (then decide to accept)
-
deleting cookies through your internet browser tools (clears internet cache)
a form of overt data collection
advantages
o
saves having to retype password every time you visit same website
o
can personalise your view of a website (dynamic interaction)
o
can receive customised offers based on shopping preferences
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What are the Dangers?
Starter Activity
Conduct a survey to find the avg time each person in class spends playing
computer games each day. What are the concerns with playing for too long?
back pain
eye strain
joint pain
addiction
isolation
lack of exercise
Computer games
-
-
health & well-being concerns
o
incorrect posture
 causing skeletal problems (neck/back)
o
prolonged use leads to
 RSI
 esp Nintendo thumb
o
eye problems like
 eye strain
 perhaps glaucoma (increased fluid pressure can cause blindness)
o
muscle & joint problems
o
obesity from
 lack of exercise
 eating without thinking
o
isolation
 more virtual friends than real ones
benefits
o
gives children something to do (rather than go out or be bored)
o
gives rise to new forms of interactive learning
 aids hand-eye coordination
 helps problem solving skills
o
as players try to solve the same problem many times
 this develops resilience
 they strive for improvement
o
new gaming technologies encourage activity
 eg Wii
o
rehabilitation tool for health centres
 eg helping stroke victims recover motor skills
o
approves mental ability of learning-disabled & memory-impaired
 eg schizophrenia
o
improves blood flow to brain which may improve intelligence
o
may cut the risk of developing dementia
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Computer addiction
-
excessive/compulsive use of computers that interferes with daily life
symptoms/effects on your well-being
o
spending nearly all free time playing games or watching films
o
escaping into a computer game when sad/upset/stressed
o
not keeping up with homework & his grades are falling
o
lying to family about how much time spent on computer
o
rather play games than spend time with family/friends
o
giving up other hobbies/interests
o
agitated when not playing games
Meeting people online
-
via social networking, chat rooms, email & instant messaging
can put children at potential risk of encountering online predators
o
paedophiles who make friends with young people online
o
then try to meet them in the real world
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Chapter 4: Smart Working
Creating a Safe Workplace
Starter Activity
What kinds of physical & mental health & safety issues are related
to using computers? We‟ve discussed these in the last chapter.
-
RSI, back strain, eye strain, headaches, stress, obesity,
Computer-related health & safety problems
(Employee or Self-employed)
-
back pain can be caused by incorrect sitting posture over a long time
o
prevention
 frequent breaks
 sit up straight so that lower back/shoulders supported
 adjust chair/screen so that
 eyes level with top of screen
 fingers can reach keyboard easily
-
eye strain can be caused by staring at the screen for too long
o
often lead to headaches/migraines
o
prevention
 take frequent breaks
 good lighting
 look away from the screen
 if (in order to use the computer) employees may need
new/corrected glasses then employers must
 pay for regular eye-sight tests
 make a contribution to new glasses
-
RSI is a result of doing the same thing again & again
o
eg typing or moving a mouse
o
it causes stiffness, pain & numbness
o
usually in the joints of the arm, wrist or hand
 prevention
 using ergonomic equipment like keyboards, chairs
 reduces the user‟s tiredness, discomfort & injury
 caters for all body types
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-
stress from a feeling of not being able to cope
o
not being able to cope with work load
o
poor time management
o
friction with colleagues
o
lack of support from employers
 prevention




-
organize work in small manageable amounts
change screen layout/colours for comfortable viewing
delegate work or ask colleagues for help
take regular breaks to help relieve stress
minimum or no staff training on how to use work stations correctly
o
a legal requirement for employers to convey health & safety
guidelines
 prevention
 regular training sessions
 health & safety posters displayed everywhere
Ergonomics
-
the design of equipment to reduce fatigue, discomfort & potential injury
Other safety considerations
-
electrical sockets must not be overloaded with equipment
o
this could be a fire hazard
-
don‟t leave things lying around
o
have dedicated storage space to keep things out of the way
o
prevents tripping/accidents
-
clean workspaces regularly
o
bacteria & viruses can live on surfaces
-
food & drink should be consumed away from the computer
o
spills over electrical equipment can cause
 electric shocks
 short circuits
 even fires
-
electrical equipment emits heat so a room can get too hot
o
ventilated room well to keep air flowing
-
have the right safety equipment & know how to use them
o
smoke detectors & fire extinguishers
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
(video about H&S) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jbV5dGvJWyo&feature=player_embedded
Task 4.1
Explain what might be wrong in each case below & what you would recommend.
Person
Problem
Recommendations
Neck
ache
Incorrect sitting posture
Adjust chair to suit body type
change height of the chair
Adjust lumber support
Adjust distance to desk space
Adjust height of the screen
Take frequent micro-breaks
Stressed
(by work
emails)
Incorrect management
of email inbox
Sitting in same position
for long
Problems with time
management
Knees
hurting
Incorrect sitting posture
Squinting
at
computer
screen
Sunlight/light shining on
screen
Sitting in the same
position for long
Could also be eyesight
problem
Organise email inbox by setting up folders
Delete emails that are no longer required
Set up filters to siphon off junk emails
Ask colleagues to help
Take regular breaks to help relieve stress
Adjust chair so feet are flat on the floor
Use a foot rest if necessary
Use a desk with sufficient leg space
Take regular breaks to stretch legs
Move screen away from direct light
Use antiglare screen
Need glasses when using the computer?
Look away from screen frequently
(onto distant objects)
Unable to
use
equipment
Insufficient training
Get appropriate training
Back pain
Incorrect sitting posture
Visit their GP
Take regular breaks to alleviate pain
Use lumbar support
Sitting in same position
for long
Hot &
sweaty
Poor ventilation
Not enough breaks
Open windows for fresh air
Circulate air around the room with fans
Wear layers which can be removed
Take regular breaks in the fresh air
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Anytime, Anywhere
Starter Activity
List the advantages of being able to use the internet while on the move.
