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Chapter 10 Worksheet 3 Name: ________________________________
Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer 1) It is impossible to warn people of every lightning flash because: a) it strikes so frequently and in so many places. b) it kills few people compared to the other types of severe weather, so it isn't studied as much. c) scientists don't understand exactly how it forms. d) people are only struck by lightning a few times each decade, so most don't listen to warnings. 2) Extreme evaporative cooling can sometimes produce explosions of straight‐line winds called: a) gust fronts. b) downbursts. c) tornadoes. d) air bombs. 3) Which type of lightning is least likely? A) within the same cloud B) cloud‐to‐Earth C) cloud‐to‐cloud 4) The terms leader, flash, and stroke are used when describing: a) squall line formation. b) the stages of a thunderstorm. c) the passage of a hurricane. d) lightning. e) a tornado. 5) Which of the following demonstrates the correct order of the phases involved in a lightning stroke? a) Step leaders, return stroke, separation of charges, flow of negative charge into ground, dart leader b) Charge separation, step leaders, return stroke, flow of negative charge into ground, dart leader c) Dart leader, charge separation, flow of negative charge into ground, step leaders, return stroke d) Charge separation, dart leader, step leaders, flow of negative charge into ground, return stroke 6) "Heat lightning": a) is actually a display of the northern lights. b) is also called "ball lightning." c) is brighter than ordinary lightning. d) occurs more than 20 kilometers from the person observing it. 7) If you see lightning and then hear the associated thunder 10 seconds later, the lightning flash was about ________ mile(s) away. a) three b) four c) one d) five e) two 8) Which of the following should have the steepest pressure gradient? a) middle‐latitude cyclone b) hurricane c) tornado d) typhoon 9) Because of the tremendous pressure gradient associated with a strong tornado, maximum winds approach ________ miles per hour. a) 100 b) 300 c) 600 d) 1000 10) Multiple‐vortex tornadoes help explain: a) why one building is destroyed and the one next to it is untouched. b) why tornadoes are so short lived. c) why some tornadoes never touch the ground. d) what EF rank a tornado should have. 11) Which of the following statements is not true of tornadoes? a) generally move from the southwest toward the northeast b) usually occur along the warm front of a midlatitude cyclone c) most common in the Midwest and Great Plains d) associated with cumulonimbus clouds e) occur most frequently in the spring of the year 12) Which of the numbers listed below best represents the percentage of thunderstorms that produce tornadoes? a) about 10 percent b) slightly more than 50 percent c) nearly 25 percent d) less than 1 percent 13) Why do most tornadoes in the central U.S. occur during the spring months? a) Air‐mass contrasts are greatest. b) Divergence of air aloft is greatest. c) Solar energy is a maximum. d) Surface air is most humid. e) Upper‐air temperatures are warmest. 14) Tornadoes are most frequent during the: a) month of September. b) January‐March period. c) April‐June period. d) October‐December period. e) July‐August period. 15) Of the following states, which is struck by the largest number of tornadoes? a) North Carolina b) Ohio c) Oklahoma d) New Mexico e) North Dakota 16) The diameter of a typical tornado funnel cloud would be: a) 50 ‐ 100 meters. b) 150 ‐ 600 meters. c) 1000 ‐ 2500 meters. 17) Tornadoes most often move toward what direction? a) southeast b) west c) northeast d) southwest e) northwest 18) Why do most tornadoes tend to travel in the same general direction? a) Because of their clockwise rotation. b) They generally occur in a zone of southwest winds. c) They have an intense pressure gradient force. d) Tornadoes often occur to the east of the center of a midlatitude cyclone. 19) The Enhanced ‐Fujita Intensity Scale (EF‐scale) is applied to: a) tornadoes. b) typhoons. c) lightning. d) thunderstorms. 20) The Enhanced Fujita scale is based on: a) the level of damage caused by a tornado. b) the measured wind speeds inside a tornado. c) the pressure gradient across the diameter of a tornado. d) the frequency of lightning strikes concurrent with the tornado. 21) Conventional radar measures: a) raindrop motion. b) raindrop size. c) raindrop and snowflake motion. d) rainfall intensity. e) cloud droplet numbers. 22) Doppler radars: a) detect lightning strokes. b) have much greater range than conventional radars. c) detect condensation nuclei. d) show the motion of air in clear areas. e) show the motion of precipitation particles. 23) Which association is incorrect? a) tornado watch — a tornado has been sighted on the ground b) downdraft — precipitation c) anvil ‐ front of the thunderstorm d) mesocyclone — region of tornado formation Circle “T” if the statement is true or “F” if the statement is false T F 24. When tornadoes develop it is usually in association with air‐mass thunderstorms. T F 25. If a severe thunderstorm produces large hail, it will not produce a tornado. T F 26. A mesocyclone often precedes tornado development.
T F 27. The central United States sees more tornadoes than any other region in the world. T F 28. A thunderstorm's direction of movement over the ground is determined by the gust front.
T F 29. Destruction caused by a tornado is primarily due to the large pressure drop as the funnel
passes over. T F 30. Weak tornadoes (EF0‐EF1) are responsible for the majority of tornado deaths because they
are far more common than stronger tornadoes (EF2 and above). T F 31. About 50 percent of North American tornadoes are classified as violent (EF4‐EF5). T F T F 32. Radar detects a thunderstorm by measuring the electrical discharges within the cloud.
33. A tornado warning is issued by the National Weather Service when conditions are favorable
for tornado development. 34. Doppler radar can detect motion directly.
T F T F T F 35. A tornado watch is issued by the National Weather Service after a tornado has been sighted in an area. 36. Doppler radar can now provide adequate warning of impending tornadoes at least 95
percent of the time. Answer the following questions 37. What makes the narrow, rotating air column or vortex of a tornado visible? 38. The strongest tornados are ranked ________ on the Enhanced Fujita Intensity Scale. 39. Which was the most devastating (and deadly) tornado disaster in U.S. history?