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1) propaganda techniques
2) name-calling
3) bandwagon
4) red herring
5) emotional appeal
6) testimonial
7) repetition
attack on person instead of an issue
attempts to distract reader with details not relevant to the argument
tries to persuade reader by using words that appeal to reader’s emotions
instead of logic or reason
attempts to persuade reader by using famous person to endorse produce
or idea
10) appeal to numbers, facts or
11) satire
attempts to persuade reader by showing how many people think
something is true
12) sentence variety
various sentence structures, styles and lengths that can enhance rhythm
of or add emphasis to a piece of text; presence of multiple sentence
structures (simple, complex, compound, compound-complex) and/or
various sentence beginnings (dependent and independent clauses,
phrases, single words)
literary organizational form that presents the order in which tasks are to
be performed
15) simile
16) soliloquy
states a conclusion as part of the proof of the argument
literary approach that ridicules or examines human vice or weakness
comparison of two unlike things in which word of comparison (like or
as) is used
dramatic speech, revealing inner thoughts and feelings, spoken aloud by
one character while alone on the stage
elements of literature that emphasize sound
19) stage direction
20) structure of poem
21) style
22) suffix
23) summarize
Gulliver’s Travels
time and place in which a story unfolds
17) sound devices
18) speaker
celebrity endorsement,
Wheaties box
attempts to persuade reader by repeating message again and again
makes oversimplified statement about a group based on limited
14) setting
“He is a loser.”
tries to persuade the reader to do, think or buy something because it is
popular or because “everyone” is doing it
8) sweeping generalization
9) circular argument
13) sequence of steps
persuasive tactics used to influence people to believe, buy or do
voice used by author to tell/narrate story or poem; speaker is often
created identity and should not automatically be equated with author
playwright’s written instructions provided in text of play about setting
and how actors are to move and behave
rhyming pattern, meter, grammar and imagery used by poet to convey
author’s choices regarding language, sentence structure, voice and tone
in order to communicate with reader
groups of letters placed after a word to alter its meaning or change it into
different kind of word, from an adverb to adjective, etc.
capture all of the most important parts of original text (paragraph, story,
poem), but express them in much shorter space, and as much as possible
in the reader’s own words
The ant scurried as fast
as a cheetah.
assonance, consonance,
alliteration, rhyme,
ly, less, ness
24) symbolism
device in literature where an object represents an idea
flag, eagle, heart
25) synonym
word that is similar in meaning to another word
sorrow, grief, sadness
Definitions from PDE Keystone Exam: Literature Glossary