-
gives you much more flexibility
make the most of your time when travelling
(eg finalise arrangements to meet friends ON your way to meet them)
-
mobile broadband more secure than using WiFi hotpots
mobile broadband useful if home broadband goes down
Mobile broadband (MB)
-
allows smart phones & portables to connect to high speed internet
over a wide geographical area
without the need for wires/plugs
relies on the 3G network (used by 3G mobile phones)
delivers same level of broadband experience available in the home/office
many modern mobile phones now have built-in 3G technology
other portable devices (eg laptops) require a dongle to pick up 3G signals
(USB 3G) Dongle
-
small device that connects to a computer
portable
advantages
o
data storage
o
picks up Bluetooth & 3G signals
o
doesn‟t require power source
o
best dongle contracts have connection speeds of upto 7.2MB
 enough to download music, upload video, superfast surfing
-
disadvantages
o
limited by 3G signal coverage & availability
o
easily lost/stolen (so immediately notify MB provider to block service)
o
not as fast as fixed-line broadband
o
anyone can use it to download onto their computer while you foot
the bill
Task
Go to Website 4.1 (mobilebroadbandinside.com) to see a short
video on MB; then recap on the reasons for using MB.
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Reasons for using mobile broadband
-
freedom
o
can access internet virtually anywhere there is a 3G mobile signal
o
no longer tethered to a Wi-Fi hotspot
o
you choose where & when you connect to the internet
o
reliable
-
simplicity
o
no complicated set-up/installation
o
technology already embedded in product (no need for wires)
o
Just switch on & go
o
products displaying the MB logo show it is built-in & ready to use
-
speed
o
o
o
-
MB can be just as quick as fixed-line broadband on most networks
speeds commonly 3.6-7.2Mbps peak
actual download speeds vary depending on usage & time of day
work
o
o
o
can stay connected & be productive even when away from office
enables you (at any time) to
 keep in touch
 access your emails
 send/receive large files
 browse the web
being connected on the go means the office can work around you
(eg travelling reps, field operatives, etc)
-
play
o
o
o
-
entertainment at your fingertips
whenever it suits you
in real time
 can stay connected to friends on social networking sites
 update blogs & profiles
 watch movies on video sites
 download music tracks
 browse/shop online
 stay in touch with family
 share messages
anywhere
o
more flexibility
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
o
o
o
-
makes the most of your time when travelling
can stay connected wherever there is a 3G mobile signal
can be useful if home broadband goes down
security
o
more secure than using Wi-Fi hotpots as everything already
encrypted through mobile service provider‟s network
o
eliminates need for configuring security settings on the laptop
o
probably only security issue is loss/theft of data card/USB dongle
Advantages of using MB
-
can pick up 3G signal in most areas, though stronger in populated areas
o
not restricted to home/office
-
no longer restricted to working in areas with Wi-Fi connection when out
-
more secure than Wi-Fi as all data is encrypted
able to make most of time spent travelling (on way to meetings)
money saving
o
no need for landline/cable to access internet
o
able to work anywhere so can minimise office space
as a backup if the home broadband goes down
can use VoIP technology to make calls instead of paying expensive
international calls
Disadvantages of using MB
-
inconsistent or no 3G signal in some places depending on
o
distance the signal has to travel (from provider‟s mast to your device)
o
type of area you are in can affect signal (eg tall buildings)
o
MB provider coverage area
-
digital divide due to coverage & availability limitations
if you exceed MB provider‟s upload/download limit, extra charges apply
roaming charges abroad are expensive
blurs line between work & rest, causing stress
privacy implications
Task
What are the privacy implications of using mobile broadband?
- unauthorised users can scan your signal & connect to
your internet at your cost (by hacking your password)
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Task 4.4
Consider the following scenarios & decide whether Mobile Broadband is a good
option.
Scenario
MB Suitable? Justify
A woman selling handmade
cards from home
No
-
at home so should use desktop/laptop
Students living in temporary Yes
accommodation
-
always on the move
may not be WiFi available
A business woman travelling Yes
abroad regularly
-
she‟ll need roaming & internet
no need for hotspots
A family holidaying on a
remote island
not likely to have a mobile infrastructure!
Collaborative Working No
-
A family living in a very
built-up city
Yes/No
- depends on needs of each family member
- eg students, businessman, housewife, etc
A teenager playing online
games
No
-
requires high speeds for quicker responses
very data intensive (so costly per MB)
Collaborative Working
Starter Activity
List the different ways of working collaboratively, thanks to technology.
-
Email
conference calls
online workspaces
instant messaging
-
video conferencing
file sharing
screen sharing
Collaborative working
-
working together to achieve common goals
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66
-
VoIP
wikis
online forums
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
o
-
from home, office or when travelling
achievable because of high-speed internet connection
Advantages of working collaboratively
o
o
o
o
o
can work simultaneously on the same projects
can get work done in less time
can share ideas & be more creative
can help each other when problems encountered
allows co-workers to maintain a good working relationship
Some different ways of working collaboratively
-
video conferencing
o
people in different locations can talk to & see each other (as a group)
 each person “logs on” to the call
 enters user ID# to announce their “entry”
o
advantages
 easy to set up
 only require
 webcam to capture video
 microphone to capture sound
 video conferencing software
 good quality picture & sound
 without any noticeable latency
 can show each other designs & prototypes
o
disadvantages
 cannot sign documents
-
VoIP
o
-
Wikis
o
o
-
advantages
 make calls much cheaper than landline (so can talk more often)
 use computers to make VoIP calls when working from home
 easy to use VoIP with 3G mobile phones when out & about
 can multi-task using a hands free kit during phone calls
a type of website that encourages collaboration
allows users to add, edit & remove content
online workspaces
o
allows you to save work & access it remotely from anywhere
o
advantages
 can share files & work on many projects at the same time
o
disadvantages
 must protect info from access by unauthorised users via
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1


-
password protection
linking user logins to accessible files
online forums
o
an online message board where people share ideas & views
o
can keep up-to-date on recent developments
Teleworking
-
-
working from home but staying in touch with others through technology
advantages
o
cost saving
 don‟t have to rent office space or travel to office
o
increased productivity
 don‟t waste time commuting
o
flexible hours
 can work when most productive & set own schedules
disadvantages
o
less social contact
 don‟t see work colleagues
o
more distractions at home than at work
 eg family members, TV
o
blurs distinction between work & rest
 difficult to switch off & stop working
 could lead to stress
Password protection
-
all users sharing a workspace must create a strong password
a strong password should
o
be at least eight characters long
o
include mix of upper & lower case letters, numbers, punctuation
o
not use names as these are easier to guess
-
never write down or share passwords
change passwords frequently
Levels of access rights
-
read
read & write
read, write & edit
read, write, edit & delete (full access)
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Software Choices
Using online applications
Starter Activity
What are the advantages of using an online application such as Google docs?
- Advantages
o
free service
o
can upload from desktop
o
can access files from anywhere if internet connection available
o
easy to give others access to certain files
o
can share changes in real time
o
documents stored securely
Can you think of any drawbacks?
-
Disadvantages
o
your account could be hacked in to
o
could end up with version control issues
o
if internet goes down, no way of accessing files
Web-hosted software
-
an alternative to traditional locally-installed software (“holding” it for you)
advantages
o
not dependent on a particular computer
-
disadvantages
o
dependent on the quality of internet access
o
currently has less functionality than locally-installed apps
o
little or no control over updates to web-hosted apps
 which could have training implications
o
suitable web-hosted apps may not be available
-
wider implications
o
pose a threat to established software producers (like Microsoft/ Adobe)
Task 4.6
How could Microsoft combat this threat posed by web-hosted software?
-
they can respond by:
o
innovation
o
making products more appealing to customers
o
bundling software with hardware
Page
o
by having their own cloud offerings
with better prices & services
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Common types of application software
-
general-purpose (generic) software
o
“off-the-shelf” software
o
includes standard applications
o
eg word-processing, spreadsheet, DTP & presentation software
-
specialist software
o
software that can be customised by the user
o
eg database system for a school, games development software
o
more expensive than general-purpose software
Different ways of buying & upgrading software
-
locally installed software
o
purchasing single-user or multiuser software licences
(one-off license fee to OWN the software)
o
o
o
o
o
shop-bought or downloaded
save it on your own computer
can use it for as long as you want
advantages
 one-off fee may be cheaper in the long-run
 you own the license
 all data is stored locally
 can access data even when internet down
 data more secure from unauthorised access
 takes less time to access large amounts of data
disadvantages
 have to buy new versions of software
 takes up large amount of space on your computer
 can only be accessed on the computer installed
(or if installed on server, then accessible by all workstations)



support can be bought
 help is available online
 patches to fix bugs may be downloaded/installed
installing software on more computers means buying more
licences
software versions purchased must be compatible with
requirements
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
-
leasing the software
o
lease software from a company
o
save it on to your computer
o
pay for it each month instead of all in one go
o
advantages
 payments stop when software is no longer required
 can change the software or version more easily
 newest versions provided at no extra charge
 all data is stored locally
o
disadvantages
 licence held by leasing company
 cost depends on how many computers software installed on
 takes up a large amount of space on your computer
 all data is stored locally
 only accessible on computer installed (unless server)
 support provided at a fee by the leasing company to install
 patches provided free
 if internet connection lost, software not be accessible
 if hosting company goes bust, cannot access software
-
software as a service (SaaS)
o
pay for software as you use it (like “pay as you go” on mobiles)
o
the software is hosted by the company selling it
o
sometimes software can be saved on your computer
o
software stops working when the period it has been paid for ends
o
advantages
 only pay when software is used
 can choose the software or version each time you use it
 newest versions always available
 doesn‟t take up any disk space as it is hosted
 can be accessed anywhere in the world with internet access
 support (& patches) are offered by the hosting company
o
disadvantages
 work lost if internet connection lost & work not saved
 files can be accessed by host company
 left without important software if hosting company goes bust
eTask 4.7
Use the interactive quiz to check understanding of the differences
between the three different ways of buying/upgrading software.
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Task
What is hot-desking? Sharing workstations between workers to save space/resources
Software licensing
-
makes it illegal for users to
o
copy software to sell or distribute
o
adapt software or changing the way it works
-
licence which gives details of the copyright of the software
users must buy appropriate licence for how they intend to use software
o
multi-user
 the software can be installed on a fixed number of machines
o
license by use
 similar to multi-user licence
 software only usable by a fixed number of people at one time
(even if installed on many machines)
o
 useful for businesses that use hot-desking
site licence
 software can be used on all computers on one site
 eg a school or business
 often a limit on number of machines on which software can
be installed on one site
Open Source software
-
available to download free of charge (eg OpenOffice)
“source code” created by the public domain (not any single company)
advantages
o
no licensing fees
o
can copy & distribute as much as you wish
o
available in many common formats, including Microsoft Office
o
upgrades & fixes created collaboratively as & when required
Task 4.9
List the possible disadvantages of using open source software.
- Might not be compatible with other common software
- May have bugs because it is open source
- May not be the preferred software of businesses
- May not be feature-rich
- Professional training & support
Page may not be available
- Updates may take longer 72
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Storing & Backing Up Data
Importance of backing up data
Starter Activity
Why is it important to backup data on a computer?
- computer may not work so you need to access the data from another source
- Data is valuable & can:
o
be accidentally deleted
° become corrupted
o
be stolen
° be maliciously destroyed (eg virus)
o
be destroyed via natural disasters
-
a back-up:
o
is a safekeeping measure in case original data is lost or damaged
o
can be used to restore original data
Data Storage
-
a primary storage is usually the computer‟s HDD
o
built-in storage
o
designed to be directly accessed by the CPU
-
secondary storage is anywhere data is stored as a (backup) copy
Types
Task
4.10of storage media
For each data storage device shown, state what purpose each would be best for.
Storage Device
Best Uses
HDD
-
primary storage for applications, data, boot-up, etc
low-cost & fast access times
Solid Disk Drive
-
primary storage for servers, laptops, etc
more expensive but quieter & more reliable
-
(ie solid state flash memory)
CD-R
-
archiving/backing up data, audio & photos
distributing data & audio (eg music files)
DVD-R
-
archiving/backing up data & video
distributing data with graphics/video (eg encyclopaedia)
USB Flash Drive
-
transport or transfer of data, graphics & audio
Flash Memory Card
-
transfer or extra storage of images & audio
Data Cartridge
-
durable & very large capacity, but serial access
holding large amounts of back-up data
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Data storage devices
-
HDD
o
o
o
o
o
o
the primary data storage in most computers
holds all the software, including the OS & user-created data files
non-volatile (info retained even when computer shut down)
uses simple magnetism to store vast amounts of information
consists of
 a large circular magnetic platter
 divided into billions of tiny areas
 each area can be
 magnetized (to store a 1)
 demagnetized (to store a 0)
 magnetized information (ie data) stored in your HDD stays
there even when you switch the power off
can store max 320GB
-
solid disk drive (SDD)
o
uses solid-state memory to store data
o
no moving parts, meaning it is
 less susceptible to physical shock
 quieter
 has lower access time
 has lower latency
o
retains data in non-volatile memory chips
o
use the same interface as HDDs so can easily replace them
o
can store max 500GB
-
CD-R
o
o
o
o
-
is a recordable optical medium
can be recorded only once, but reads many times (not all at once)
can typically store 700MB
advantages
 large data storage
 fairly fast access
 low cost
 portability
 claimed to last for decades without degrading data
DVD-R
o
also a recordable optical medium
o
can be recorded only once, but reads many times
(NB: whole disk does not have to be entirely written in one go)
o
o
typically capable of storing 4.71GB (7x more data than a CD-R)
same advantages as a CD-R except larger storage capacity
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
-
USB flash drive
o
small, removable flash memory device that plugs into a computer's USB port
o
storage capacity upto 64GB
o
advantages
 fast
 Portable (can carry in pocket)
 easy-to-use
 re-recordable
 thousand times more capacity than CD-R
 more durable & reliable (no moving parts)
 has a 10-year data retention cycle
-
flash memory card
o
an electronic flash memory secondary storage device
o
used in many other devices including
 digital cameras
 mobile phones
 laptop computers
 MP3 players & video game consoles
o
storage capacity upto 32GB
o
advantages
 small & portable (so transport device, temp storage device)
 re-recordable
 can retain data without power
 compatible with many devices (ie transfer files between devices)
 fairly reliable as solid-state memory
 high data transfer speeds
Obsolete data storages
-
eg floppy disk drives, zip disks
o
no longer in use due to poor performance & low storage capacity
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Online data storage
Task 4.11
Can you think of any other ways to back-up data?
- online data storage
Look at Figure 4.4 (page 102) & state what online data storage could be used for:
-
-
-
you can access your files anywhere in the world with internet
to upload holiday photos either because
o for friends & family to view before you get back
o to free space on camera‟s memory card to take more photos
to exchange files that can‟t be sent as email attachments because
o they are too big
o they need to be kept secure
o the file type is refused by a person‟s email account
to back up important info in another location
-
data is stored online by a host company (by setting up an account)
you can access data whenever you want via internet connection
this is a form of outsourcing
o
obtaining goods or services from an outside supplier (contracting out)
-
stored data can serve as a back-up
-
disadvantages
o
download/upload speeds affected by internet connection
o
you have less control on data held by a third party
o
hosting companies are
 a target for hackers as they store data for many companies
 data experts & offer better data protection
o
not advisable for sensitive data (Data Protection Act)
data should be encrypted when uploaded/downloaded to make it secure
advantages
o
data can be accessed anywhere in the world via internet
o
backed up data is safe even if the original data is lost
o
back-ups can be done remotely, outside business hours
 thus not affecting the running of the business
o
no need to employ someone to handle data back-up
o
no need to purchase back-up device/media
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
eTask 4.12
Decide whether each of the following statements is an advantage or disadvantage.
Statement
Adv/Dis?
Download/upload speeds can be affected by internet connection
Dis
Data can be accessed anywhere in the world via internet
Adv
Backed up data is safe even if original data is lost
Adv
Hosting companies may store data for many companies making
them a potential target for hackers
Dis
You have less control of data if it is held by a third party
Dis
Access to the data relies on an internet connection
Dis
Data can be backed up outside working hours, so not affecting
business
Adv
Companies offering this service are data experts, so offer
better protection than home systems
Adv
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Most suitable media for storing data in a given situation
Task
Choose the most suitable media for storing data in the situations given below,
explaining the reasons for the choices.
Situation
Friends sharing songs
between themselves
NB – sharing copyright
songs is illegal
Recommendation
1. Online storage
- friends can access songs remotely
2. CD, USB pen or memory card
- all portable
Downloading a TV
series onto a recorder
(eg SkyPlus) without a
CD/DVD drive
1. HDD or SSD
– high capacity storage so whole series can be
recorded
Distributing photos
1. CD
– can hold a large number of photos
– most people will have a CD drive
2. DVD
– if a larger file size is required
Storing work produced
by a large company in
a day
1. Data cartridge
– can hold a large amount of data
– can be removed and taken offsite
2. online storage
– but backups must be made outside business hours
Transferring photos
from digital camera to
computer
1. memory card
– small, compact, fits into camera easily
– can be removed & data transferred to a computer
A small company of 4
backing up data
1. CD, DVD, HDD or online storage
- Small companies generate small amount of data
A designer accessing
work on holiday
1. Online data storage
- can access & back-up data from anywhere in world
- via internet access
A school‟s daily
backup of students‟
work
1. CD, DVD, HDD or online storage
2. magnetic tape
- magnetic tape can hold a large amount of data
- can be removed and taken off-site
NB: these drives are usually built into digital boxes like SkyPlus
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Task 4.14
Recommend the best method of data storage & back-up for Kyle. Remember:
1. Kyle‟s apps & games do not require large amounts of storage space.
2. He often accesses his data on the move.
3. Kyle works collaboratively with Zara (who lives overseas).
-
-
with data stored off-site:
o if a disaster occurs at the business site, his work will not be lost
o he can access data from any location via internet
o data will be secure (if he chooses a reputable company)
online back-ups will save him money:
o no need to buy specialist back-up equipment
o no need to waste staff time to do the job
o only pay a small amount for back-up as not storing a lot of data
How often should Kyle back up his data? Give reasons.
- back-up the data at least once a day
- more often would slow his computer & use up bandwidth (check data limit)
Disaster recovery plans
(to prevent data being lost)
-
backing up data
using RAID technology (redundant array of inexpensive disks)
o
where data is written to lots of disks on one HDD at the same time
o
If one disk gets damaged, data can be accessed from another
-
fitting surge protectors/UPS to protect devices against power surges/cuts
taking fire precautions such as installing alarms & fire extinguishers
running anti-virus & firewall software to stop unauthorised access
training staff to deal with problems promptly
Data Protection Act 1998
-
created to protect individuals from the misuse of their personal data
dictates that personal data must:
1. Be kept secure
2. Be relevant
3. Be kept no longer than necessary
4. Be kept accurate & up-to-date
5. Be obtained & processed lawfully
6. Be processed within the subject‟s legal rights
7. Be obtained & specified for lawful purposes
8. Not be transferred to countries without adequate protection laws
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Communicating with Customers
Why communicate with customers?
-
customers can act as a sounding board for ideas
find out what customers like & dislike
o
so provide a customised product/service
notify customers of upcoming offers/events
Problems communicating with online companies
-
quite difficult to speak to a real person
often speak to people overseas
many use automated processes
o
to reduce staffing costs
Common ways of communicating with customers
o
o
o
o
o
o
email
live chat (eg IM)
online help
blogs
video conferencing
VoIP
Email
Task 4.16
List the advantages & disadvantages of email contact for customers & companies.
Customer
Advantages
Disadvantages
Company
-
-
free to send/receive
can contact business
24:7 via internet
relatively quick
easy to store & archive
used by millions
-
can set up auto-reply
during busy hours
-
less personal
can be misinterpreted
leads to info overload
-
dissatisfied customers
excludes customers
without internet/email
-
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81
can be contacted 24:7
can use standard
replies (improves staff
efficiency & time
management)
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
IM
Task 4.17
List the advantages & disadvantages of IM for customers & companies.
Company
Customer
Advantages
Disadvantages
-
-
customers can
speak to someone
24:7
instant responses
to the point
very popular
-
time-consuming
-
-
security risks via
hackers
-
(compared to phone)
to the point, taking up
less staff time
can react quickly to
customer requests
can store chat sessions
for legal reasons
-
Not always costeffective to IM 24:7
Blogs
Task
List the advantages & disadvantages of blogs for customers & companies.
Company
Customer
Advantages
-
can receive updates
on company‟s work
-
potential customers
can view product
reviews before
buying.
Disadvantages
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82
-
a way to receive
useful customer
feedback on
products/services
-
customers could post
malicious entries
-
must regularly
update blog, else
company is seen as
slow to react
GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
VoIP & Video conferencing
eTask 4.18
Consider the advantages & disadvantages of VoIP & video conferencing for
businesses.
Advantages of VoIP
-
-
Cheaper calls
Only need a
headset,
microphone,
internet & VoIP
software
Can make calls
from/to anywhere
in the world
Disadvantages of
VoIP
Advantages of both
-
no travelling so
saves time &
money
speak to
customers all
over the world
more secure
from hackers if
data is
encrypted
Disadvantages of
both
- need internet
- may be latency
- quality of the
call affected by
internet speed
Advantages of video
conferencing
-
Decisions made
more quickly (like
a meeting)
meeting people
virtually is good
for customer
service
Disadvantages of
video conferencing
-
initial set-up costs
very high
compatibility
problems with
customer‟s
hardware
Benefits of user documentation being available online
-
also communicating with customers about products/services
low-cost reproduction
reduces paper usage & costs
can access info 24:7
online accessible via download or clicking a link
low-cost distribution via
o
a website
o
email to customers
customers can use search features & links to get to section required
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Running a Business Online
Advantages of selling online
Task 4.20
Discuss the advantages to a business & to the industry of selling online.
Advantages to a Business
-
-
-
Advantages to Industry
Minimal start-up & investment
time/costs
Lower overheads
o
No shop rent
o
Fewer sales staff (ie salaries)
o
Lower utility bills (eg fuel)
business can be located
anywhere
Search engines direct customers
to a business‟s website
can offer more competitive prices
Automated order & payment
processes
can receive orders 24:7
wider customer base
multiple businesses can be set
up from the same base
-
Companies can market
products on their website
businesses have a large
consumer base
inexpensive way to reach new
markets & interact with
customers
Businesses can operate 24:7
Marketing can be global as
there are no restrictions (ie
globalisation)
eco-friendly
o
reduces number of
cars/mileage
o
saves paper
Successful online retailers
-
-
offer varied & developed product range
o
to generate wide-ranging customer interest
set up an easy to use company website
o so people can find what they need using search/filter options
target advertising/offers to a user based on his browsing/buying history
o using “pharming” techniques to gather recent history via cookies
can afford to offer competitive prices
o operate from basic warehouse/location
o have lower overheads
reasonable delivery costs
o using the postal system
can offer free postage if customers spend over a certain amount
allow other companies to advertise/sell products on their website
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Website design considerations
-
layout
o
positioning/spacing of text & images
o
consistency & clarity of font types used
o
larger font sizes better
-
use of media, pictures, sounds & videos
o
in appropriate places
o
to stand out but not distract user from content
o
not too many or website will be slow to load
-
colour schemes
o
uniform scheme throughout
o
appropriate to content
o
colours not too many or too contrasting (to be unpleasant to eye)
-
options are clearly displayed
o
highlighted links
o
drop-down
o
menu selection
-
links
o
o
-
to easily navigate around website (eg homepage, back, etc)
to link to related content in different websites
general usability
o
website should do what people expect it to do!
 having really common tasks on the homepage
 eg “start shopping” link or “contact us” page
 ensuring a search box is easily accessible
Task
What would put a user off re-visiting a website?
-
poor design
pages with slow load times (too many graphics)
too many images or too much info
confusing navigation
pop-up windows
(advertising should encourage customers, not put them off!)
-
outdated information & dead links
low-speed internet connections
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Advantages of internet advertising
-
can be targeted because
o
search engines monitor what customers enter in the search bar
o
advertising can be tailored around most frequently used keywords
-
reaches a wider customer base
much cheaper than traditional methods
much faster than traditional methods
important that a business‟s website stands out from others
Popular ways of advertising online
-
banner ads
o
image ads displayed on web pages
with a search engine
content network
viral marketing
Advertising with a search engine
-
URL should take user straight to the product/service requested
rather than the home page
-
advertising company must set up keywords so that the website will
appear in the search engine‟s results (top or side bar best place)
-
keywords must be specific & relate directly to the page
o
sequences of relevant words work best
o
when choosing keywords
 include variations (eg singular & plural of each keyword)
 include synonyms
 add product codes & serial numbers
 avoid using too many keywords
-
headline should contain one or more keywords
(as it is a direct link to the website)
-
body text should contain key details of product/service
remember
o
advertising space costs money
o
customers don‟t have much patience!
Task 4.22/website 4.16 (GoogleAds) page 111
Write a search engine ad for one of Kyle‟s games (invent the details).
What keywords would you use?
Write the actual ad & design the layout of it. Remember – your ad
should be simple yet enticing!
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Content network
-
a group of websites that
o
agree to show ads on their site
o
in exchange for a share of the revenue generated by those ads
-
group is managed by an ad network
an ad is displayed on many websites rather than just in a search engine
websites that are relevant (to the ad/business) & which are likely to attract
customers (to the product/services) are targeted
-
has a major impact on the success of a business‟s marketing campaign
eg the Google Content Network
o
large group of websites (including email programs & blogs) who have
partnered with Google to display ads
o
advertisers can run their ads on Google as well as the Google
Network for no extra cost
Viral marketing
-
marketing strategy that uses multimedia to make a message memorable
o
can include short video clips, text messages, online vouchers
o
spread through emails, social networking sites, etc
-
users are encouraged to pass the message onto other sites/users
generates brand awareness
saves the company having to invest large amounts of money on
marketing
How the internet has affected consumers & businesses
-
the types of goods/services on offer
how businesses advertise these goods/services
how consumers access these goods/services
how consumers pay for these goods/services
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Chapter 5: Online Shopping
Online vs High St Shopping
Starter Activity
What are some of the implications of buying goods & services online?
more & more people are shopping for goods & using services online
o
eg weekly supermarket shop, booking holidays, finding local plumbers
if you buy online, the seller has to know where to deliver the goods
you have to provide personal info to set up an account
you have to prove your identity when ordering
personal info & card details can be used to commit fraud & steal your money
personal details can be used for other purposes like advertising
-
Similarities & differences between online & High St shopping
-
they are fundamentally different ways of shopping
many people use a “hybrid” shopping method
o
carry out online research & then buy in the high st
o
view goods in stores then search for better deals online (electricals)
o
order online & then collect from store for convenience
Task 5.1
Investigate the differences/ similarities between online & High St shopping.
Online shopping
Browse websites
- to find best price
Reliability
- scrutinize customer
comments
Availability
- check products are
actually in stock
Combination of online
& High St shopping
High St shopping
Online research
Try before you buy
- check sites, forums & - “feel” or try product
blogs for comments &
before buying
ratings
Instant access
Ask friends
- start using product
as soon as bought
- ask friends about
their purchases &
Cash payment
experiences
- pay with cash (not
credit/debit card)
Delivery
- check delivery cost &
ETA
Bartering
- bargain with seller
for discount/extras
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Online auctions
-
users can search to refine results
they can see if they are currently the highest bidder
users receive messages if they are being outbid or have won the auction
users can rate each other/transaction to support the bidding community
buyers can pay for items using secure electronic transfers
users can bypass the auction & buy instantly
auctions are timed & can prioritise bids
users can “watch” items & receive messages when the auction will end
Advantages of shopping online
-
availability
o
shop all day every day (24:7)
o
online stores always open
-
selection available
o
not restricted to what you can find in your local area
o
far greater choice online
o
can browse in every suitable online shop across the world
-
compare prices
o
can easily find best price for item you want by using price
comparison websites
 search lots of online vendors & display their prices
-
convenience
o
physically travelling to the shops can be difficult for
 elderly
 disabled
 young mums
 people living too far away or without easy transport
o
can shop from comfort of home & have an item delivered
o
once a shop account is setup, it is easy to order more than once
Disadvantages of shopping online
-
delivery
o
items bought have to be delivered regardless of size
o
must pay for delivery (sometimes delivery costs more than product)
o
must wait for items to arrive
-
cannot try before buying
o
cannot feel/try the products before buying
o
if item doesn‟t fit, you must return it (delivery charge not refunded)
o
some sites have virtual models that “try” the clothes on
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
-
WYSIWYG?
o
actual items delivered may be different than expected
o
online representations of products can be misguiding
-
payment method
o
need credit/debit card to make a purchase
 otherwise online shopping is out of reach
o
concerns about card details being intercepted
(Is it safe to hand over personal information?)
o
some sites allow payment through third-party processors
 eg Paypal, gift vouchers
-
digital divide
o
not everybody has
 access to the internet
 computer skills to be able to shop online
-
shopping experience
o
cannot replace enjoyment of
 meeting friends
 interacting face-to-face with “real” people in real shops
Task 5.2
Should Krista shop online or on the high street for each of the items listed below?
Item
Online or High St or Hybrid?
iPod
Online
- browse for best price
Hybrid
- see it in-store, then browse for best price
High St
- see & “feel” it first
- either take home straight away or have it delivered home
Online
- browse for best price
High St
- see & “feel” it & take home straight away
speakers
rug
flatscreen TV
Desk lamp
Task
Why do online shops store customer details?
-
for targeted marketing
sales analysis
to provide a personalised experience to customers
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Advantages of online shopping for the disabled
Task 5.3
Which disadvantages might be advantages for a person with disabilities?
-
can purchase goods without leaving house
can browse lots of items without having to travel
all goods will be delivered
can arrange returns without leaving house
Online customer rights
-
online shoppers have same consumer rights when buying from a UKbased online supplier as they would shopping on the High St
-
online shoppers additionally have statutory 7-day “cooling-off” period
(can cancel an online transaction & get refund within 7 working days for any reason)
-
whereas an item purchased in a shop can only be refunded if faulty
(simply changing your mind does not give the right to a refund)
A reliable online store
-
is known for
o
prompt delivery
o
good after-sales service
o
has good customer ratings & comments on it‟s website
Recognizing secure sites
-
does it have a secure website address?
o
one that begins with https (secure http) rather than just http?
o
one where there is a padlock icon in the address bar?
o
one where the colour of the address bar changes to green?
-
is it owned by a company or an organisation that you know well?
does it have a postal address & a landline phone number?
be suspicious if
o
offers on the website seem too good to be true
o
you are asked for unnecessary personal info
o
you are asked to provide credit card details without proof that
transaction is secure
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Task 5.5
What determines a business‟s decision to open a High St
store, set up an online presence or have both?
-
Companies must consider the following:
o
staff
o
costs
o
customer service/expectations
o
type of product being sold
o
size of business
High St shops with an online presence
-
advantages for the shop
o
less staff employed
 staff employed are better utilised
o
reduced costs
 less staff salaries to pay
 less space required so less overheads (less rent, heat, light)
o
wider customer base
 wider exposure
 increased sales
o
can have a small shop but larger warehouse to hold larger stock
 people can see items in-store but deliveries go straight from
the warehouse
-
advantages for customers
o
can browse & order online, but collect in-store
 can try/see items
 save delivery charges
o
can return items to store if free returns not available
o
can see bulky/heavy items in-store but then order online to make
use of special deals/discounts
o
can see heavy/bulky items in-store, then order online for delivery
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
The effect of online shopping on lifestyles
Task 5.6
How has the availability of goods online affected our lifestyle & behaviour?
-
For small businesses
o
wider customer base
o
from a wider geographical area
o
do not require a showroom with lots of goods on display
o
do not have to pay rates & rent
o
do not have to employ/pay sales staff
-
For customers
o
can shop from any location with internet
o
people working anti-social hours can shop online 24:7
o
people with young children can shop with less tension
o
people in remote areas can shop any time with better pricing
o
goods can be delivered to the home
o
may lead to social exclusion as no real face-to-face contact
Setting up an Online Account
Starter Activity
List the info you would reasonably expect to give if you were opening
an online account.
-
first name, surname, address, email address, gender, security
password, telephone number, etc
Internet forms
-
online forms you are required to fill in if you want to order online
this info is entered into a database
items of info to be entered are called fields
required fields
o
are often shown with an asterisk
o
if a required field is not entered, the form will not be accepted
-
drop-down menus
o
only one item from the options given can be selected
(no other value can be entered)
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
-
combo boxes
o
can either select from options given or enter your own value
o
-
like a text box & a drop-down combined
drop-downs/combos
o
are forms of validation
o
make it quicker to enter data
o
ensures data is not mis-spelt
o
ensure only valid data is entered
Validation
-
process of checking that data entered is sensible or an expected option
(eg percentage marks can only be 0-100%)
-
data could be valid but still inaccurate (eg transposed values)
Task 5.8
Task 5.7
How can you create
required fields in Microsoft
Access (database software
used at school)?
- by entering „Yes‟ for the
“Required” property
Suggest fields where info could be selected from a
list or combo box.
- eg title, gender, month born, year born, etc
Recap the benefits of using combo boxes:
- quicker to enter data
- ensures data is not misspelt
- ensures only valid data is entered
Verification
-
process of checking that data entered is accurate
through
o
visual checks
 eg proof reading
o
double keying
 entering the same info twice
 eg an email address, password
 the first time to set the info
 the second time to verify the info
 if you forget your password
 you must supply a “secret answer” to a question
(eg mother‟s maiden name, pet‟s name)
answer is used to verify you (ie it is additional security)
 you are then sent the original password via email
a captcha test (often used as added verification)
 prevents automated software from filling in online forms
 protects systems vulnerable to email spam

o
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Task 5.9
What will happen if Krista forgets her password?
- she will be asked to answer a personal question using her
“secret answer”
How will the online company remind her what it is?
- they will send it to her via email
Choosing a password
-
create a strong password that will be very difficult to guess
-
a strong password should be
o
at least eight characters in length
o
a combination of letters, numbers & punctuation marks
-
it‟s not a good idea to use the same password for all accounts
o
if someone hacks into one account, they can hack into the rest
a weak password is often
o
a simple name
o
something to do with your birth date, tel# or address
Activating an account
-
once the online form has been submitted & accepted
you are sent a unique confirmation code via an email
o
to activate the account
o
to ensure email address entered is valid
o
to ensure it is not being used by anyone else
-
you enter the confirmation code into the “confirm now” page
your account is then activated
Auto-complete – “remember my password”
-
many online accounts offer to remember your password (by YOUR OS)
o
computer keeps track of all logins/passwords (so you don‟t have to)
-
advantages
o
convenient
 don‟t have to remember lots of different passwords
o
quick
 enter login & computer automatically fills in password
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Task 5.11
Why might it be dangerous to allow the computer to remember passwords?
-
if computer unlocked & unattended, someone could access your email
account & use the auto-complete feature
these passwords can be discovered by installing spyware on your computer
-
if sharing (with family/friends), it is possible for them to use the auto-complete
-
(remember - the auto-complete is saved on the computer‟s HDD)
Are Online Payment Methods Safe?
eStarter Activity
List the main types of online payment methods:
- Credit cards, debit cards, online banking, third party
payment methods (eg PayPal), online vouchers
How much do you know about online payment methods?
Credit card
-
lends you money upto a set limit
allows you to buy goods/services without using “real” money
how it works
o
when purchasing online you must enter card details
 cardholder‟s name, card#, expiry, CCV# (extra security)
 you do NOT have to enter the PIN (only necessary in-store)
o
the cost of that purchase is added to your credit card account
o
the card company pay the vendor for your purchase
o
you are sent a statement at the end of every month
(detailing your credit card spending for that month)
Credit card validation (CCV) code
-
3-digit security number on back of the card
Task
Explain why the CCV code gives extra security.
-
It cannot be copied by a card reader because
o
it is NOT embossed on the card
o
it is NOT included in magnetic strip at the back of the card
adds a level of security to card transactions
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Debit card
-
does not lend you money
it deducts the value of your purchase from your bank account
you can buy goods/services without using “real” money
how it works
o
when buying online, same data entry process as credit cards
o
system transfers money from your bank account to vendor‟s
o
value of purchase deducted from your bank account
o
so you are spending money already in your account
o
you are sent a statement at the end of every month
(detailing your debit card spending for that month)
Task 5.13
What is the “Verified by Visa” scheme & how does it work?
- a program operated by Visa which
o
is free
o
is used in conjunction with your Visa debit card
 confirms your identity during an online transaction with a PIN or by
signing a receipt
o
supplies a digital receipt
- only possible with participating online retailers
Why should Krista sign up for it?
- offers extra protection against unauthorised use when shopping online
Online banking
-
service offered by banks to allow account holders to
o
view their account information online
o
carry out various financial transactions (eg pay heating bill online)
requires completing an internet banking form
advantages
o
access account 24:7
o
account management
 can see how much money is in account each day
 can make payments directly without cheques/debit card
 can transfer money between accounts to maximize interest
o
eco-friendly
 can check statements online so no paper statements
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Task 5.15
What are the security advantages of paying all bills using online banking?
-
Security advantages
o
do not have to give details to a third party when paying
o
can transfer money directly between accounts
Task 5.16
What are the disadvantages of online banking?
-
disadvantages (of online banking)
o cannot withdraw cash
o access
 need internet & suitable digital device to set-up account
 banking sites can be difficult to navigate at first
 if online bank is down, cannot access account
o security
 more vulnerable to fraud
Third-party payment processor
-
a fast & safe method to pay for online goods/services (eg PayPal)
-
goods can be purchased from sites that support this payment type
how it works
o
set up an online account
o
transfer money into it via direct debit or credit/debit card
o
you can then pay businesses online using this account
Task 5.18
List the advantages of opening a third-party payment account & using it to
pay for things online
-
advantages
o
only need to give card details once
o
can have money transferred directly into your account
o
can pay small online businesses that do not accept card payments
o
more secure
 don‟t have to give card details to lots of different companies
o
anyone can accept this kind of payment
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Gift cards & vouchers
-
most gift cards/vouchers can be used in online stores
secure method of payment (no cards/online banking involved)
Secure sites
-
internet communication can be monitored & intercepted
any sensitive data sent via internet should be encrypted
(so all hackers would see is a jumble of letters)
o
eg Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
 most widely-used security protocol on the Internet
 often used for online shopping sites
 creates a secure channel over which data can be exchanged
 Transport Layer Security (TLS) is an updated version of SSL
Task
How can you tell a site is secure when making a payment?
-
a site is secure if when making a payment
o
the URL changes from “http” to “https” (“s” stands for secure)
o
a padlock symbol is displayed
o
the colour of the address bar changes to green
Online shopping & the environment
-
increasingly concerns about production of greenhouse gases
the CO2 produced by each person is called their “carbon footprint”
some beneficial effects of online shopping
 saving gas & emissions from less travelling (eg car)
 saving on energy consumed by reducing shop overheads
some adverse effects of online shopping
 more packaging required to ship goods directly to customer
 delivery produces gas & emissions
eTask 5.19
Test your knowledge of payment methods.
Avoiding Online Fraud
Starter Activity
Is it safer to use a debit/credit card in a shop than it is online?
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Card present fraud
Task
1. Why was it easier to commit credit card fraud before chip & PIN?
- before chip & PIN, criminals used lost/stolen cards by copying the
signature on the back of the card
2. What is meant by “skimming”? Where can it occur?
- skimming
o is when criminals covertly put your card through a card reader
 to electronically copy the data on the card‟s magnetic stripe
 to make a copy of your card to use
o occurs
 during payment (eg in a restaurant)
 at cash machines (where a card reader & small camera are hidden)
 to read the card# &
 to record the PIN entered
3. What are “bin raiders”?
- bin raiders are
o criminals that collect old receipts from bins to discover people‟s
card details
- remember to always shred receipts/documents before binning/recycling
Card Not Present (CNP) fraud
-
most common type of fraud in the UK
where the user cannot enter the PIN, eg online/telephone purchases
easier for criminals, as they only need
 card# (not actual card)
 expiry date
 CCV security code
Getting hold of personal details
-
Spyware
Task 5.22
Create a list of measures that internet users should take to prevent spyware.
- use a firewall
- adjust browser security settings
- install anti-spyware protection
- install operating system updates
- do not download from sites you do not trust
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-
trojan viruses
o
a program that appears legitimate but carries out harmful activity
o
planted on your computer to
 monitor key strokes to locate password info
 make system more vulnerable to future entry
 destroy programs/data
o
then sends this information to another computer
-
phishing emails
o
criminals send genuine looking spam email claiming to be from
 a reputable financial institution (eg bank/building society)
o
it directs unsuspecting user to
 click on a link to update personal details
 open an attachment
 carry out a transaction
o
any personal/financial info entered is sent directly to the scammer
o
some details may already be given & only the CCV# is requested
o
recognizing a phishing email
 you are not addressed personally
 the use of poor language & spelling (not professional)
 it has sense of urgency about it
 you are asked to open attachments (which activates spyware)
 false links to click rather than logging on as usual
 suspicious email address
 URL does not match sender‟s email address
 email address is very odd (eg lots of symbols)
eTask 5.23
Identify the typical features of a phishing email
Text
Feature
Dear valued SecureBank
member
Impersonal greeting - legitimate bank emails address you
by name
the billing infromation
Poor spelling - legitimate emails don‟t contain spelling
mistakes
online services Failure
Incorrect punctuation - legitimate emails are well-written
in maximum 24 hours
Urgency - usually asked to respond quickly
Please click here
False links – to click on rather than logging into account
in usual way
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Phishing Presentation (Phishing.ppt)
Highlight the typical features in each slide (phishing emails) that make it suspicious.
Slide 2:
• There is an obvious spelling mistake (crdit instead of credit) & a link is provided for
you to log in to your account.
• PayPal or any reputable firm will never give you a link to do this.
Slide 3:
• This email is not addressed to a particular person - it should have a name.
• Phishing emails often contain grammatical errors (... if you’ve already call us ...).
Slide 4:
• Again, not addressed to a unique individual.
• Phishing emails often contain technical language to scare & confuse & to make
them seem more official (... multi socket layer secure authentication ...).
• The email requests that you send personal information – a legitimate firm
would never do this.
Slide 5:
• Again, not personal.
• There is a sense of urgency to make the recipient panic and respond before
thinking about it (... within 48 hours ...).
eTask 5.24
Check your knowledge of online security & fraud.
Is My Data Safe?
Starter Activity
Make a list of all of companies & organisations that store your
personal details in this way.
-
school, sports club, bank, online stores (like Sports Direct, Next),
mobile phone provider
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Personal data
Task 5.25
Mobile phone companies can sell information about your online activity.
What kind of info would they sell?
- the sites we visit
- what we buy online
Who buys this information & why do they want it?
- marketing companies would buy this info
o
to discover people‟s
 browsing interests
 favourite online stores
 music, gaming & other interests
o
then target people who appear interested in the goods/services
they supply
Do you think that it is an invasion of your privacy?
- this IS an invasion of privacy
o
someone is tracking your movements without your knowledge
do you want other people to know your interests?
does it matter if other people know your interests?
don‟t you want to know about goods/services that interest you?
the Data Protection Act exists to legally contain these risks
-
Data Misuse
-
storing personal data electronically raises concerns about issues of
security & privacy
Task 5.7
List 5 ways that electronic data is easier to misuse compared to paper.
-
Electronic data is far easier to misuse than paper-based data
o
easier to access than paper files
o
can be accessed at a distance by hackers
o
easier to change without leaving evidence
 easier to send to other people (eg by email)
 takes up less space (eg on a memory stick)
o
easier to lose or steal
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GCSE ICT 2010 Unit 1
Data Protection Act 1998
-
Created to protect individuals from the misuse of their personal data
Dictates that personal data must:
1. Be kept secure
2. Be relevant
3. Be kept no longer than necessary
4. Be kept accurate & up-to-date
5. Be obtained & processed lawfully
6. Be processed within the subject‟s legal rights
7. Be obtained & specified for lawful purposes
8. Not be transferred to countries without adequate data protection laws
A privacy policy
-
applies when you are giving personal info in an online form
(check small print about your info being used for marketing)
-
-
tells users what personal info can be
o
gathered,
o
used &
o
stored/secured
complies with the Data Protection Act
trustworthy organisations display their privacy policy on their website
Safeguarding a portable device
-
(eg USB Flash Drive)
password protect the files on the device to prevent unauthorised access
encrypt the files on the device to prevent hackers intercepting them
install anti-virus software to prevent infection & data corruption
backup data files regularly
keep device away from direct heat (as this makes it volatile)
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